Everyone Has The Right To Educate
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Everyone Has The Right To Educate Everyone Has The Right To Educate Document Transcript

  • United NationsEducational, Scienti¿c and Cultural Organization UNESCO}and “Everyone has}the right to}education”
  • UNESCO}and
  • Published in November 2011 by the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France© UNESCO 2011All rights reservedThe designations employed and the presentation of material throughout thispublication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on thepart of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city orarea or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers orboundaries.Designed and printed by UNESCOPrinted in France on FSC certified paperPhoto cover:© UNESCO/Ministerio de Educación. School children in Florida (Valle), in Colombia, 2011.ED-2011/WS/30 – CLD 3539.11
  • ContentsForeword 5Education worldwide 6UNESCO’s education mission 7International targets 9Africa and gender: two priorities 11Literacy, teachers and work skills 13Strengthening education systems 16Planning and managing education 20Leading the international agenda 22Networking and sharing knowledge 24
  • EVERY WOMAN, MAN AND CHILD CHANGING LITERACY CHILDREN FULLER SOCIAL GENDER SYSTEMS PARTNERS STAKEHOLDERS EFFORTS POLITICAL GUIDANCE EXCLUDED GROUPS W O R L D W I D E LIFELONG LEARNINGTEACHERS SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA EDUCATION PRIMARY TO SECONDARY EDUCATION TO REACH MARGINALIZED SKILLS QUALITYINCLUSIVE POLICY-MAKERS MOVEMENT A D U LT L I T E R A C Y HEALTH EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION POLITICAL PARTICIPATION MISSION BUILD GLOBAL4
  • ForewordA quality education throughout UNESCO’s mandate coverslife is the birthright of every all facets of education. Thewoman, man and child. In turn, Organization offers guidanceeducation, particularly that of girls and expertise to policy-makersand women, aids progress across and other stakeholders, andall development goals. helps countries to plan, build and rebuild education systems that areSince the adoption of the responsive to a rapidly changingEducation for All and Millennium world. In particular, UNESCODevelopment Goals in 2000, leads the global Education forremarkable progress has been All movement, and promotesmade in education worldwide, and much of it in a holistic and inclusive vision of lifelong learningsome of the world’s poorest countries. Millions more that includes early childhood care and education,children are in school, making the move from primary primary, secondary and higher education, youth andto secondary education, and gender disparities adult skills, adult literacy, gender parity and qualityin primary and secondary school enrolments are education.narrowing. In collaboration with its many partners, UNESCO isHowever, the slowing of primary enrolments globally intensifying efforts to pursue this valuable mission tocoupled with high dropout rates and a critical make quality education a reality for all, so that eachshortage of teachers – especially in sub-Saharan and every one of us has the chance to realize ourAfrica – means much work remains to be done to full potential and enjoy better health, improved livingprotect and build upon those gains. The aftermath of standards, and fuller social and political participationthe global economic crisis threatens to further erode in society.the education advances made in the past decade.Against this backdrop, increasing access to educationrequires strong political will and a correspondingimprovement in quality, along with a workforce of well- Qian Tang, Ph.D.trained and motivated teachers and targeted actions Assistant Director-Generalto reach marginalized and excluded groups. for Education 5
  • Education worldwide Worldwide, more people than ever before are benejting from an education. Over 1.5 billion children and youth are enrolled in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools and universities. From 1999 to 2008, an additional 52 million children enrolled in primary school. The number of children out of school was more than halved in South and West Asia, and in sub-Saharan Africa enrolment ratios rose by almost one-third. Access to education is steadily expanding; across developing countries, enrolment in higher education has risen sharply, and innovative literacy and adult education programmes are transforming the lives of the disadvantaged. But a number of obstacles, including poverty, still keep 67 million children of primary-school age out of school, 53 per cent of whom are girls and almost 43 per cent of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Enrolment rates are slowing and being eroded by dropout, particularly in countries affected by armed conkict where over 40 per cent of out-of-school children live. Gender disparities continue to hamper UNESCO leads the global Education for All movement. progress in education. Around 17 per cent of the world’s adults – 793 million people, of whom two- thirds are women – still lack basic literacy skills. Millions struggle to learn in overcrowded classrooms, without textbooks or qualijed teachers. An additional 2 million teachers will need to be recruited by 2015 to achieve universal primary education, more than half of them in sub-Saharan Africa.6
  • UNESCO’s education missionSince its creation in 1945, UNESCO’s mission has Educational objectivesbeen to contribute to the building of peace, poverty ▶ supporting the achievement of Education for Alleradication, lasting development and intercultural (EFA)dialogue, with education as one of its principalactivities to achieve this aim. The Organization’s other ▶ providing global and regional leadership injelds of action include the natural sciences, the social educationand human sciences, culture, and communication ▶ building effective education systems worldwideand information. from early childhood to the adult yearsToday, UNESCO is committed to a holistic and ▶ responding to contemporary global challengeshumanistic vision of quality education worldwide, through educationthe realization of everyone’s right to education, andthe belief that education plays a fundamental role in How UNESCO works to meet these objectiveshuman, social and economic development. UNESCO is the only United Nations agency with Setting standards a mandate to cover all aspects of education. Its work encompasses educational development UNESCO’s commitment to the right to education is enshrined in three key standard-setting documents. from pre-school through primary, secondary and Signed in 1948 in the aftermath of the Second World War, higher education, including technical and vocational the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26) education and training, non-formal education and proclaims that: “Everyone has the right to education”. adult learning. The Organization focuses on increasing In 1960, the Convention against Discrimination in equity and access, improving quality, and ensuring Education, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO, that education develops knowledge and skills in stated that the Organization “…has the duty not only to areas such as sustainable development, HIV and proscribe any form of discrimination in education but also AIDS, human rights and gender equality. UNESCO to promote equality of opportunity and treatment for all in education”. It was, and remains, the first international works with governments, National Commissions instrument with binding force in international law that for UNESCO and a wide range of other partners develops the right to education in all its dimensions. to make education systems more effective through In 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in policy change. It coordinates the Education for All Articles 28 and 29, stipulated that primary education movement, tracks education trends and raises the should be “compulsory and available free to all”, and that projle of educational needs on global development it should allow children to reach their fullest potential. agendas. UNESCO is also an active and committed partner in UN reform, which aims to improve coordination, efjciency and delivery. 7
