Knowledge & Courage
Keys to the Transfer of Public Lands
&
The Only Solution Big Enough To Close the Education Funding Gap...
Why the Difference??
Does it matter?
The Statehood Promises are the same to
transfer the public lands
It’s already been done before - repeatedl...
Congressman Rob Bishop
Education Funding Disparity
(1 Minute)
Utah’s $16.2 Billion Annual Revenues

Utah’s	
  
Utah’s	
  
Looming
Looming
$7.3	
  Billion
$7.3	
  Billion
Budget	
  Hole...
Utah’s $16.2 Billion Annual Revenues

Utah’s	
  
Utah’s	
  
Looming
Looming
$7.3	
  Billion
$7.3	
  Billion
Budget	
  Hole...
To Infinity, and
Beyond!
Erskine Bowles
Co-Chair of Pres. Obama’s National Fiscal Responsibility Commission
Former Clinton White House Chief of Sta...
More than $150 Trillion in Minerals
Locked Up in Federally Controlled Lands ...
More than $150 Trillion in Minerals
Locked Up in Federally Controlled Lands ...

“a total worth to the economy of fossil f...
Why the Difference??
“Your Land is Arid/Rugged”
Why the Difference??
“You Gave Up Your Lands”
(“forever disclaim all right and title”)
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?

that the people inhabiting the said territory, do agree
and declare that they f...
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?

Alabama
2.7% Public Lands
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?

that the people inhabiting the said territory do agree
and declare that they fo...
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?

Louisiana
4.6% Public Lands
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?
“That the people inhabiting said territory do agree
and declare that they foreve...
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?

Nebraska
1% Public Lands
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?
“That the people inhabiting said proposed States do
agree and declare that they ...
Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...?

North Dakota
3.9% Public Lands
&
South Dakota
5.4% Public Lands
THE PROMISES ARE THE SAME!

UTAH - 66.5% PUBLIC LANDS
 “That the people inhabiting said proposed State
do agree and declar...
THE PROMISES ARE THE SAME!

UTAH - 66.5% PUBLIC LANDS
“That five per centum of the proceeds of the sales of
public lands ly...
IL, MO, IN, AR, LA, AL, MS, Fl, were as much as 90%
federally controlled for decades ...

Why the Difference?
One Man...
One LEADER...
Refused To Be Silent or Take
“NO”
for an Answer
U.S. Senator
Thomas Hart Benton
(D-MO)

“... my election to the Senate of the
United States ... found me doing battle
for ...
U.S. Senator
Thomas Hart Benton
(D-MO)

“The new States of the West were the
sufferers by this federal land policy. They
w...
U.S. Senator
Thomas Hart Benton
(D-MO)

“They were as a stepmother, instead of a
natural mother: and the federal
governmen...
U.S. Senator
Thomas Hart Benton
(D-MO)

“Few, or none of our public men, had
raised their voice against this hard policy
b...
“But the members in Congress from the
new States should not intermit their
exertions, nor vary their policy; and should
fix...
Hawaii
(the last and Western-most State)

“… the United States grants to the
State of Hawaii, effective upon its
admission...
Examples of legal authority
• Enabling Acts are "solemn compacts" and "bi-lateral [two-way]
agreements" that are to be per...
Utah Senate Joint Memorial, No. 4, 1915
Born in Roanoke, Va. in 1883, Thomas Maddock first came to Arizona in 1898 from Newcastle, Pa. A Republican from Coconino C...
“The Federal Government was intended to be merely a trustee
of the lands, to sell them to settlers.”
Quoting the1832 Public Land Committee of the U.S.:
“The public debt being now paid, the public lands are entirely released...
2009 U.S. Supreme Court
Hawaii v. Office of Hawaiian Affairs
(Unanimous Decision)
“‘[T]he consequences of admission are ins...
“... the TPLA ... calls for the disposal of lands that by the very
nature of their acquisition came with an encumbrance at...
“...	
  the	
  intent	
  of	
  the	
  parties,	
  the	
  
text,	
  and	
  the	
  context	
  of	
  the	
  
statehood	
  ena...
Bob Smith, UT Attorney General Nominee
“There’s great consensus today about the legal validity ... It’s time to take immed...
5 western states have already passed
transfer of public lands legislation ....
H.B. 148
TRANSFER OF PUBLIC LANDS ACT AND R...
South Carolina House Resolution
State Managed Public Lands
High

Low

Average

Federally Managed Public Lands
High

Low

Average
U.S. House of Representatives - Natural Resources Committee
State Forests Management Superior to Federal Forests
for Job C...
Knowledge & Courage
Thomas S. Monson

"Of course we will face fear,
experience ridicule, and meet
opposition. Let us have the courage to
defy ...
Martin Luther King, Jr.

