Transcript of "Marketing Trade And Consumer Goods"
Working Paper SeriesRe-thinking Marketing Structures in the Fast Moving Consumer GoodsSector: An Exploratory Study of UK FirmsBelinda DewsnapDavid JobberWorking Paper No 03/06February 2003The working papers are produced by the Bradford University School of Management and are to be circulated fordiscussion purposes only. Their contents should be considered to be preliminary. The papers are expected to bepublished in due course, in a revised form and should not be quoted without the author’s permission.
W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S RE-THINKING MARKETING STRUCTURES ABSTRACT IN THE FAST MOVING CONSUMER In response to increasing retailer power, fast GOODS SECTOR: AN EXPLORATORY moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies are STUDY OF UK FIRMS reported to have implemented organisational structures designed to integrate retailer-focused Belinda Dewsnap* sales and brand-focused marketing departments. Lecturer in Marketing However, no research to date has investigated Business School, Loughborough University, these new forms. Based on in-depth interviews Loughborough, UK, and with sales and marketing managers in UK-based FMCG companies, this paper presents the results David Jobber of an exploratory study of organisation structures Professor of Marketing for FMCG marketing. It is part of a broader Bradford University School of Management, exploratory study of the antecedents and Bradford, UK consequences of sales-marketing relations (integration) in which methods of organising for * To whom correspondence should be addressed. marketing are investigated as a determinant of Telephone: +44 (0) 1509 223137 sales-marketing integration. Fax: +44 (0) 1509 223961 E-mail: email@example.com 3
W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S INTRODUCTION Trade marketing roles and departments have been The successful marketing of branded fast moving implemented in many firms as a device to consumer goods (FMCG) depends on satisfying integrate sales and marketing, and to ensure their the needs of increasingly powerful, sophisticated collaborative working (e.g., Cespedes 1993). As a and demanding multiple retailers (e.g., Corstjens process to integrate sales and marketing and Corstjens 1995). This drives the highest strategies, trade marketing is designed to ensure levels of interdependence between all functions in that the retailer’s basic needs are met by the the supplying company, and in the case of brand marketing mix co-ordinated by the relations within the marketing function, high supplier’s marketing personnel (e.g., Davies 1993; levels of interdependence mandate close and Harlow 1994). At the level of the individual collaborative relations between retailer-focused retailer this could for example necessitate the sales personnel and brand-focused consumer translation of national promotions strategy into marketing personnel (e.g., Cespedes 1993). trade promotions tailored to each retailer’s However, in contrast to marketing’s relations with individual requirements. other major business functions, academic research has to date neglected marketing’s intra-functional Category management could also act as an relations (Dewsnap and Jobber 1998). integrating mechanism between sales and marketing. In its definition and its deployment it The purpose of this study therefore is to explore can be seen as strategic trade marketing (Harlow the FMCG sales-marketing relationship via a 1994). The literature identifies how category qualitative study of UK firms where, following the management has been operationalised in one convention set in existing cross-functional studies, major FMCG company on two levels: firstly at the relations are conceptualised in terms of the internal level of the brand, and secondly at the perceived degree of integration achieved at the external level of the retailer (George et al. 1997). interface. The framework for the study is provided Internal-focused category management marks an by the Dewsnap and Jobber (2000) evolution from the classic brand management conceptualisation of the antecedents and effects structure where - it is argued - each brand of sales-marketing integration. The singular aim competes for organisational resources and market of this present paper is to offer insights into how share to a model based on category business marketing organisation structures act as an directors who lead cross-functional teams. antecedent to integration. The relevant interface Externally-focused category management is is that between brand management and those described as a role that supports the key account sales personnel referred to by Cespedes (1992) as