  • Promoting the right to education UNESCO’s Education Sector has ve main functions: The universal right to education proclaimed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26) ▶ Laboratory of ideas: anticipating and respond- is at the very heart of UNESCO’s mission and is an ing to emerging trends and needs in education, and integral part of its constitutional mandate. UNESCO’s developing education policies based on research and Constitution expresses the belief of its founders in: country priorities. “full and equal opportunities for education for all ▶ Standard-setter: developing standards, norms [...] to advance the ideal of equality of educational and guidelines in key education areas, and monitoring opportunity [...].” the implementation of relevant legal and normative instruments. ▶ Clearinghouse: promoting the development, implementation and dissemination of successful educational policies and practices. ▶ Capacity-builder: providing technical cooperation to develop the capacity of Member States to achieve their national education goals. ▶ Catalyst for international cooperation: initiating and promoting dialogue and exchange among In a primary school in Adwa, Ethiopia. education leaders and stakeholders. Four ways UNESCO supports the right to education ▪ Monitoring the implementation of the international normative instruments in this field ▪ Building and strengthening capacities and mechanisms and reporting ▪ Assisting Member States in reviewing and developing their national legal frameworks ▪ Mobilizing, developing and fostering global partnerships to raise awareness on key issues relating to the implementation of international normative instruments on the right to education8
  • International targetsIn the year 2000, the international community signed up to the Education for All andMillennium Development Goals. Currently the two most influential frameworks in the field ofeducation, they are an ambitious roadmap for the global community to follow, offering a long-term vision of reduced poverty and hunger, better health and education, sustainable lifestyles,strong partnerships and shared commitments.Education for All (EFA)The EFA movement is a global commitment led byUNESCO to provide quality basic education for allchildren, youth and adults. It began at the WorldConference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand,1990), which stressed education as a human rightand outlined a holistic vision of lifelong learning. Tenyears later, at the World Education Forum (Dakar, Education for All2000), 164 governments pledged to achieve EFA andidentijed six goals with wide-ranging targets to bemet by 2015. The six Education for All Goals Goal 1. Expand early childhood care and educationThe jve multilateral institutions that organized theWorld Conference for Education for All remain the Goal 2. Provide free and compulsory primary education for allkey international stakeholders in the EFA movement:United Nations Educational, Scientijc and Cultural Goal 3. Promote learning and life skills for young people and adultsOrganization (UNESCO), United Nations DevelopmentProgramme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund Goal 4. Increase adult literacy(UNFPA), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Goal 5. Achieve gender parityand the World Bank. Goal 6. Improve the quality of educationAs lead agency of the EFA movement, UNESCOfocuses its activities on jve key areas: policy dialogue,monitoring, advocacy, mobilization of funding andcapacity development. 9
  • Millennium Development Goals Three key UN initiatives Also adopted in 2000, the eight Millennium UNESCO currently leads three major initiatives within Development Goals (MDGs) aim to halve poverty by the UN family. 2015. Although MDGs 2 and 3 focus on achieving The UN Literacy Decade (2003– universal primary schooling, empowering women 2012) aims to create a greater impetus and eliminating gender disparities at the primary and for literacy, with stronger political secondary levels, education drives the achievement commitment, improved programmes for of all the MDGs. This is because it equips people with youth and adults, and additional funding, in order to the knowledge and skills to break the cycle of poverty reduce the number of illiterate people. and shape their future life chances. The UN Decade of Education for The eight Millennium Development Goals Sustainable Development (2005- 2014) encourages governments to   Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger incorporate the principles, values and   Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education practices of sustainable development into teaching and learning, so as to address social, economic,   Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower cultural and environmental challenges. women Launched in 2004, the UNAIDS   Goal 4. Reduce child mortality rate Global Initiative on Education and HIV and AIDS (EDUCAIDS) works with more than 80 countries   Goal 5. Improve maternal health to promote, develop and support comprehensive   Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other educational responses to the pandemic. diseases   Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability   Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development10
  • Africa and gender: two prioritiesAfricaAfrica is a top priority for UNESCO and education is The importance of qualitykey to the region’s development. The past decade hasseen marked advances towards EFA in sub-SaharanAfrica. Indeed, the region has increased primary netenrolment ratios by almost one-third, despite a largerise in the school-age population. Gender gaps havenarrowed at the primary level, more children aremoving from primary school to secondary educationand real expenditure on education has increased bymore than six per cent each year.But major challenges remain. Sub-Saharan Africa isunlikely to reach the EFA literacy target set for 2015.It is home to almost 43 per cent of the world’s out-of-school children, levels of learning achievement arelow and gender disparities are still considerable. It Democratic Republic of the Congo:also has the largest share of the world’s population A prizewinning UNESCO literacy project, Collectif Alpha UJUVI.infected with HIV, with 90 per cent of the world’s twomillion children living with the virus in sub-Saharan The Basic Education in Africa Programme supports the holistic and comprehensive reform of basic educationAfrica. UNESCO works with the African Union, which and an uninterrupted nine to ten years of quality basichas dejned development goals for the region through education, including early childhood care and educationthe New Partnership for Africa’s Development and the (ECCE).Second Decade of Education for Africa (2006-2015). The Pôle de Dakar supports African countries withUNESCO supports the Decade through its core sectoral diagnoses, development of educationalinitiatives in support of EFA as well as through sector strategies, implementation of educational policies, and facilitating external technical and financial support. Itanalyses, national education support strategies, conducts studies and syntheses, and carries out trainingmonitoring and evaluation. in partnership with other institutions, with a view to strengthening the skills of national education officers. 11