“The soft-minded man
always fears change.
he feels security in the
status quo and has an
almost m...
The new idea ...
“Battle For” the Only Solution Big Enough
to:
fund Education
better care for the Environment (forests,
ha...
Does it matter?
The Statehood Promises are the same to
transfer the public lands
It’s already been done before - repeatedl...
www.AmericanLandsCouncil.org
Ken Ivory
801.694.8380
Ken@americanlandscouncil.org
American Lands Council

@AmericanLandsCn
Extra Slides
Gov. Bullock
Western Governors Association
June 2013
Gov. Bullock
Western Governors Association
June 2013
The Only Solution Big Enough - Overview Video
3 minutes
Property

George Sutherland
U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1921

“man—has three great rights ... the
right to his life, the ri...
Why the Difference??
John Kenneth Galbraith
Economist

“Where socialized
ownership of land
is concerned, only
the USSR and
China can claim
comp...
From the Journals of the Continental Congress,
Tuesday, October 10, 1780, pages 915-16:
“Resolved, That the unappropriated...
By the United States in Congress assembled. April 23,
1784 :
Resolved, that so much of the territory ceded, or to be
ceded...
July 13, 1787, An Ordinance for the Government
of the Territory of the United States, North-West
of the River Ohio (Northw...
U.S. Constitution Article IV, Section 3 – New
States
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and
make all needful rule...
Madison Debates
Tuesday, August 30, 1787
In Convention
Mr. WILSON ... There was nothing in the Constitution affecting one ...
“… it is the real interest of each and all the
States in the Union, and particularly of the
new States, that the price of ...
20th Congress, 1st Session, House of Reps., Rep. No. 125, Graduate Price of Public
Lands, February 5, 1828 
Mr. Duncan, fr...
20th Congress

No. 726.

2d Session

APPLICATION OF MISSOURI FOR A CHANGE IN THE SYSTEM OF
DISPOSING OF THE PUBLIC LANDS.
...
This map shows locations that experienced
wildfires greater than 250 acres, from 1980 to
2003. Credit: Bureau of Land Mana...
Wildfires Kills Millions of Animals, Destroy Their Habitat
Wildfire impact on Air Quality
Sen. Lisa Murkowski, U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee,
March 19, 2013 (3 Minutes)
DC Deems these:
NON-ESSENTIAL
Why the Difference??
For More Information:

