Nadia2

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Nadia2

  1. 1. INFORMATION TO USERS This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI films the text directly from the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from anytype ofcomputerprinter. The quality ofthis reproduction is dependent upon the quality ofthe copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adverselyafreet reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oversize materials (e.g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand comer and continuing from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. Each original is also photographed in one exposure and is included in reduced form at the back ofthe book. Photographs included in the original manuscript have been reproduced xerographically in this copy. Higher quality 6” x 9” black and white photographic prints are available for any photographs or illustrations appearing in this copy for an additional charge. Contact UMI directly to order. UMIA Bell &Howell Information Company 300 NorthZed>Road, Ann Arbor MI 48106-1346 USA 313/761-4700 800/521-0600 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  2. 2. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  3. 3. A SATURDAY YOUTH ARTS PROGRAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRESERVICE ART EDUCATION by Joy Topaz Smith Copyright © Joy Topaz Smith 1996 A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the DEPARTMENT OF ART In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS WITH A MAJOR IN ART EDUCATION In the Graduate College THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 1 9 9 6 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  4. 4. UMI Number: 1383573 Copyright 1996 by Smith, Joy Topaz All rights reserved. UMI Microform 1383573 Copyright 1997, by UMI Company. All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. UMI300 North Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, MI 48103 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  5. 5. 2 STATEMENT BY AUTHOR This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library. Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder. SIGNE APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR This thesis has been approved on the date shown below: Dr. Lynn Galbraith Date Associate Professor of Art Education Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  6. 6. 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank all of my friends who stood by me throughout the researching and writing of this inquiry, especially Sara Pakkala, who was always there to listen and encourage me. I also would like to give a special thanks to the Manzanita ISR team: Gloria Hoyme, Andrea Chadwick, Elizabeth McKindley, Char Cohen and Karen Hill who continually bent over backwards to help me accomplish this goal. Thank you to the wonderful teachers who participated in this study, particularly Caryn Isom, who so graciously gave her time and effort to this project. And to Lou Garard, thank you for trusting in my ability and for sharing with me all of your best teaching secrets. I will use them wisely! Thanks to Mary Jondrow, Colleen Nichols, James Lanier and Paige Vladich for volunteering their time and their resources for this study. I would also like to express my deep appreciation for my two wonderful parents, Paul and Vicki Smith, for whom without none of this would have been possible. Their undying love and support has given me the strength to accomplish more than I ever though possible. Finally, thank you to my committee: Dr. Lynn Galbraith, for her trust, her insight and her constant encouragement; Dr. Elizabeth Garber for her willingness to find time to talk, listen and advise, and Dr. Dwaine Greer, for giving me so many opportunities to take on new challenges and for his eternal words of wisdom. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  7. 7. 4 DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work to the one person who has been there day and night throughout this research endeavor. Robert, you have given me endless hours of patience, countless words of encouragement, and six long years of understanding. Thank you for all of your help these past months and for continuing to love me in spite of it all. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  8. 8. 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................... 8 ABSTRACT.............................................................................................. 9 1. STATEMENT OF INQUIRY................................................................10 Introduction............................................................................................10 Combining Theory and Practice........................................................ 12 Wildcat Art: A Rationale for its Implementation........................ 13 Description of Inquiry...........................................................................15 Program Description................................................................ 15 Personal Involvement................................................................17 Statement of Inquiry.................................................................18 Study Design and Methodology..........................................................20 Significance of the Study..................................................................... 22 Limitations of the Study........................................................................22 Organization of Chapters.................................................................... 23 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................24 Organization of the Chapter............................................................... 24 Introduction........................................................................................... 24 Classroom M anagement..................................................................... 26 Preventive Techniques.............................................................. 28 Reactionary Techniques.......................................................... 31 Curriculum and Lesson Planning.......................................................32 How Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan?....................... 33 What Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan?..................... 33 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE).............................. 