  • Gender “Girls’ secondary schooling carries a cascade of lifetime benefits: higher incomes, higher agricultural productivity, lower child and maternal mortality, lower fertility, delayed age of marriage, better prevention against HIV and AIDS. This is the right moment for empowering young women.” Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO Gender inequality is still an obstacle to Education for All. Two out of three countries in the world face gender disparities in primary and secondary education, and as many as half will not achieve the goal of gender parity in education by 2015, according to the 2010 Global Education Digest – the kagship publication of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. The Organization has developed a set of gender West Bengal, India: The gender gap in secondary school mainstreaming training tools to build gender equality enrolments is narrowing in many countries. considerations into policies and programmes and sensitize educators. Within the UNAIDS family, HIV Better Life, Better Future prevention education has a strong gender dimension: UNESCO’s new global partnership for girls’ and women’s the Organization’s Gender and HIV and AIDS series education seeks to address the distinctive barriers both seeks to bolster the self-conjdence of girls – and face in accessing learning, and in particular secondary boys – in tackling issues of reproductive health. education and adult literacy. The partnership will scale Education to counter discrimination and promote up global advocacy for girl’s and women’s education and introduce programmes aimed at stemming the drop-out human rights also engages with the issue of gender- rate of adolescent girls in the transition from primary based violence. to secondary education and in lower secondary schools, and focus on scaling up women’s literacy programmes In 2010, UNESCO was a signatory to the UN Joint through stronger advocacy and partnerships, including Statement on Accelerating Efforts to Advance with the private sector. the Rights of Adolescent Girls, an expression of commitment to empower the millions of young individuals to hold the keys to a better future.12
  • Literacy, teachers and}work}skills}Literacy The Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP), developed by the UNESCO Institute forLiteracy is a fundamental right and the Statistics (UIS, Montreal, Canada) is a tool tofoundation for lifelong learning. It imparts help Member States measure levels of literacyknowledge, skills and the self-confidence to achievement.transform lives, leading to better health andincome as well as fuller participation in thecommunity. UNESCO International Literacy PrizesUNESCO helps Member States to increase their Each year on 8 September, UNESCO celebratesliteracy rates by motivating governments and civil International Literacy Day and awards prizes insociety to focus on literacy, formulate solid policies recognition of excellence and innovation in promotingand develop capacities to deliver good quality literacy throughout the world. The UNESCO Kingmultilingual programmes. Sejong Literacy Prize is sponsored by the government of the Republic of Korea and the UNESCO ConfuciusIts major initiatives are the United Nations Literacy Prize for Literacy is sponsored by the governmentDecade (2003-2012) and the Literacy Initiative for of the People’s Republic of China. Themes includeEmpowerment (LIFE, 2006-2015) a ten-year global women’s empowerment (2010) and literacy forinitiative to accelerate literacy in the 35 countries with peace (2011).the biggest literacy challenges.The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL,Hamburg, Germany) is an international research,training, information and publishing centre for literacy,adult education and non-formal education. Itsdocumentation centre holds more than 60,000 items,including a unique collection of literacy materials from120 countries in more than 160 languages. By linkingadvocacy, networking, educational research, policyand practice, UIL works to improve the environmentand quality of lifelong learning for all worldwide. Venezuela: Participating in the successful national literacy programme. 13
  • Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher Literacy begins at home Education Teaching Personnel (1997). The Females for Families programme in Egypt, winner of the 2010 UNESCO Confucius Prize for Literacy, took Policies and guidelines 120 girls from the remote Egyptian town of Abu-Ashur UNESCO helps countries to develop comprehensive and gave them six months’ training as community leaders. Many families in the town live on less than teacher policies, with attention to training, status, US$60 a month and suffer from inadequate health and working conditions and accreditation. In Latin America education services. The girls established family-based and the Caribbean, it has produced studies on key literacy classes and imparted information on health, areas such as teacher evaluation, innovative pre- hygiene and family planning; trained people in cooking, service teacher training programmes, health and crafts and agriculture; accompanied them on medical working conditions. In the Asia-Pacijc region, the appointments, encouraged drop-outs to return to school and helped secure small loans. In addition, the town was Organization has taken the lead in the use of information given a permanent resource centre staffed with a doctor, and communication technologies, both for teachers’ a vet, an education specialist, a loan officer and other professional development and to support classroom professionals. In raising literacy levels, the girls also teaching. UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education helped remove prejudices about women in public life. (IBE, Geneva, Switzerland) develops teacher guidelines for curriculum change with teams from Ministries of Education in various countries, while the UNESCO Teachers International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP, Teachers help to empower people, build peace Paris, France) has reviewed teacher management and develop societies, yet many suffer from practices and highlighted successful strategies in poor status, wages and working conditions, countries greatly affected by HIV and AIDS. and carry out their vital work in deprived and dangerous settings. Without sufficient numbers of qualified teachers – men and women – the EFA and MDG targets will be hard to meet. The current teacher shortage is acute. The number of teaching staff has simply not kept pace with the unprecedented surge in primary school enrolment since 2000. Globally, a total of 99 countries will need at least 2 million more teachers in classrooms by 2015 to provide quality primary education. More than half of Teaching and learning Arabic in a primary school near Rabat, Morocco. these new teachers are needed in sub-Saharan Africa. There are also important qualitative challenges to face such as the training, deployment and motivation of Training teachers. The Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa UNESCO provides global leadership on teachers (TTISSA) aims to improve national teacher policy and and their status, recruitment, training and strengthen teacher education in the region. UNESCO’s professional development, based on the UNESCO/ International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa ILO Recommendation concerning the Status of (IICBA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) assists Member States in Teachers (1966), which is applied in parallel with the Africa with open and distance learning and face-to-face14