manager to develop retailer-specific, long-term “headquarters key account managers”. For the category trade plans (q.v., Basuroy et al. 2001), sake brevity, however, ‘sales and marketing’ is and the category manager forms part of a used as the proxy term for the dyad. “customer business team” led by the customer business manager (- termed a “customer BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES integrator”). In another example of where the Lawrence and Lorsch’s (1967) seminal study on externally-focused category management model differentiation and integration reports that has been implemented (Mitchell 1994), the integrating mechanisms (e.g., integrating teams structure is described as comprising two parallel and departments) are required to provide the teams, a Consumer Marketing team focused on requisite degree of integration between consumer/brand marketing and a category specialised (differentiated) functional groups. By management team called Category Marketing way of response to increasing retailer strength, that is charged with integrating the individual FMCG companies have implemented new brands plans to best meet the needs of individual organisational designs and philosophies for retailers. The third strand in this structure is the marketing that explicitly integrate sales (retailer) traditional key accounts sales function whose and marketing (consumer and brand) perspectives change of name to Customer Development is (e.g., Mitchell 1994; Lehmann and Winer 1997; meant to signify a more proactive stance in IGD 1999; Dhar et al. 2001). The most prevalent developing business with the retailer. new structures for marketing are trade marketing and category management. However, there is The literature summarised here provides only very limited empirical evidence on exactly how preliminary evidence of how new structures for these new structures have been implemented and marketing have been operationalised, and the how they act as integrating devices. A summary diversity of job titles has the potential to confuse of this evidence now follows. rather than to clarify. As part of the wider4
W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S exploratory study of sales-marketing integration, companies; that is, the study’s focal sales- the objective of this paper is to explore how and marketing dyad represented at headquarters level why new marketing structures have been by a key accounts management structure on the implemented in a broad base of FMCG one hand, and a brand management structure on companies, and importantly, to investigate how the other. However, every company in the study new marketing structures are designed to support had supplemented key accounts and brand sales-marketing integration. management with an additional structural unit. In all cases the additional structural mechanism METHODOLOGY had two remits, the one and longer-established, Given that exploratory research is appropriate trade marketing-focused and the other category when little is known of a phenomenon (Churchill management-focused. In two cases this 1995) and also when no reliable and valid differentiation was represented by separate trade quantitative measures of a construct exist (Patton marketing and category management 1980), in-depth qualitative interviews were departments; in other words, by two separate, conducted in order to gain preliminary insights additional structural units. With respect to line of into the subject of sales-marketing integrating reporting, in all but one company the additional mechanisms. Interviews were conducted with 18 structural unit(s) reported to the sales function. ‘key informants’ (Seidler 1974) in 7 UK-based FMCG companies operating across a range of Sales-marketing integration was a role attributed product sectors. Respondents were selected from to all of the additional structural units. This is this convenience sample so as to achieve reflected in the phrases used by respondents to representation from director to middle manager describe their role; for example, “linking the two level in all relevant sales and marketing together”; “customer marketing is about departments, including any ‘new’ sales-marketing managing the interface”; “it sits between sales functions. The preliminary nature of the and marketing to make the interface work”. As investigation justifies the small sample size (e.g., can be seen from the description below of the Guba and Lincoln 1994). way in which trade marketing and category management has been operationalised, As part of a flexible, semi-structured interview integration subsumes responsibilities relating to process, respondents were asked to describe and planning, coordination, facilitation, explain