34 DBAE: Effects on Teacher Training.......................................36 Community Outreach............................................................................37 Saturday Art Schools................................................................. 37 Advocacy......................................................................................39 Organizational Skills..............................................................................40 Field Experiences....................................................................................43 Student Teaching...................................................................... 44 Reflective Teaching.............................................................................. 47 Strategies for Teaching Art ................................................................ 48 Aesthetics.....................................................................................49 Criticism.......................................................................................50 Art History...................................................................................51 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  9. 9. TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI)................................ 52 Summary of the Literature.................................................................52 3. THE 1995 WILDCAT ART EXPERIENCE..........................................55 Organization of the Chapter...............................................................55 Introduction...........................................................................................55 Methodology..........................................................................................56 Characteristics of the Site and Sample................................. 56 The Method.................................................................................57 Background............................................................................................59 Wildcat Art: A Detailed Description of Its Structure 59 Study Results.........................................................................................66 Pre-experience Questionnaires.............................................. 66 Post-experience Questionnaire.............................................. 69 Conclusions.............................................................................................71 4. CASE STUDY OF #4..............................................................................74 Organization of the Chapter............................................................... 74 Introduction...........................................................................................75 M ethodology..........................................................................................76 Characteristics of the Site and Sample................................. 76 The Method.................................................................................76 Interviews....................................................................................78 Study Limitations.....................................................................79 The Case Study......................................................................................80 Classroom M anagement.........................................................80 Curriculum and Lesson Planning...........................................84 Community Outreach................................................................85 Organizational Skills................................................................. 87 Conclusions.............................................................................................88 5. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.............................. 90 Introduction...........................................................................................90 Im plications...........................................................................................91 Recommendations For Change.........................................................91 Topics for Discussion............................................................... 92 Mandatory Classroom Observations.................................... 93 Development of Committees...................................................94 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  10. 10. 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Conclusion.............................................................................................96 6. APPENDIX A ...........................................................................................97 Questionnaire # 1 ......................................................................98 Questionnaire # 2 ......................................................................98 Questionnaire # 3 ......................................................................99 Questionnaire # 4 ....................................................................100 Pre-experience Interview...................................................... 102 Post-experience Interview...................................................... 106 Final Interview......................................................................... 108 Interview Release Form........................................................108 7. APPENDIX B..........................................................................................112 Public Relations Committee...................................................113 Wildcat Art Site Committee...................................................116 Advertising and Design Committee.................................... 118 Community Outreach and Staff Support Committee 120 8. APPENDIX C ..........................................................................................122 Planning A Discipline-Based Art Lesson............................ 123 Wildcat Art Observer Notes................................................. 127 Wildcat Art Discipline Contract.......................................... 130 Wildcat Art Emergency Form.............................................. 131 Wildcat Art Release Form.................................................... 132 1995 Wildcat Art Brochure................................................... 133 1995 Wildcat Art Flyer...........................................................135 1995 Wildcat Art Information Sheet.................................. 