  • training of trainers. At the international level, the Task term strategies and solutions based on inclusive andForce on Teachers for EFA, a global alliance of partners, rights-based approaches. To counter the perceptioncoordinates and reinforces global efforts to close the of TVET courses as a safety net for failing or poorteacher gap for the achievement of all EFA goals. students, UNESCO works to improve their quality, status and employment value, making sure they are World Teachers’ Day relevant to social and economic needs. World Teachers’ Day, held annually on 5 October since 1994, commemorates the anniversary of the signing in The UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for 1966 of the UNESCO/ILO Recommendation concerning the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Status of Teachers. It is an occasion to pay tribute to the (Bonn, Germany) helps Member States strengthen vital role of teachers and to advocate for improvements in and upgrade their TVET systems. The UNEVOC their status and working conditions. network consists of 282 specialized institutions, known as UNEVOC Centres, in 167 UNESCOWork skills Member States. It includes government ministries,Technical and vocational education and research facilities, planning and training institutions.training (TVET) plays an essential role in An Interagency Group on TVET was established inhelping reduce poverty and promote growth 2009 on the initiative of UNESCO. Its members includeas well as in ensuring the social and economic ILO, OECD, the World Bank, the European Traininginclusion of marginalized communities. Foundation, the European Commission and the AsianIn an era of global economic integration and rapidly Development Bank. The objective of the group isevolving technologies, training for the world of work to share knowledge on TVET issues and to promotehas never been more important. However, many cooperation at global and country levels. A specijcgovernments are not giving sufjcient priority to the working group on indicators, also involving the UNESCObasic skills and learning needs of youth and adults. Institute for Statistics, was established to develop TVETQuality TVET programmes are urgently needed to indicators for policy monitoring and evaluation.bridge the gap between school and work. The Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) for the A strategy to support TVET in Member States revitalization of TVET in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was established in In cooperation with a range of partners, UNESCO has August 2009. Through the IATT, UNESCO is creating established a strategy to support TVET in Member States from 2010 to 2015. The strategy focuses on three core partnerships with agencies including UNDP, ILO and areas: the Association for the Development of Education in ▪ providing upstream policy advice and related Africa (ADEA), to support the development of skills for capacity development ▪ conceptual clarification of skills development and youth employment. improvement of monitoring of TVET ▪ acting as a clearinghouse and informing the global Five countries, five years to improve job TVET debate skills in Southern Africa A five-year project to revitalize TVET, which began in autumn 2011, targets  five Southern African countries:Focus on relevance Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Namibia and Zambia. The project is based on comprehensiveUNESCO promotes TVET and skills for work as part research carried out on the status of TVET in countries inof lifelong learning, concentrating on secondary and the Southern African Development Community, as partpost-secondary training in formal and non-formal of a UNESCO capacity-building initiative funded by thesettings. It helps Member States to develop long- Government of the Republic of Korea. 15
  • Strengthening education systems As the lead agency for Education for All, Most high-income countries are close to universal UNESCO’s top priority is to speed up access secondary education, with a large share of the to quality learning. The Organization helps population progressing to the tertiary level, but countries to develop inclusive, holistic and marginalized groups still struggle and face further balanced education systems from early discrimination in the job market. Through second- childhood to the adult years. chance programmes, young people who failed to complete primary education can acquire the skills Early childhood care and education and knowledge needed to expand their livelihood choices. Early childhood care and education (ECCE) programmes prepare children for school, mitigate the effects of To ensure quality and relevance are maintained during household deprivation, break the cycle of educational rapid expansion, UNESCO’s Secondary Education disadvantage between parents and children, and Regional Information Base contains policy-relevant strengthen prospects for economic growth. data on secondary education in the Asia region to help education practitioners in developing policies UNESCO advocates for holistic ECCE programmes and reforms. that include health, nutrition and security. The multi- faceted nature of ECCE presents the challenge of coordinating policy development and implementation Higher education across different sectors (education, social affairs Demand for higher education has risen sharply, with and health). Following the jrst World Conference on the number of tertiary students increasing six-fold in ECCE held in Moscow in 2010, UNESCO is leading the last 40 years. Internationally mobile students are an interagency project to develop a Holistic Early expected to multiply by about 12 per cent annually. Childhood Development Index, with UNICEF as a Rapid globalization has led to a diversijcation of major partner. providers, creating the need for reinforced accreditation and quality assurance systems. Primary and secondary education As the only UN agency with a mandate for higher Because of the increase in primary school enrolments, education, UNESCO helps Member States and their many countries have broadened the concept of basic institutions widen access to quality higher education education to include lower secondary education. through diverse modes of provision adapted to local development needs. Initiatives to inform policy include For low-income countries, secondary education for Global Fora on essential issues such as university all is a difjcult target to achieve.16