	
  Text	
  the	
  word	
  “Land”	
  to	
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  1. 1. Knowledge & Courage Keys to the Transfer of Public Lands & The Only Solution Big Enough To Close the Education Funding Gap Utah December 2013
  2. 2. Why the Difference??
  3. 3. Does it matter? The Statehood Promises are the same to transfer the public lands It’s already been done before - repeatedly! It’s the Only Solution Big Enough to: fund Education better care for the Environment (forests, habitat, watershed, etc.) grow the Economy locally and nationally attain Energy independence
  4. 4. Congressman Rob Bishop Education Funding Disparity (1 Minute)
  5. 5. Utah’s $16.2 Billion Annual Revenues Utah’s   Utah’s   Looming Looming $7.3  Billion $7.3  Billion Budget  Hole Budget  Hole 45.3% The $7.3 Billion of “Federal Funds” Utah Spends Annually 45.3% Source: Intergovernmental Dependency: A Study of Key Dependency Measures of the 50 States, 2012 CliftonLarsonAllen, LLP
  6. 6. Utah’s $16.2 Billion Annual Revenues Utah’s   Utah’s   Looming Looming $7.3  Billion $7.3  Billion Budget  Hole Budget  Hole 45.3% Source: Intergovernmental Dependency: A Study of Key Dependency Measures of the 50 States, 2012 CliftonLarsonAllen, LLP
  7. 7. To Infinity, and Beyond!
  8. 8. Erskine Bowles Co-Chair of Pres. Obama’s National Fiscal Responsibility Commission Former Clinton White House Chief of Staff (2 Minutes)
  9. 9. More than $150 Trillion in Minerals Locked Up in Federally Controlled Lands ...
  10. 10. More than $150 Trillion in Minerals Locked Up in Federally Controlled Lands ... “a total worth to the economy of fossil fuels on federal lands of $150.5 trillion, over 9 times our national debt.”Federal Assets Above and Below Ground, Institute for Energy Research, Feburary 17, 2013
  11. 11. Why the Difference??
  12. 12. “Your Land is Arid/Rugged”
  13. 13. Why the Difference??
  14. 14. “You Gave Up Your Lands” (“forever disclaim all right and title”)
  15. 15. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? that the people inhabiting the said territory, do agree and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the waste or unappropriated lands lying within the said territory; and that the same shall be and remain at the sole and entire disposition of the United States...
  16. 16. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? Alabama 2.7% Public Lands
  17. 17. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? that the people inhabiting the said territory do agree and declare that they forever disclaim all right or title to the waste or unappropriated lands lying within the said territory, and that the same shall be and remain at the sole and entire disposition of the United States
  18. 18. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? Louisiana 4.6% Public Lands
  19. 19. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? “That the people inhabiting said territory do agree and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated public lands lying within said territory, and that the same shall be and remain at the sole and entire disposition of the United States, and that … no taxes shall be imposed by said state on lands or property therein belonging to or which may hereafter be purchased by the United States.”
  20. 20. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? Nebraska 1% Public Lands
  21. 21. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? “That the people inhabiting said proposed States do agree and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated public lands lying within the boundaries thereof, … and that until the title thereto shall have been extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain subject to the disposition of the United States, and … no taxes shall be imposed by the States on lands or property therein belonging to or which may hereafter be purchased by the United States or reserved for its use;”
  22. 22. Forever Disclaim All Right and Title ...? North Dakota 3.9% Public Lands & South Dakota 5.4% Public Lands
  23. 23. THE PROMISES ARE THE SAME! UTAH - 66.5% PUBLIC LANDS  “That the people inhabiting said proposed State do agree and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated public lands lying within the boundaries thereof; ... and that until the title thereto shall have been extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain subject to the disposition of the United States,...” Section 3, Utah Enabling Act, July 16, 1894
  24. 24. THE PROMISES ARE THE SAME! UTAH - 66.5% PUBLIC LANDS “That five per centum of the proceeds of the sales of public lands lying within said State, which shall be sold by the United States ..., shall be paid to the said State, to be used as a permanent fund, the interest of which only shall be expended for the support of the common schools within said State.” Section 9, Utah Enabling Act, July 16, 1894
  25. 25. IL, MO, IN, AR, LA, AL, MS, Fl, were as much as 90% federally controlled for decades ... Why the Difference?
  26. 26. One Man... One LEADER... Refused To Be Silent or Take “NO” for an Answer
  27. 27. U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (D-MO) “... my election to the Senate of the United States ... found me doing battle for an ameliorated system of disposing of our public lands; and with some success. I resolved to move against the whole system ... I did so in a bill, renewed annually for a long time; and in speeches which had more effect upon the public mind than upon the federal legislation ...”