136 9. APPENDIX D..........................................................................................138 10. REFERENCES........................................................................................ 142 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  11. 11. LIST OF TABLES TABLE 3.1, Completed Educational Requirements.......................68 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  12. 12. 9 ABSTRACT A supplemental Saturday Youth Arts Program was examined to determine whether or not its implementation into a preservice art education program better prepared students for student teaching. This work presents two case studies. Data from the first study, which looked at sixteen preservice art teachers, found that (1) students lacked adequate knowledge on how to write discipline-based lesson plans; (2) community outreach was undervalued by students and (3) there was a lack of sufficient preparation time to take on all the variables involved in operating the lab school. The second study followed one of the students into her student teaching to look for professional growth in four areas: (1) classroom management; (2) curriculum and lesson planning; (3) community outreach and (4) organizational skills. Findings indicated that students can achieve high levels of professional growth as a result of this kind of experience, thus they are better prepared for student teaching. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  13. 13. 10 CHAPTER 1 STATEMENT OF INQUIRY Introduction The teaching of art is a multi-dimensional skill that requires the ability to think and act quickly to the rapidly changing dynamics of the art room. In its best form this includes the planning of sequential discipline-based (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987; Greer, 1984), multicultural (Champlin, 1995; Chanda, 1992; Stuhr, Petrovich-Mwaniki, & Wasson, 1992), age-appropriate (Eisner, 1987), creative, novel, interdisciplinary (Champlin, 1995), collaborative (Champlin, 1995; Zimmerman, 1994a), community relevant (Baker, 1990; Day in Goodwin, 1994) and evaluative (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987; Gentile, 1989; Greer, 1984) curriculum that can be modified to meet the needs of all learners in the school. An art teacher must also possess the skills, knowledge and ability needed to communicate curricular ideas and concepts to pupils in ways that create meaningful art experiences. This requires the teacher to be an efficient classroom manager who clearly outlines and reinforces expected behaviors and outcomes for each activity in the lesson. He or she needs well-established classroom procedures for everyday functions like the distribution and the collection of supplies, and to be able to anticipate and prevent potential problems before they start (Susi, 1989,1990a, 1990b, 1996). Added on to these instructional and managerial demands are requests that art teachers engage in: reflective thinking (Pultorak, 1993; Susi, 1995), action-research (Galbraith, 1988; May, 1993) and leadership opportunities (Gupton, 1995; Howey, 1988; Jeffers, 1995). Furthermore, they should be Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  14. 14. 11 advocates for the arts in their community through workshops, presentations and regular art exhibitions. Efland asserts that in order to remain at the top of their field, art educators must be life-long learners, continually keeping abreast of national trends in art education (in Goodwin, 1993). Art teachers also take on various other roles which require highly developed interpersonal skills. An art teacher is constantly working interactively and collaboratively with a variety of people in school settings during activities like district and site committee meetings, faculty presentations, bus duty, parent-teacher conferences, open house, talent shows, plays and other school events. In addition they often become set designers for plays, display coordinators for the library or office bulletin boards, the resident artist who comes into the classroom to help with special projects, and the school’s interior designer. Participation in these kinds of miscellaneous school activities are often perceived as the "what goes without saying" job requirements of art teachers. The expectations that befall art teachers on a daily basis raise many questions about the nature of preservice art teacher education. How can we better prepare preservice art teachers to take on the disparate responsibilities of professionals in our field? Do we provide our preservice students adequate opportunities to integrate university dictated theory with professional practice? More specifically, how do we give them the skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed to teach art effectively? Questions like these reflect a growing interest in the field on the nature of preservice art teacher preparation programs (Galbraith, 1990, 1995b; Zimmerman, 1994a). "Although there is a long and excellent tradition of research in art education, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  15. 15. 12 limited studies exist specifically on preservice art education" (Galbraith, 1990, p. 51). Therefore, comprehensive inquiries into the nature of our preservice programs seem long overdue. In partial response to the request of the National Art Education Association (NAEA) task force on teacher education which calls for research in preservice laboratory and clinical experiences (Galbraith, 1995a), this paper describes the preservice art education program offered at The University of Arizona in Tucson. While degree requirements and general descriptions of course work are discussed, this inquiry looks specifically at a Saturday Youth Arts Program. It was initiated in response to reform trends in preservice teacher education research as well as to satisfy the College of Fine Arts' desire to create outreach programs that help the university build more interactive partnerships with the Tucson community. The Saturday Youth Arts Program, hereafter referred to as Wildcat Art, has since become a vital component of our preservice program. Demonstrated through the findings of this inquiry, the Wildcat Art program helps preservice students begin to form clearer pictures of what art teaching involves and provides them a much needed opportunity to put theory into practice. Combining Theory and Practice Providing meaningful experiences where theory and practice meld in the minds of preservice art teachers is difficult at best. There is however, a common belief that the two can and do interact with one another in the day to day lives of in-service art teachers. Knowing this, how can the interaction between theory and practice best be shown in preservice art programs? Is it Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  16. 