  • rankings (2011), graduate employability (2012) anddiversijed provision and jnancing of higher education(2013). Normative instruments are in place to supportinternational mobility of students and graduates.UNESCO is in the process of revising the RegionalConventions on recognition of higher educationqualijcations as well as exploring possibilities toestablish a Global Convention for all Member States.Further activities promote quality assurance in highereducation, support institutions and states, reducebrain drain, and enhance inter-institutional cooperationand networking through the UNESCO Chairs andUNITWIN programmes.Reconstructing education after Debris, including classwork, Port-au-Prince, Haiti,disaster and conflict where the January 2010 earthquake destroyed over a thousand schools.A signijcant proportion of the 67 million children outof primary school worldwide live in countries affectedby war and natural disasters. Achieving EFA requires Back to school after the Haiti earthquakeensuring learning opportunities for these children. It Immediately after the Haiti earthquake in 2010, UNESCOis increasingly recognized that education must be a opened up its premises to host the Minister of Educationmajor part of any humanitarian response. Conkict and and his cabinet, whose buildings were destroyed, and helped carry out a damage and needs assessment ofdisaster-affected communities themselves prioritize education institutions. With close to 90 per cent ofeducation, often even before more immediate material schools in the country’s West Department damaged orneeds. Education restores routine and gives people destroyed, and more than 450,000 children displaced,hope for the future. It can also serve as a channel both an urgent priority was to open temporary schools and provide learning materials. By the time schools reopened,for meeting other basic humanitarian needs, and for an emergency curriculum had been developed andcommunicating vital messages that promote safety disseminated with UNESCO’s support. To equip educatorsand well-being. Rebuilding education systems is an with the skills to recognize trauma and alleviate stress-essential element in restoring peace and laying the related symptoms, UNESCO with its partners trained overground for long-term sustainable development. The 3,000 secondary school teachers and other educational personnel on learner-centred psycho-social support. AInter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies nationwide census of all TVET centres was launched,(INEE) is an open global network of practitioners and and the first five centres are now being reconstructed andpolicy-makers working together to ensure quality equipped. Another UNESCO initiative, “Un livre pour uneducation in emergency situations. It brings together enfant d’Haiti” (A book for a child in Haiti), launched in collaboration with NGO Bibliothèques sans frontièresUN agencies and NGOs and places education jrmly (Libraries without Borders), collected 6,000 books whichon the agenda as part of the initial response to an were circulated in 12 camps and 22 schools.emergency. 17
  • Education and disaster risk HIV and AIDS reduction With an estimated 6,800 people newly infected with Climate change, including a rise in extreme weather HIV every day, prevention education must be at the events, is contributing to a reduction in communities’ forefront of any response to the epidemic. School- coping capacities. A growing global population, based HIV education offers a very cost-effective particularly in urban areas with poor infrastructure and approach to prevention, as the right message can lack of emergency procedures, compounds these reach large numbers of young people from diverse risks, increasing the number of people vulnerable to backgrounds. hazards. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) aims to build Sexuality education is key to HIV society’s resilience and ability to cope. Education has prevention a central role to play in equipping people with life- A seminal study undertaken by UNESCO into the cost- saving and environmentally sustainable knowledge effectiveness of sexuality education programmes provides and skills. Both in the immediate aftermath of a solid economic basis for the argument that such disasters and before, UNESCO supports Member programmes play a key role in HIV prevention amongst States to integrate DRR into their education sectors. young people. The study provides the data and analysis necessary to make a stronger and better informed case for investing in school-based sexuality education programmes, particularly in those countries most affected by the epidemic. The UNAIDS Global Initiative on Education and HIV and AIDS (EDUCAIDS) helps countries to respond to the epidemic by giving particular attention to children and youth, especially the most vulnerable, within a sector-wide approach. This work is reinforced by UNESCO’s efforts to A half-finished classroom in the Mugosi Primary School support HIV prevention through sexuality education, near Kahe refugee camp, Democratic Republic of the Congo. based on the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education published in 2009 in partnership UNRWA – Educating against the odds with UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO. With its 19,000 teachers and educators, the UN Relief and The UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) is one of Education was created in 2002 to support faster and the largest school systems in the Middle East. UNRWA and UNESCO collaborate with four ministries in providing better education sector responses to HIV and AIDS. basic education and training for half a million Palestinian Convened by UNESCO, the IATT promotes education refugee children in Jordan, Lebanon, the West Bank, Gaza as an essential element for the prevention of HIV and and Syria. Following four different national curricula is the mitigation of the impact of AIDS. one of UNRWA’s main challenges. UNRWA teachers and students work in extremely challenging circumstances, with 70 per cent of UNRWA schools operating on double shifts, many in unsuitable buildings.18
  • Pakistan: Mobile learning, or m-learning, is taking off among the newly literate. UNESCO’s Mobile Phone Literacyproject aims to empower women and girls.Information and communication Monitoring learning achievementtechnologies in education Gains made in access to education cannot be sustainedUNESCO works towards the inclusion of all learners, without a parallel improvement in quality. International learning assessments reveal marked global and nationalthrough the reinforcing of quality education and training disparities in learning achievement. UNESCO worksand lifelong learning through the integration of locally- with a range of partners to improve capacity to assessrelevant information and communication technologies and monitor quality and learning achievement. The(ICT) into teaching and learning. This includes, in Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) involves 15 ministries of educationparticular, open access modalities, communities of and produces cross-national studies on the quality ofpractice, global digital libraries and resource centres, education and schooling. The Latin American Laboratoryand digital learning tools. for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECE) aims to assess the quality of education and factors associatedThe integration of ICT in education policies, the use of with students’ experiences and development. UNESCOmobile technologies for learning and ICT as a tool for Beirut, in collaboration with the Australian Councilliteracy, with particular attention to women, are some for Educational Research, is developing an Arab States initiative to help monitor learning achievement andof the topics that currently form part of UNESCO’s strengthen national education systems, while UNESCO’seducation programme. The Organization collaborates International Bureau of Education (IBE) supportswith partners such as the Commonwealth of Learning to countries in the development of quality curricula for EFA.expand understanding of Open Educational Resourcesand promote their wider use. 19