sales-marketing structures in their own implementation, and influencing. organisation. All of the interviews lasted for approximately one hour and were tape-recorded. Trade marketing (also called customer marketing Subsequently, each interview was transcribed and and customer planning) is the original integrating then coded. Following the strategy suggested by mechanism, designed to acknowledge trade Miles and Huberman (1994), a combination of customer needs in the brand planning process within- and cross-case analysis was undertaken. and the design of the marketing mix; in essence, The within-case analysis provided a preliminary to operationalise the trade marketing philosophy. descriptive understanding of the nature and Trade Marketing is tasked with managing the rationale for marketing structures. Cross-case trade promotional plan and associated budgets, comparisons were then conducted to provide and where required, is responsible for improving insights into how activities and issues relating to planning and sales-marketing meeting processes; marketing structure varied across companies. At for example specifying the promotions process so both stages matrices were used to display the data. as to avoid duplication by the brand management team, and facilitating joint meetings. Trade KEY FINDINGS marketing plays a key interfacing role in acting as This section examines the marketing organisation a conduit for information between sales and structures in place in the study’s respondent marketing and as such, the department influences companies, with a particular focus on reviewing how the brand plan is translated into trade more recent structural initiatives. In line with the channel plans and trade customer plans. paper’s objectives, this review explains how such Responsibility for the execution of activity initiatives have been implemented as devices to involved (1) managing the execution of trade integrate sales and marketing departments. promotions activity (even to the point of ‘chasing’ up promotions agencies); (2) managing the The traditional FMCG sales-marketing structure of budget/plan ongoing; and in two cases, (3) separate sales and marketing functions (e.g, managing the promotional evaluation process. Cespedes 1992) operated in all respondent 5
W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S As outlined above, the literature describes merchandising, range, and promotion strategies category management operating at two levels: the (cf. Gruen and Shah 2000). Three respondent internal level of the brand, and the external level companies had developed and demonstrated the of the trade customer. Although all of the requisite skills to enable them to work in companies interviewed deployed brand marketing partnership with their retail customers as structures that recognise the management of “category captains”, and therefore to take a lead product groups, none of these companies used in co-developing category strategy. These the term ‘category’ to describe these product companies had instituted category management groups. By contrast, all companies had structures - variously termed category implemented or were in the process of development, category planning, and retail implementing the externally-focused category category management - to support the key management model. Category management was accounts function. The remaining companies described as a role “that’s about strategy, about were in the process of setting up the understanding the consumer, understanding the infrastructure for category management; for shopper”, and as a process that involves “working example, on the merchandising side, developing with customers, defining strategies that deliver a space planning expertise. Respondents change in the performance of the category in acknowledged how retailers are now focused on their business”. Category management takes the maximising the profitability of product categories. trade marketing philosophy of delivering retailer Until now trade marketing has worked with sales satisfaction, but actually starts with the and marketing to translate the brand plan into traditional brand marketing domain: the retailer-focused promotional plans. In the move consumer. In this way it represents, as Harlow to category management, the a priori focus is not (1994) points out, “an evolved form of trade the supplying company’s brand, but the retailer’s marketing”, and in terms of integrating sales and category. The companies who reported that they marketing perspectives could be viewed as the were setting up category management apotheosis of trade marketing (Dewsnap and emphasised the need for their sales teams to be Jobber 