  28. 28. U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (D-MO) “The new States of the West were the sufferers by this federal land policy. They were in a different condition from other States. In these others, the local legislatures held the primary disposal of the soil, so much as remained vacant within their limits, and being of the same community, made equitable alienations among their constituents. In the new States it was different. The federal government held the primary disposition of the soil; and the majority of Congress (being independent of the people of these States), was less heedful of their wants and wishes.”
  29. 29. U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (D-MO) “They were as a stepmother, instead of a natural mother: and the federal government being sole purchaser from foreign nations, and sole recipient of Indian cessions, it became the monopolizer of vacant lands of the West: and this monopoly, like all monopolies, resulted in hardships to those upon whom it acted.”
  30. 30. U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (D-MO) “Few, or none of our public men, had raised their voice against this hard policy before I came into the national councils. My own was soon raised there against it: and it is certain that a great amelioration has taken place in our federal land policy during my time: and that the sentiment of Congress, and that of the public generally, has become much more liberal in land alienations; and is approximating towards the beneficent systems of the rest of the world.”
  31. 31. “But the members in Congress from the new States should not intermit their exertions, nor vary their policy; and should fix their eyes steadily upon the period of the speedy extinction of the federal title to all the lands within the limits of their respective States ...” U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (D-MO) Thirty Years View, Thomas Hart Benton
  32. 32. Hawaii (the last and Western-most State) “… the United States grants to the State of Hawaii, effective upon its admission into the Union, the United States’ title to all the public lands and other public property within the boundaries of the State of Hawaii, title to which is held by the United States immediately prior to its admission into the Union.” Hawaii Enabling Act, March 18, 1959
  33. 33. Examples of legal authority • Enabling Acts are "solemn compacts" and "bi-lateral [two-way] agreements" that are to be performed "in a timely fashion" (Andrus v. Utah, 1980); • The federal government holds territorial lands “in trust for the several states to be ultimately created out of the territory." (Shively v. Bowlby, 1894); • "Whenever [i.e. once] the United States shall have fully executed these trusts, the municipal sovereignty of the new states will be complete, throughout their respective borders, and they, and the original states, will be upon an equal footing, in all respects whatever." “. . . the United States never held any municipal sovereignty, jurisdiction or right of soil in and for the territory ... of the new States ... except for temporary purposes, and to execute the trusts created by the acts of the Virginia and Georgia Legislatures, and the deeds of cession executed by them to the United States, and the trust created by the treaty with the French Republic of the 30th of April, 1803, ceding Louisiana." (Pollard v. Hagan, 1845).
  34. 34. Utah Senate Joint Memorial, No. 4, 1915
  35. 35. Born in Roanoke, Va. in 1883, Thomas Maddock first came to Arizona in 1898 from Newcastle, Pa. A Republican from Coconino County, he was elected to the first Arizona Legislature and later served as Secretary and State Chairman of the Arizona Republican Party. He served as Arizona State Highway Engineer from 1917-1922, and was a member of the Colorado River Commission from 1923 to 1928. He also served as an engineer and general manager of the Gila Valley Irrigation District at Safford from 1939 until his retirement in 1967. Thomas Maddock died in Phoenix in 1971.
  36. 36. “The Federal Government was intended to be merely a trustee of the lands, to sell them to settlers.”
  37. 37. Quoting the1832 Public Land Committee of the U.S.: “The public debt being now paid, the public lands are entirely released from the pledge they were under to that object and are free to receive a new and liberal destination for the relief of the States in which they lie. The speedy extinction of the Federal title within their limits is necessary to the independence of the new States, to their equality with the older States, to the development of their resources, to the subjection of their soil to taxation, cultivation, and settlement, and to the proper enjoyment of their jurisdiction and sovereignty.”
  38. 38. 2009 U.S. Supreme Court Hawaii v. Office of Hawaiian Affairs (Unanimous Decision) “‘[T]he consequences of admission are instantaneous, and it ignores the uniquely sovereign character of that event … to suggest that subsequent events [acts of Congress] somehow can diminish what has already been bestowed.’ And that proposition applies a fortiori [with even greater force] where virtually all of the State’s public lands . . .are at stake.”
  39. 39. “... the TPLA ... calls for the disposal of lands that by the very nature of their acquisition came with an encumbrance attached – a compact and promise made between two sovereigns where the federal government committed itself to disposal and promised that it would exercise its disposal obligations in a manner (and with an understanding that respects the expectation by the State that the federal government would dispose of such lands) so that both a percentage of the proceeds from the sales would be shared with the State and the State thereafter would have the capacity to tax such lands when disposed ...”
  40. 40. “...  the  intent  of  the  parties,  the   text,  and  the  context  of  the   statehood  enabling  acts,  obligate   the  federal  government  to   dispose  of  the  public  lands.”