  • Planning and managing education To generate sustainable, large-scale Partnerships are essential. UNESCO collaborates improvements in education systems, with the Global Partnership for Education (formerly governments must be able to plan for and the Education for All Fast Track Initiative) to support manage school enrolments, assign teachers to countries facing acute challenges to achieve the areas where they are most needed, promote EFA goals, including post-conkict and post-disaster the use of relevant, up-to-date curricula and countries. materials, and facilitate pathways between the different levels and settings of education. Financing education Improving their capacity to do all this will ensure that education systems respond to the The aftershocks of the 2008 global jnancial crisis real needs of societies. threaten to deprive millions of children of an education in the world’s poorest countries. It is estimated that Policy and planning donors will have to bridge a jnancing gap of US$16 billion a year to meet the goal of universal primary UNESCO helps national decision-makers to education by 2015. Governments are coping with the develop and carry out solid and relevant education crisis in different ways, from countercyclical measures policies and strategies. This support can come in to social safety net schemes, but many countries risk various forms: technical assistance with the design falling behind target. of education sector development plans; the use of simulation models or information systems; review of Innovative financing education policies; assessment of national planning UNESCO is a member of the Task Force on Innovative and management and development of capacity Financing for Education, which explores new and creative ways of financing development and meeting international development plans; reinforcement of capacities; objectives. contribution to sector dialogue at country level; In addition to multi-stakeholder partnerships, the idea of and the mobilization of donors to support national a levy – for instance, of 0.005 per cent – on transactions educational priorities. UNESCO’s International between four major currencies could be explored. This Institute for Educational Planning plays a key role in could raise US$30 billion a year. Education bonds in reinforcing capacities in educational planning and local currency could also be considered in order to better guarantee the financing of education sector projects. A management. venture fund for investment in innovative education is another idea being investigated.20
  • The Global Partnership for Education, of which UNESCO is a member, provides an international, multilateralframework for cooperation in education.New donors Targeted supportThe inkuence of middle-income and developing UNESCO has provided targeted support to countriescountries as South-South Cooperation (SSC) partners considered among those least likely to achieve EFA. In the 2010-2011 biennium, 20 priority countries were thusand funders of development assistance has grown, given special support in the areas of literacy, teachers,along with that of the private sector, as a key factor TVET or sector-wide policy and planning, in order toin reducing poverty. New support includes foreign speed up progress towards EFA. These countries aredirect investment, donations from philanthropists, Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor,foundations, corporations and non-governmental Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Lao People’s Democratic Republic,organizations, and aid from new donors such as Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Rwanda,China, India and the Gulf States. Togo, and Yemen. UNESCO is targeting some 15-20 additional countries in the 2012-2013 biennium, while continuing to support the 20 initial priority countries through extrabudgetary resources. 21
  • Leading the international agenda The EFA Global Monitoring Report non-governmental organizations. The jve multilateral institutions that organized the World Conference on The annual EFA Global Education for All in 1990 remain the key international Monitoring Report stakeholders in the EFA movement: UNESCO, UNDP, (GMR) is the world’s UNFPA, UNICEF and the World Bank. foremost publication on progress towards education for all. It is the Capacity building for EFA work of an independent UNESCO’s Capacity Development for EFA team of researchers, programme (CapEFA) helps countries improve the and produced and effectiveness of their education systems using pooled published by UNESCO. funding from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden Serving as a unique and Switzerland. The Programme is providing extra- policy tool for decision-makers, the Report aims to budgetary support to the Education Sector’s 20 target inform, inkuence and sustain commitment towards countries for education (see box p. 21). EFA, and to urge governments and donors to rise to the challenge of meeting education goals. Each year, it CapEFA works alongside national counterparts to focuses on a specijc theme of particular relevance, for assess their existing strengths, identify the priority example education and armed conkict (2011) or skills areas for action and design strategies for reinforcing development (2012). The Report is funded jointly by essential capacities. UNESCO and multilateral and bilateral agencies, and UNESCO’s Member States identify country and benejts from the expertise of an international advisory regional priorities for the programme themselves, board. with the thematic focus being in line with UNESCO’s education priorities. EFA global partnerships The success of the EFA movement lies in its wide- ranging partnerships, which bring together key stakeholders in national governments, international and regional aid agencies, civil society, the private sector and22