1999). With category management, the armed with category/insight expertise or what actual start point is marketing’s consumer- was termed the “category story”. heartland, and in addition, the retailer as trading partner is brought directly into the strategic CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH NEXT STEPS planning process for the category. From a This study has revealed how FMCG companies planning perspective, the distinction between have instituted additional structural mechanisms trade marketing and category management is also to integrate their sales and marketing functions. one of time horizon. Based on its link with the Trade marketing has been deployed to deliver one-year promotional plan, trade marketing short-term and operationally-focused integration, embraces the shorter-term; category management category management to work with retail partners by contrast focuses on the longer-term. This on longer-term, consumer-led category strategy. distinction was made by all respondent Given the exploratory nature of the study, the companies, and aptly described by one as a results are merely preliminary and require further continuum, with category management closer in empirical verification. As part of the broader orientation to marketing than to sales (see Figure study of the antecedents and consequences of 1). Based on this idea it was surprising to learn sales-marketing integration, the next step should that with the exception of only one company, be the use of rigorous measures development marketing had a distinct lack of involvement in, procedures for the development of reliable scales and knowledge of, the company’s category for all of the study’s constructs (Churchill, 1979). management processes. Finally, to the extent that relations between sales and marketing could affect FMCG company In the category management process, consumer performance, all empirical contributions in this and shopper insight is used to drive optimal area would be of immense value to the sector. FIGURE 1 Planning Base: Channel + Account Category Brand Trade Category Sales Marketing Marketing Management Planning Shorter-term Longer-term Horizon:6
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W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S LIST OF WORKING PAPER TITLES 02/15 – Christopher Pass 2003 Long-Term Incentive Schemes, Executive Remuneration and Corporate 03/06 – Belinda Dewsnap & David Jobber Perfomance Re-thinking Marketing Structures in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods 02/14 – Nicholas J Ashill & David Jobber Sector: An Exploratory Study of UK Firms An Empirical Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Scope of 03/05 – Mohamed Zairi & Samir Baidoun Information Needed in a MkIS Understanding the Essentials of Total Quality Management: 02/13 – Bill Lovell, Dr Zoe Radnor & Dr Janet Henderson A Best Practice Approach – Part 2 A Pragmatic Assessment of the Balanced Scorecard: An Evaluation use in 03/04 – Deli Yang & Derek Bosworth a NHS Multi-Agency Setting in the UK Manchester United Versus China: The “Red Devils” Trademark Problems 02/12 – Zahid Hussain & Donal Flynn in China Validating the Four-Paradigm Theory of Information Systems Development 03/03 – Mohamed Zairi & Samir Baidoun 02/11 – Alexander T Mohr & Simone Klein Understanding the Essentials of Total Quality Management: The Adjustment of American Expatriate Spouses in Germany – A Best Practice Approach – Part 1 A Qualitative and Quantative Analysis 03/02 – Alexander T Mohr 02/10 – Riyad Eid & Myfanwy Trueman The Relationship Between Trust and Control in International Joint Ventures The Adoption of The Internet for B-to-B International Marketing (IJVs) – An Emprical Analysis of Sino-German Equity Joint Ventures 02/09 – Richard Pike & Nam Cheng 03/01 – Mike Tayles & Colin Drury Trade Credit, Late Payment and Asymmetric Information Explicating the Design of Cost Systems 02/08 – Alison J Killingbeck & Myfanwy M Trueman Redrawing the Perceptual Map of a City 2002 02/07 – John M T Balmer 02/34 – Alexander T Mohr Corporate Brands: Ten Years On – What’s New? Exploring the Performance of IJVs – A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Performance of German-Chinese Joint Ventures in the 02/06 – Dr Abdel Moniem Ahmed & Professor Mohamed Zairi People’s Republic of China Customer Satisfaction: The Driving Force for Winning Business Excellence Award 02/33 – John M T Balmer & Edmund Gray Comprehending Corporate Brands 02/05 – John M T Balmer & Stephen A Greyser Managing the Multiple Identities of the Corporation 02/32 – John M T Balmer Mixed Up Over Identities 02/04 – David Philip Spicer Organizational Learning & The Development of Shared