  41. 41. Bob Smith, UT Attorney General Nominee “There’s great consensus today about the legal validity ... It’s time to take immediate action.” (90 seconds)
  42. 42. 5 western states have already passed transfer of public lands legislation .... H.B. 148 TRANSFER OF PUBLIC LANDS ACT AND RELATED STUDY STATE OF UTAH Chief Sponsor: Ken Ivory Senate Sponsor: Wayne L. Niederhauser Excludes: !  National Parks !  Military Installations !  Indian Reservations !  Congressionally Designated Wilderness !  Misc. Others 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 LONG TITLE General Description: This bill addresses issues related to public lands, including the transfer of title to public lands to the state and requiring the Constitutional Defense Council to study or draft proposed legislation on certain issues related to public lands. Highlighted Provisions: This bill: . enacts the Transfer of Public Lands Act; . defines terms; . requires the United States to extinguish title to public lands and transfer title to those public lands to the state on or before December 31, 2014; . provides that if the state transfers title to public lands with respect to which the state receives title to the public lands under the Transfer of Public Lands Act, the state shall retain 5% of the net proceeds the state receives, and pay 95% of the net proceeds the state receives to the United States; . provides that the 5% of the net proceeds of those sales of public lands shall be deposited into the permanent State School Fund; . provides a severability clause; . requires the Constitutional Defense Council to study or draft legislation on certain issues related to the transfer, management, and taxation of public lands, including: . drafting proposed legislation creating a public lands commission; and . establishing actions that shall be taken to secure, preserve, and protect the state's rights and benefits related to the United States' duty to have extinguished title to public lands and transferred title to those public lands to the state; and . makes technical and conforming changes.
  43. 43. South Carolina House Resolution
  44. 44. State Managed Public Lands High Low Average Federally Managed Public Lands High Low Average
  45. 45. U.S. House of Representatives - Natural Resources Committee State Forests Management Superior to Federal Forests for Job Creation, Revenue Production, Local Economies and Fire Prevention February 26, 2103
  46. 46. Knowledge & Courage
  47. 47. Thomas S. Monson "Of course we will face fear, experience ridicule, and meet opposition. Let us have the courage to defy the consensus, the courage to stand for principle. Courage, not compromise, brings the smile of God’s approval. ... A moral coward is one who is afraid to do what he thinks is right because others will disapprove or laugh. Remember that all men have their fears, but those who face their fears with dignity have courage as well." Thomas S. Monson
  48. 48. Martin Luther King, Jr. “The soft-minded man always fears change. he feels security in the status quo and has an almost morbid fear of the new. for him, the greatest pain is the pain of a new idea.”
  49. 49. The new idea ... “Battle For” the Only Solution Big Enough to: fund Education better care for the Environment (forests, habitat, watershed, etc.) grow the Economy locally and nationally attain Energy independence
  50. 50. Does it matter? The Statehood Promises are the same to transfer the public lands It’s already been done before - repeatedly! It’s the Only Solution Big Enough to: fund Education better care for the Environment (forests, habitat, watershed, etc.) grow the Economy locally and nationally attain Energy independence
  51. 51. www.AmericanLandsCouncil.org Ken Ivory 801.694.8380 Ken@americanlandscouncil.org American Lands Council @AmericanLandsCn
  52. 52. Extra Slides
  53. 53. Gov. Bullock Western Governors Association June 2013
  54. 54. Gov. Bullock Western Governors Association June 2013
  55. 55. The Only Solution Big Enough - Overview Video 3 minutes
  56. 56. Property George Sutherland U.S. Supreme Court Justice 1921 “man—has three great rights ... the right to his life, the right to his liberty, the right to his property. ... The three rights are so bound together as to be essentially one right.  To give a man his life, but deny him his liberty, is to take from him all that makes his life worth living. To give him his liberty, but take from him the property which is the fruit and badge of his liberty, is to still leave him a slave.”
  57. 57. Why the Difference??
  58. 58. John Kenneth Galbraith Economist “Where socialized ownership of land is concerned, only the USSR and China can claim company with the United States.”
  59. 59. From the Journals of the Continental Congress, Tuesday, October 10, 1780, pages 915-16: “Resolved, That the unappropriated lands that may be ceded or relinquished to the United States, by any particular states, . . . shall be disposed of for the common benefit of the United States, and be settled and formed into distinct republican states, which shall become members of the federal union, and have the same rights of sovereignty, freedom and independence, as the other states . . . That the said lands shall be granted and settled at such times and under such regulations as shall hereafter be agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.”
  60. 60. By the United States in Congress assembled. April 23, 1784 : Resolved, that so much of the territory ceded, or to be ceded by individual states, to the United States … shall be divided into distinct states in the following manner ... “THIRD. That they in no case shall interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled; nor with the ordinances and regulations which Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers. … That … such state shall be admitted by its delegates into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the said original states …”