  • Education for global citizenship for Sustainable Development programme, UNESCO aims to make climate change education a central andEducation for global citizenship embraces the ideas of visible part of the international response to climatepeace, tolerance and mutual understanding, human change. The programme works by strengthening therights education and related educational themes. capacity of Member States to provide quality climateIt provides a framework for preventing violence in change education; encouraging innovative teachingschools and promoting intercultural understanding, approaches to integrate this education in schools;inter-faith dialogue, respect for diversity and empathy. and enhancing non-formal education programmesWith partners including its 9,000 Associated Schools, through media, networking and partnerships.UNESCO has developed and tested pedagogical and UNESCO leads the UN Decade of Education forpractical tools for teachers, and encouraged school- Sustainable Development (2005-2014), which seekslevel initiatives. The Organization has produced to mobilize the educational resources of the world toguidelines for the prevention of school violence, and help create a more sustainable future.worked with directors and teachers to adapt them tosocial and cultural contexts. Prevention work includesa manual produced by UNESCO working with the Visions of education beyond 2015Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe As the target date for achieving the EFA goalsand the Council of Europe on issues including anti- approaches, international development partners andSemitism and discrimination against Muslims in think tanks have already begun to articulate neweducation. Educating about the Transatlantic Slave visions for education and learning beyond the 2015Trade, the Holocaust and other forms of genocide targets set by the EFA movement.aims to help students be more vigilant about violationsof human rights. UNESCO continues to play a major UNESCO, as an international laboratory of ideas,role in the implementation of the World Programme is taking part in this process by mobilizing globalfor Human Rights Education. knowledge and forward-looking research to identify, understand, and anticipate the challenges for the future of education in an increasingly complex world.Education for sustainabledevelopment Building on its landmark 1972 Learning to Be and 1996 Learning: The Treasure Within reports, UNESCOEducation for Sustainable Development (ESD) is engaged in a process of dejning new paradigmspromotes efforts to rethink educational programmes that can guide thinking on education across the worldand systems in order to create sustainable beyond 2015.societies. Through its Climate Change Education 23
  • Networking and sharing knowledge Education publications The network represents more than 60 per cent of the world’s population and has become a powerful lobby As part of UNESCO’s role as a publishing house, for EFA. the Education Sector produces titles covering all of the Sector’s programmes ranging from toolkits to University Twinning and Networking monographs, global reports and high-level policy The UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme advances documents. They are used by policy-makers, research, training and programme development by education professionals, development agents, building university networks and encouraging inter- university cooperation through the transfer of knowledge students and the general public. UNESCO publishes across borders. The programme has 675  UNESCO in the six ofjcial languages of the Organization as well Chairs and 68 UNITWIN Networks, involving over 795 institutions in 127 countries. It helps to promote as in a range of other languages. North-South and South-South cooperation and capacity development, and serves both as think tank and bridge between the academic world and civil society, local South-South Cooperation in communities, industry and the media. Education UNESCO launched the South-South Cooperation International Bureau of Education Programme for Education in 2007, with the UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education (IBE) is establishment of a South-South Cooperation Fund. a global centre and knowledge base specializing in This is the only fund in the UN System to support curriculum development. It produces the World Data developing countries to meet the EFA goals and on Education (WDE) database, which gives access MDGs. The Fund supports educational exchanges on to more than 160 projles of education systems a South-South basis, as well as triangular cooperation worldwide. The Institute’s Digital Library of National with more developed countries. Education Reports on the Development of Education The E-9 Initiative was launched in 1993 as a is another unparalleled source of information about forum for the nine most highly-populated countries educational trends. The IBE’s journal, Prospects: of the South, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, is India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan, to published jve times a year. discuss and exchange best practices in education.24
  • UNESCO Associated Schools UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Founded in 1953, UNESCO’s Associated Schools Project Network (ASPnet) is one of the largest global networks of The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) schools in the world, with 9,000 educational institutions in 180 countries ranging from pre-school to teacher training promotes lifelong learning policy and practice with a institutions. It acts as a powerful tool to achieve UNESCO’s focus on adult and continuing education, literacy and priorities and increase the Organization’s visibility. non-formal education, as well as alternative learning ASPnet’s priorities are to promote EFA and disseminate examples of quality education in practice, with an opportunities for marginalized groups. UIL addresses emphasis on education for sustainable development, the concerns of all Member States and regions, peace and human rights, and intercultural learning. The providing technical support to enhance lifelong learning network further serves as an international laboratory for new educational practices which reinforce the humanistic, through advocacy, networking, research and capacity- ethical and international dimensions of education. building. Its activities are geared towards achieving the EFA goals and the MDGs, notably in line with the objectives of the International Conference on AdultUNESCO Institute for Statistics Education (CONFINTEA) series, the United NationsThe UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) was Literacy Decade and the UNESCO Literacy Initiative forestablished in 1999 to meet the growing needs Empowerment (LIFE).of UNESCO Member States and the internationalcommunity for high quality statistics in the jelds International Institute forof education, science and technology, culture and Educational Planningcommunication. Based in Canada, the Institute gathers The UNESCO International Institute for Educationalstatistical information to help Member States analyse the Planning (IIEP) is a centre for training and research,efjciency and effectiveness of their programmes and to specialized in educational planning and management.inform their policy decisions. It monitors progress towards The IIEP trains and provides technical support toEducation for All and the education-related Millennium UNESCO Member States to develop robust individualDevelopment Goals through the annual UIS education and institutional capacity. IIEP’s technical assistancesurvey, which covers all education levels and a range of provides direct support to ministries of education so thatissues such as gender parity, teachers and jnancing. they can plan and manage their education systems moreUpdated three times a year, the UIS education database effectively and develop more inclusive education policiesis the most comprehensive in the world, from primary and programmes, including from a gender perspective.school enrolments to tertiary graduation rates, and its The Institute creates knowledge packages on educationdata are used by international, intergovernmental, non- policy and planning techniques. It disseminates andgovernmental and regional organizations, as well as shares information on educational planning, practiceby research institutes, universities and other relevant and management to equip all stakeholders in educationbodies. It is the primary education data source for the with the knowledge they need.UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, the World BankWorld Development Indicators and the UNDP HumanDevelopment Report. 25