Understanding: 02/31 – Zoë J Douglas & Zoe J Radnor Evidence in Two Public Sector Organizations Internal Regulatory Practices: Understanding the Cyclical Effects within the Organisation 02/03 – Tamar Almor & Niron Hashai Configurations of International Knowledge-Intensive SMEs: 02/30 – Barbara Myloni, Dr Anne-Wil Harzing & Professor Hafiz Mirza Can the Eclectic Paradigm Provide a Sufficient Theoretical Framework? A Comparative Analysis of HRM Practices in Subsidiaries of MNCs and Local Companies in Greece 02/02 – Riyad Eid, Myfanwy Trueman & Abdel Moniem Ahmed The Influence of Critical Success Factors on International Internet 02/29 – Igor Filatotchev Marketing ”Going Public with Good Governance’’: Board Selection and Share Ownership in UK IPO Firms 02/01 – Niron Hashai The Impact of Distance Sensitivity and Economics of Scale on the 02/28 – Axele Giroud Output and Exports of Israel and its Arab Neighbours MNEs in Emerging Economies: What Explains Knowledge Transfer to Local Suppliers 2001 02/27 – Niron Hashai 01/18 – Christopher M Dent Industry Competitiveness – The Role of Regional Sharing of Distance- Transnational Capital, the State and Foreign Economic Policy: Sensitive Inputs (The Israeli – Arab Case) Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan 02/26 – Niron Hashai 01/17 – David P Spicer & Eugene Sadler-Smith Towards a Theory of MNEs from Small Open Economics – Static and The General Decision Making Style Questionnaire: Dynamic Perspectives A Comfirmatory Analysis 02/25 – Christopher Pass 01/16 – David P Spicer Corporate Governance and The Role of Non-Executive Directors in Large Expanding Experimental Learning: Linking Individual and UK Companies: An Empirical Study Organisational learning, Mental Models and Cognitive Style 02/24 – Deli Yang 01/15 – E Grey & J Balmer The Development of the Intellectual Property in China Ethical Identity; What is it? What of it? 02/23 – Roger Beach 01/14 – Mike Talyes & Colin Drury Operational Factors that Influence the Successful Adoption of Internet Autopsy of a Stalling ABC System: A Case Study of Activity Based Cost Technology in Manufacturing Management and Performance Improvement 02/22 – Niron Hashai & Tamar Almor 01/13 – N Esho, R Zurbruegg, A Kirievsky & D Ward Small and Medium Sized Multinationals: The Internationalization Law and the Deminants of International Insurance Consumption Process of Born Global Companies 01/12 – J Andrews Coutts & Kwong C Cheug 02/21 – M Webster & D M Sugden Trading Rules and Stock Returns: Some Preliminary Short Run Evidence A Proposal for a Measurement Scale for Manufacturing Virtuality from the Hang Seng 1985-1997 02/20 – Mary S Klemm & Sarah J Kelsey 01/11 – D McKechnie & S Hogarth-Scott Catering for a Minority? Ethnic Groups and the British Travel Industry Linking Internal Service Encounters and Internal Transactions: Unravelling 02/19 – Craig Johnson & David Philip Spicer Internal Marketing Contract Workers The Action Learning MBA: A New Approach Management Education 01/10 – M Webster & D M Sugden 02/18 – Lynda M Stansfield Operations Strategies for the Exploitation of Protected Technology: Virtual An Innovative Stakeholder Approach to Management Education: Manufacture as an Alternative to Outward licensing A Case Study 01/09 – Axèle Giroud 02/17 – Igor Filatotchev, Mike Wright, Klaus Uhlenbruck, Buyer-Supplier Transfer and Country of Origin: An Empirical Analysis of Laszlo Tihanyi & Robert Hoskisson FDI in Malaysia Privatization and Firm Restructuring in Transition Economies: 01/08 – Damian Ward The Effects of Governance and Organizational Capabilities Do Independent Agents Reduce Life Insurance Companies’ Free Cash Flow? 02/16 – Mike Tayles, Andrew Bramley, Neil Adshead & Janet Farr 01/07 – Daragh O’Reilly Dealing with the Management of Intellectual Capital: The Potential Role Corporate Images in ‘Jerry Maguire’: A Semiotic Analysis of Strategic Management Accounting8
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An Empirical Study of Executive Staffiing Practices in Ensuring Effective Provision of Low Cost Housing Finance in India: Foreign Subsidiaries An In-Depth case Analysis 9821 – N Wakabayashi & J Gill 9726 – (not available) Perceptive Differences in Interorganizational Collaboration and 9725 – (not available) Dynamics of Trust 9724 – S Estrin, V Perotin, A Robinson & N Wilson 9820 – C Smallman Profit-Sharing Revisited: British and French Experience Compared Risk Perception: State of the Art 9723 – (not available) 9819 – C Smallman The Breadth of Perceived Risk: Why Integrated Risk Management of 9722 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price and J A Sharp Health, Safety & Environmental Risks is only the End of the Beginning