16. 13 possible to create more field-based opportunities in the university where theory and practice work together in a mutually interactive relationship? Nadaner (1983) suggests that "teacher education in the university begins with the recognition that practice is always permeated by some theoretical assumptions and that a more deliberate, reflective application of theory can only improve practice" (p. 66). In a program like Wildcat Art, students can begin to see connections between theory and practice when thinking reflectively about their own teaching of lessons or their observed lessons of peers. "Students thus, have the opportunity... to articulate meanings and questions that have immediate significance for them. These questions can then be related in the university to treatments of the same questions by art educators and philosophers" (Nadaner, 1983, p. 68). This is how the Wildcat Art program approaches the unavoidable collision between the relevancy of university-based theory and the everyday realities of art teaching in practice. Wildcat Art: A Rationale for its Implementation Since preservice teachers learn to teach from their experiences of actually being there to watch, interact, and make decisions in the classroom, it seems imperative to provide them these kinds of opportunities during their preservice education (Britzman, cited in Galbraith, 1995b). Realizing this, the University of Arizona, like other institutions1 began the Wildcat Art program. Wildcat Art was designed with the premise that preservice 1 Buffalo State College, City University of New York, East Carolina University, Indiana University, Purdue University, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Penn State & the University of the Pacific, for example, all have either Saturday Art programs or Summer Art programs in place. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  17. 17. 14 teachers in art education needed more hands-on interaction with youth and expanded opportunities to put theory into practice. Its goals are to: (1) Provide expanded field-based opportunities that meet the needs of our preservice art education students. (2) Make valuable connections between the university, the schools and the community. These connections will provide communication that may educate, inform and inspire community members to support art education in the public schools. (3) Provide an opportunity for youth from differing backgrounds and socio-economic status to come together to share creative ideas and artistic concepts. (4) Cultivate the youths' knowledge in the visual arts, including study in each of the four art disciplines of criticism, aesthetics, art history and studio. The hope is that through this broad, multi- media approach, students will deepen their understanding and appreciation of the arts. Because The University of Arizona's Art Education Department is separate from the College of Education, field experiences are difficult to provide for students. Currently, students working toward their B.F.A. in art education have their only required field experience2 through course work taken in the college of education. These experiences are almost exclusively in secondary schools and are not geared toward the specific needs of the preservice art education student receiving certification in grades K-12. Created in the Spring of 1994, Wildcat Art has operated as a three unit class3 offered to both undergraduate and graduate students seeking their teaching certification in art. The class takes students through the process of setting up a lab school including advertising and recruiting youth, finding 2 One semester, consisting of thirty hours of observation at one school site. 3 Wildcat Art is listed in the University of Arizona's general catalogue as ARE 338L: Secondary School Art, and is convened with the graduate course ARE 558L: Theories of Curriculum and Instruction in Art. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  18. 18. 15 adequate space to house art classes on The University of Arizona campus, ordering, inventorying and distributing supplies, writing age appropriate curriculum and comprehensive discipline-based lesson plans, establishing fair and consistent classroom management plans for each age level and finally, working collaboratively with their peers in teams to create, teach and evaluate their lessons. University students are expected to take the course as a culmination of their preservice course work. This ensures that they have taken the minimum of nine credits of secondary education course work which provides a basic knowledge of general teaching pedagogy, basic classroom management techniques, lesson and unit planning, as well as educational psychology and the nature and functions of schools in society.4 In addition, they are expected to have completed most of their studio requirements and nearly twenty credits in art education. Description of Inquiry Program Description The program is led and coordinated by a master teacher who has been an art specialist in the Tucson area for fifteen years. She has designed the course content from its inception and has worked in collaboration with the faculty of the Art Education Department to develop a community outreach program that meets the needs of the College of Fine Arts, the Art Education Department's faculty and students, Tucson area youth and the greater Tucson 4 These courses are offered in the college of education and are listed in the course catalog as TTE 300: Classroom Processes and Instruction, EDP 310: Learning in Schools and EDUC 350: Schooling in America. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  19. 19. 