  61. 61. July 13, 1787, An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio (Northwest Ordinance) “… to provide also for the establishment of States,… and for their admission to a share in the federal councils on an equal footing with the original States … … The legislatures of those … new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title in such soil to the bona fide purchasers …”
  62. 62. U.S. Constitution Article IV, Section 3 – New States The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the Territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.
  63. 63. Madison Debates Tuesday, August 30, 1787 In Convention Mr. WILSON ... There was nothing in the Constitution affecting one way or the other the claims of the U. S. & it was best to insert nothing leaving every thing on that litigated subject in statu quo. Mr. MADISON ... He thought it best on the whole to be silent on the subject. He did not view the proviso of Mr. Carrol as dangerous; but to make it neutral & fair, it ought to go farther & declare that the claims of particular States also should not be affected. ... Mr. CARROL withdrew his motion and moved the following. "Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed to alter the claims of the U. S. or of the individual States to the Western territory, ...." Mr. Govr. MORRIS moved to postpone this in order to take up the following. "The Legislature shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the U. States; and nothing in this constitution contained, shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims either of the U. S. or of any particular State." -The postponemt. agd. to nem. con.
  64. 64. “… it is the real interest of each and all the States in the Union, and particularly of the new States, that the price of these lands shall be reduced and graduated, and that after they have been offered for a certain number of years the refuse remaining unsold shall be abandoned to the States and the machinery of our land system entirely withdrawn. It can not be supposed the compacts intended that the United States should retain forever a title to lands within the States which are of no value, and no doubt is entertained that the general interest would be best promoted by surrendering such lands to the States.” President Andrew Jackson 1767-1845
  65. 65. 20th Congress, 1st Session, House of Reps., Rep. No. 125, Graduate Price of Public Lands, February 5, 1828  Mr. Duncan, from the Committee on the Public Lands, to which the subject had been referred, made the following REPORT: If these lands are to be withheld from sale, which is the effect of the present system, in vain may the People of these States expect the advantages of well settled neighborhoods, so essential to the education of youth, and to the pleasures of social intercourse, and the advantages of religious instruction.  Those States will, for many generations, without some change, be retarded in endeavors to increase their comfort and wealth, by means of works of internal improvements, because they have not the power, incident to all sovereign States, of taxing the soil, to pay for the benefits conferred upon its owner by roads and canals. When these States stipulated not to tax the lands of the United States until they were sold, they rested upon the implied engagement of Congress to cause them to be sold, within a reasonable time.  No just equivalent has been given those States for a surrender of an attribute of sovereignty so important to their welfare, and to an equal standing with the original States.  A remedy for such great evils may be found in carrying into effect the spirit of the Federal Constitution, which knows of no inequality in the powers and rights of the several States;
  66. 66. 20th Congress No. 726. 2d Session APPLICATION OF MISSOURI FOR A CHANGE IN THE SYSTEM OF DISPOSING OF THE PUBLIC LANDS. COMMUNICATED TO THE SENATE JANUARY 26, 1829. To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States: The memorial of the general assembly of the State of Missouri respectfully showeth: That the system of disposing of the public lands of the United States now pursued is highly injurious, in many respects, to the States in which those lands lie, . . . with the present condition of the western States. But the general assembly will state that a perseverance in the present system manifestly appears to them to be . . . an infringement of the compact between the United States and this State; and that the State of Missouri never could have been brought to consent not to tax the lands of the United States whilst unsold; and not to tax the lands sold until five years thereafter, if it had been understood by the contracting parties that a system was to be pursued which would prevent nine-tenths of those lands from ever becoming the property of persons in whose hands they might be taxed.
  67. 67. This map shows locations that experienced wildfires greater than 250 acres, from 1980 to 2003. Credit: Bureau of Land Management/U.S. Forest Service/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/ Bureau of Indian Affairs/National Park Service/ USGS
  68. 68. Wildfires Kills Millions of Animals, Destroy Their Habitat
  69. 69. Wildfire impact on Air Quality
  70. 70. Sen. Lisa Murkowski, U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, March 19, 2013 (3 Minutes)
  71. 71. DC Deems these: NON-ESSENTIAL
  72. 72. Why the Difference??
  73. 73. For More Information:  Text  the  word  “Land”  to  58885
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