Facilitating Strategic Change in Manufacturing Industry 9818 – P S Budhwar, A Popof & D Pujari 9721 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price and J A Sharp Evaluating Sales Management Training at Xerox in Greece: The Strategy Options in Manufacturing Industry: Propositions Based on An Exploratory Study Case Histories 9817 – W A Taylor 9720 – A Giroud An Information-Based Perspective on Multinational Firms Backward Linkages in Malaysia: A Comparison Knowledge Capture in Business Processes between European and Asian Firms in the Electrical and Electronics Sector 9816 – S Hogarth-Scott 9719 – L Kening Category Management Relationships: Foreign Direct Investment in China: Performance, Climate and Impact Is it Really Trust Where Choice is Limited? 9718 – H Mirza 9815 – W A Taylor Towards a Strategy for Enhancing ASEAN’s Locational Advantages for Sustaining Innovation in Organisations: Managing the Intangibles Attracting Greater Foreign Direct Investment A Study of TQM Implementation in Northern Ireland Organisations 9717 – B Summers & N Wilson 1991-1996 An Empirical Study of the Demand for Trade Credit in UK 9814 – M Webster, A Muhlemann and C Alder Manufacturing Firms Subcontract Manufacture in Electronics Assembly: 9716 – R Butler & J Gill A Survey of Industry Practice Reliable Knowledge and Trust in Partnership Formation 9813 – M J S Harry 9715 – R Butler Is Object-Orientation Subject-Oriented?: Conflicting and Stories and Experiments in Organisational Research Unresolved Philosophies in Object-Oriented Information 9714 – M Klemm & L Parkinson Systems Development Methodology British Tour Operators: Blessing or Blight 9812 – J Jackson 9713 – C A Hope The Introduction of Japanese Continuous Improvement Practices to a What Does Quality Management Mean for Traditional British Manufacturing Site: The Case of RHP Bearings Tourism Companies and Organisations? (Ferrybridge) 9712 – S Hogarth-Scott & P Dapiran 9811 – C De Mattos Do Retailers and Suppliers Really have Collaborative Category A Comparative Study Between Perceptions of British and German Management Relationships?: Category Management Relationships in Executives, in the Biotechnology Sector, Relative to Potential Future the UK and Australia Contributions of Greatest Importance to and from Transnational 9711 – C De Mattos Alliance Partners in Emerging Economies The Importance of Potential Future Contributions from/to Transnational 9810 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright Joint Venture Partners: Perception of Brazilian Managing Directors and The Cost of Customer Care – A Value Analysis of Service Delivery Specialists Linked to Biotechnology Approaches 9710 – N T Ibrahim & F P Wheeler 9809 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright Are Malaysian Corporations Ready for Executive Information Systems? A Service Provider’s View of Success Factors in Alternative Service 9709 – F P Wheeler & A W Nixon Stategies Monitoring Organisational Knowledge in Use 9808 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright 9708 – M Tayles & C Drury A Professional’s Evaluation of Alternative Service Delivery Regimes for Scoping Product Costing Research: A Strategy for Managing the Product Customer Care and Satisfaction Portfolio – Cost System Design 9807 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright 9707 – N Wilson, B Summers & C Singleton A User’s Perspective of Alternative Service Delivery: A Comparative Small Business Demand for Trade Credit, Credit Rationing and the Late Study of the Evaluation of Service Strategies Payment of Commercial Debt: An Empirical Study 9806 – J Martin-Hirsch & G Wright 9706 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price & J A Sharp The Case for Choice in Health Care: A Comparison of Traditional and The Management Information Systems as a Source of Flexibility: Team Midwifery in Effective Service Provision A Case Study 9805 – M Woods, M Fedorkow amd M Smith 9705 – E Marshall Modelling the Learning Organisation Business Ethics: The Religious Dimension 9804 – W A Taylor An Action Research Study of Knowledge Management in Process Industries10