16 community. It has continued to grow, and in its third year became a money making endeavor for the department. Wildcat Art offers its patrons comprehensive discipline-based instruction in the visual arts using a variety of two-dimensional and three- dimensional media. Every lesson taught has instructional time allocated for each of the four disciplines of art history, criticism, aesthetics and studio. The youth are broken up into three age groups for instruction. These groups are referred to as being either Primary (grades 1-3), Intermediate (grades 4-7), or Secondary (grades 8-12). Each age group has a separate curriculum to allow for the differing needs of those who are more mature or more highly skilled. The program, currently offered only during the Spring semester, consists of 11 two and one-half hour lessons on Saturday mornings. This permits each grade level 4 five hour lessons and 2 shorter two and one-half hour lessons. One of the two short lessons is placed in the middle of spring semester during the University's spring break, and the other is located at the end of the program. This provides the preservice teachers one off weekend for spring break. The final Saturday is reserved for a student art exhibition which displays all the artwork produced in the ten weeks of Wildcat Art. The classes are instructed by approximately twenty preservice art teachers. During the planning of the program near the beginning of the spring semester, the preservice students break up into smaller groups of three to form teaching teams. These teams work collaboratively to develop and teach three art lessons; one art lesson to each of the three grade levels. On Saturdays when teams are not teaching, they are required to observe, evaluate and assist their peers teach their lessons. This concentration of preservice Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  20. 20. 17 teachers in each grade level's class provides pupils enrolled in Wildcat Art a low student-teacher ratio; roughly 6:1. Personal Involvement I became involved with Wildcat Art as an undergraduate in the program’s first year. I felt that as a result of the Wildcat Art experience, I went into student teaching with six fully developed lesson plans which included visual displays, supply lists, notes on the design and layout of supply distribution, charts for time management and activity sequencing, and I had the experience of having already pre-taught the lessons. In addition, I had an image of the nature and demands of teaching art and through reflection upon my early teaching experiences, I knew specific areas I wanted to develop and refine while student teaching. When I came back to the department the next year as a graduate student, I again became involved with the Wildcat Art program. The second year I worked closely with the instructor as the Assistant Director of Wildcat Art. From this position, I took on a variety of responsibilities which included, but were not limited to: (1) facilitating classroom discussions; (2) evaluating teaching using Madeline Hunter's Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI); (3) providing comprehensive feedback of lessons taught; (4) giving emotional support to students enrolled in the course; (5) designing the Wildcat Art logo and distribution materials and (6) supervising and overseeing the daily operations of the lab school including student drop-off and pick-up, the health room, staff lounge, three classrooms and a culminating student art exhibition. Other components of my role as Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  21. 21. 18 Assistant Director involved assisting preservice teachers with discipline issues, addressing parental questions and concerns and brainstorming with teaching teams to find solutions for logistical problems with space, supplies an d /o r technology. Statement of Inquiry My appreciation of the skills and practical knowledge I learned as a result of Wildcat Art inspired me to further investigate its installation in our art education program. Did it help to better prepare preservice students for their student teaching experience; If so, how? Did it aid in the translation of theory into practice by providing preservice teachers an image of discipline- based art teaching? Or was it only a means through which preservice teachers gained practical experience? What skills, if any, did it develop in preservice art education students? Specifically, did Wildcat Art increase preservice teachers' professional knowledge and competence in the areas of: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills? If relative professional growth in the four areas occurred, did that growth continue or retard during student teaching? Finally, has the installation of the Wildcat Art field-experience into our preservice art teacher education program resulted in better prepared, more competent, and highly skilled professionals? As beginning art teachers, are our graduates more likely to reach higher levels of professional development (Kagan, 1992) earlier than they might have otherwise? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  22. 22. 19 In choosing to focus my research around the areas of: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills, I discovered more questions which served to further define each area of inquiry. A brief list of questions for each area is listed below. Often, answers to the questions in any category could provide insight into the other three areas: Classroom Management Was the organization of the lesson and the supplies conducive to creating an environment that discouraged discipline problems? What kind of motivation was used to engage pupils in the content or ideas being taught? Did art education students develop their own management style? Curriculum and Lesson Planning Did lessons build upon prior learning? Were lessons discipline-based? Were activities and discussions relevant to the lesson’s objectives? Did pupils have an understanding of what it was that they were learning? Were lessons based on an established curriculum? How did individual lessons fit within a larger curriculum? Community Involvement In what ways did preservice students communicate with parents to share ideas, inform them of the lesson objectives an d /o r discuss discipline issues? Has Wildcat Art helped to foster a better relationship between The University of Arizona's preservice art teachers and the community? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  23. 23. 