  • UNESCO around the world How UNESCO’s Education Sector is structured A global network UNESCO’s Education Sector is led by the Assistant Director-General for Education. It comprises Divisions and Teams at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, seven Education Institutes and Centres, four Regional Bureaux for Education, as well as education staff working in the UNESCO jeld ofjces. There are also seven education Centres established and funded by Member States under the auspices of UNESCO. Headquarters Ofðce of the Assistant Director-General forbEducation Executive Ofðce (EO) EFA Global Partnerships Team (EFA) Education Research and Foresight Team (ERF) EFA Global Monitoring Report Team (GMR) Division for Planning and Development of Education Division for Basic to Higher Division of Education for Peace and Systems (PDE), which also hosts Educationband Learning (BHL) Sustainable Development (PSD) the Secretariat of the International Teacher Task Force for EFA Regional Bureaux for Education Africa: Dakar, Senegal Asia and the Paci c: Bangkok, Thailand Arab States: Beirut, Lebanon Latin America and the Caribbean: Santiago, Chile Field offices by region (as of November 2011) Africa* Bujumbura, Burundi Libreville, Gabon Abuja, Nigeria Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Maputo, Mozambique Accra, Ghana Tanzania Nairobi, Kenya Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Harare, Zimbabwe Windhoek, Namibia Bamako, Mali Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Yaoundé, Cameroon Brazzaville, Republic of Congo Congo * A new eld structure is being implemented in the Africa Region in the 2012-13 biennium26
  • Arab States Europe and North AmericaAmman, Jordan Moscow, Russian FederationCairo, Egypt Venice, ItalyDoha, QatarIraq (based in Amman, Jordan) Latin America and the CaribbeanKhartoum, Sudan Brasilia, BrazilRabat, Morocco Guatemala City, GuatemalaRamallah, Palestinian Territories Havana, Cuba Kingston, JamaicaAsia and the Pacific Lima, PeruAlmaty, Kazakhstan Mexico City, MexicoApia, Samoa Montevideo, UruguayBeijing, China Port-au-Prince, HaitiDhaka, Bangladesh Quito, EcuadorHanoi, Viet Nam San José, Costa RicaIslamabad, PakistanJakarta, Indonesia Two UN liaison officesKabul, Afghanistan Geneva, SwitzerlandKathmandu, Nepal New York, USANew Delhi, IndiaPhnom Penh, CambodiaTashkent, UzbekistanTehran, IranUNESCO Education Institutes (Category I)The International Bureau of Education (IBE), Geneva, Switzerland, The Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE),works to enhance curriculum development and educational content. Moscow, Russian Federation, assists countries in the use ofThe International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), Paris, information and communication technologies in education.France and Buenos Aires, Argentina, helps countries design, plan The International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA),and manage their education systems. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, helps strengthen Africa’s educationalThe UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL), Hamburg, institutions with a focus on teachers.Germany, promotes lifelong learning policy and practice, with a focus The International Institute for Higher Education in Latin Americaon adult education literacy and non-formal education. and the Caribbean (IESALC), Caracas, Venezuela, promotes the development of higher education in the region.UNESCO Education CentreThe International Centre for Technical and Vocational Educationand Training (UNEVOC), Bonn, Germany, works on improvingeducation for the world of work.Centres funded by Member States under the auspices of UNESCO (Category II)International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education International Centre for Girls’ and Women’s Education in Africa(INRULED), Baoding, China (CIEFFA), Ouagadougou, Burkina FasoAsia-Paci c Centre of Education for International Understanding South-East Asian Centre for Lifelong Learning for Sustainable(APCEIU), Seoul, Republic of Korea Development (SEA-CLLSD), Manila, PhilippinesGuidance, Counselling and Youth Development Centre for Africa Regional Centre for Early Childhood Care and Education in the(GCYDCA), Lilongwe, Malawi Arab States (RCECCE), Damascus, Syrian Arab RepublicRegional Centre for Educational Planning (RCEP), Sharjah, UnitedArab Emirates 27
  • More on UNESCO’s work in}education Contact us Education Sector UNESCO 7, place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP France United Nations Educational, Scienti¿c and http://www.unesco.org/education/ Cultural Organization edknowledge@unesco.org Follow us on http://www.youtube.com/user/unesco http://twitter.com/UNESCOnow http://www.facebook.com/pages/United-Nations-Educational-Scientific-and-Cultural- Organization-UNESCO/51626468389 Subscribe to the Education Sector Newsletter, EduInfo http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/resources/online-materials/ newsletters/eduinfo/ UNESDOC Consult publications and documents on education. Most documents can be downloaded free of charge. ▶ http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/resources/online-materials/publications/28
  • Education Statistics The UNESCO Institute for Statistics covers all education levels and addresses key policy issues such as gender parity, teachers and jnancing: ▶ http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Pages/default.aspx for a selection of reports and data from the UIS Progress towards EFA. The Education for All Global Monitoring Report is the world’s foremost publication on progress towards EFA: ▶ http://www.unesco.org/en/education/efareportOrder publicationsOrder our publications from the online bookshop in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic publishedor co-published by UNESCO. These include books, multimedia (DVDs, CD-Roms, VHS videos), periodicals,and scientijc maps for professionals: http://publishing.unesco.org/default.aspxApply for job vacanciesTemporary services (Appointments of Limited Duration and Consultancies) enable the Sector to deal with ashort-term overload of work or to bring in outside expertise as needed. To consult these offers: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/about-us/how-we-work/job-vacancies/ 29
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  • UNESCO’s mission is building peace, eradicating povertyand promoting sustainable development and interculturaldialogue through education, the sciences, culture,communication and information.Education empowers people with the knowledge and skillsto improve themselves. UNESCO aims to make the right toquality education a reality for every child, youth and adult. Education Sector United NationsEducational, Scienti¿c and Cultural Organization