W O R K I N G PA P E R S E R I E S 9704 – M Wright, N Wilson & K Robbie 9501 – M Uncles & A S C Ehrenberg The Longer Term Effects of Management-Led Buy-Outs Direchlet-Type Markets: A Review, Part 1: Patterns and Theory 9703 – G Hopkinson & S Hogarth Scott Quality of Franchise Relationships: The Implications of Micro Economic 1994 Theories of Franchising 9411 – R A Rayman 9702 – G C Hopkinson & S Hogarth-Scott The Real-Balance Effect Fallacy and The Failure of Unemployment Policy Channel Conflict: Critical Incidents or Telling Tales. 9410 – R A Rayman Methodologies Compared The Myth of ‘Says’ Law 9701 – K Watson, S. Hogarth-Scott & N Wilson 9409 not issued Marketing Success Factors and Key Tasks in Small Business Development 9408 not issued 1996 9407 not issued 9619 – B Summers & N Wilson 9406 not issued Trade Credit Management and the Decision to use Factoring: 9405 – F Bartels & N Freeman An Empirical Study Multinational Enterprise in Emerging Markets: International Joint 9618 – M Hiley & H Mirza Ventures in Côte D’Ivoire Vietnam The Economic Prospects of ASEAN : The Role of AFTA in the Future 9404 – E Marshall Development of the Region The Single Transferable Vote – A Necessary Refinement Abstract 9617 – A Brown 9403 – G R Dowling & M Uncles Prospects for Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Thailand Customer Loyalty programs: Should Every Firm Have One? 9616 – H Mirza, K H Wee & F Bartels 9402 – N Wilson, A Pendleton & M Wright The Expansion Strategies of Triad Corporations in East Asia The impact of Employee Ownership on Employee Attitudes: 9615 – M Demirbag & H Mirza Evidence from UK ESOPS Inter-Partner Reliance, Exchange of Resources & Partners’ Influence on 9401 – N Wilson & M J Peel J’V’s Strategy Working Capital & Financial Management 9614 – R H Pike & N S Cheng Practices in the Small Firm Sector Motives for Investing in Accounts Receivable: Theory and Evidence 1993 9613 - R H Pike & N S Cheng Business Trade Credit Management: Experience of Large UK Firms 9310 – R Butler, L Davies, R Pike & J Sharp Effective Investment Decision-Making: The Concept and its 9612 – R Elliott, S Eccles & K Gournay Determinants no longer available Man Management? Women and the Use of Debt to Control Personal Relationships 9309 – A Muhlemann, D Price, M Afferson & J Sharp Manufacturing Information Systems as a Means for Improving 9611 – R Elliott, S Eccles & K Gournay the Quality of Production Management Decisions in Smaller Social Support, Personal Relationships & Addictive Consumption Manufacturing Enterprises 9610 – M Uncles & A Manaresi 9308 – F P Wheeler, R J Thomas & S H Chang Relationships Among Retail Franchisees and Frachisors: Towards Effective Executive Information Systems A Two-Country Study 9307 – F P Wheeler, S H Chang & R J Thomas 9609 – S Procter The Transition from an Executive Information System to Everyone’s Quality in Maternity Services: Information System: Lessons from a Case Study Perceptions of Managers, Clinicians and Consumers’ 9306 – S H Chang, F P Wheeler & R J Thomas 9608 – S Hogarth-Scott & G P Dapiran Modelling Executive Information Needs Retailer-Supplier Relationships: An Integrative Framework Based on Category Management Relationships 9305 – S. Braga Rodrigues & D Hickson Success in Decision Making: Different Organisations, 9607 – N Wilson, S Hogarth-Scott & K Watson Differing Reasons for Success. Factors Contributing to Entrepreneurial Success in New Start Small Businesses 9304 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R Price Ideology, Technology and Effectiveness 9606 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price & J A Sharp The Evolutionary Development of the Concept Manufacturing Flexibility 9303 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R Price Strategy, Structure and Technology 9605 – B Summers Using Neural Networks for Credit Risk Management: 9302 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R Price The Nature of the Models Produced Competitive Strategies and New Technology 9604 – P J Buckley & M Carter 9301 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R Price The Economics of Business Process Design: Motivation, Information & Investing in New Technology for Competitive Advantage Coordination Within the Firm 9603 – M Carter Copies of the Proceedings of the Arab Management Conferences are Is the Customer Always Right? available for purchase at a cost of £40.00 per volume. Information, Quality and Organisational Architecture 9602 – D T H Weir Copies of the above papers can be obtained by contacting the Research Why Does the Pilot Sit at the Front? And Does it Matter? Secretary at the address below: 9601 – R A Rayman Bradford University School of Management A Proposal for Reforming the Tax System Emm Lane Bradford 1995 West Yorkshire 9506 – A L Riding & B Summers BD9 4JL Networks that Learn and Credit Evaluation Tel: 01274 234323 (mornings only) 9505 – R A Rayman Fax: 01274 546866 The Income Concept: A Flawed Ideal? 9504 – S Ali & H Mirza Market Entry Strategies in Poland: A Preliminary Report 9503 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H.R Price & J A Sharp An Adaptive Literature Search Paradigm 9502 – A S C Ehrenberg & M Uncles Direchlet-Type Markets: a Review, Part 2: Applications & Implications 11