20 Organizational Skills Was time used effectively? How much time was given to each of the particular disciplines? Were transitions between activities in the lesson smooth and efficient? How prepared was the teacher to teach the lesson? Seeking answers to these and other questions helped to create an accurate image of Wildcat Art's place in our preservice art teacher preparation program and how effective it has been in preparing art teachers to meet the many demands of public school art education. Study Design and Methodology To attain some basic information about the students in the class, I distributed a series of three pre-experience questionnaires and one final post­ experience questionnaire to the class enrolled in the Spring of 1995 (see Appendix A for questionnaires). These helped me to better assess the preservice students’ diverse interests and learning experiences. After spending four weeks with the students, I selected5 four of the seven traditional undergraduate students in which to observe and measure professional growth in the each four areas discussed earlier: (1) Classroom Management, (2) Organizational Skills, (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills. For each subject of study, #1, #2, #3 and # 4 ,1gathered materials that would enable me to construct a clear picture of their pedagogical knowledge, teaching experience and preconceived beliefs of effective art education in practice. My data consisted of each subject's class 5 The subjects were selected based on my personal assessment of their commitment to the program and willingness to participate in a research study. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  24. 24. 21 notes and required journals,6 my own personal notes made while observing the subjects teaching in each of the three grade levels, the observation notes of the program Director and the required evaluation forms of peers who viewed the lesson. I then collected from each subject the lesson plan and related instructional materials for each lesson observed. In addition, I set up informal pre- and post-experience interviews7 to more thoroughly investigate my four areas of interest. The pre-experience interview attempted to assess their preconceptions about the experience, their ideas about DBAE, their level of education and their individual teaching philosophies. The post-experience interview asked the subjects to reflect on the experience and to look for change in their beliefs or ideologies. From the four case studies, I selected one student, hereafter referred to as #4, to follow through her student teaching experience.8 I observed her four times during her student teaching and on the final visit to the site, a video cassette recording of her instruction was made. To support the data collected on her teaching in the classroom, I was given copies of her lesson plans and her personal notes. Contact was made with the university student teacher supervisor who, upon request, made notes during observations with special attention to #4's skills in each of the four study areas. I also sat in on one post-observational feedback session between the university supervisor and #4 in which #4 was asked reflective questions concerning her perceived teaching strengths and possible areas for refinement. The issues from the prior 6Journals were kept as a part of course requirements up through the ninth week of classes, when the instructor no longer thought they were an essential component to the art education student's education. 7 Interview questions can be found in Appendix B. 8 #4 conducted the student teaching component of her certification requirements in the Spring of 1996. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  25. 25. 22 W ildcat Art experience and the student teaching experience were brought together in a final interview conducted immediately after the completion of #4's student teaching assignment. I asked questions that looked for relative professional growth and changes in her beliefs, attitudes and preconceptions in each of the four areas of interest. Significance of the Study Inquiries into the nature of Saturday Youth Arts Programs are rare. An investigation of their possible benefits to students and departments could help pave the way for more universities to provide lab school experiences for their students. Specifically, it provides The University of Arizona's Art Education Department insight into how the Wildcat Art program functions w ithin its larger art education curriculum, and provides an opportunity to further refine its overall program. An examination such as this addresses several questions: Can a supplemental program aid in the development of the professional growth in preservice art teachers? Are students better prepared for their student teaching experience as a result of the Wildcat Art program? Does the program effectively provide university students the opportunity to put theory into practice? Why or why not? W hat areas of the program need refinement? Answers to these questions will provide a variety of implications for art teacher preparation. Limitations of the Study The study is limited in its generalizations. It has been conducted at one southwestern university and discusses only two case studies which cannot be Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  26. 26. 23 considered inclusive of all students attending this university or any university since no two experiences can be considered the same. In addition, there is the possibility of my own bias. My close affiliation with the program may have altered my objectivity when reviewing the data. It is possible that another researcher might have interpreted the same information differently than what is presented here. However, I made an effort to collect data from a variety of sources so that my personal notes were not the only place from which assumptions and generalizations were made. Organization of Chapters Chapter 2 reviews the current literature in the areas of: Classroom Management, Curriculum and Lesson Planning, Community Outreach, Organizational Skills, Field Experiences, Reflective Teaching and Strategies for Teaching Art. Chapter 3 further describes the Wildcat Art program and analyzes the research conducted through four questionnaires distributed to the Spring 1995 participants. Chapter 4 presents the case study of #4 and analyzes data collected during both her Wildcat Art and student teaching experiences. Chapter 5 discusses the implications of the findings in Chapters 3 and 4 on preservice teacher education and makes recommendations for change in the implementation and execution of future Wildcat Art sessions. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  27. 27. 24 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF CURRENT LITERATURE Organization of Chapter This chapter is intended to provide a comprehensive look into the research and literature that most directly relates to, influences or supports the concerns of this inquiry into Saturday school art programs. The chapter begins with a discussion on reform efforts for art teacher education. It then presents a literature review in each of the four areas central to this inquiry. These are: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach and (4) Organizational Skills. Since this inquiry focuses on the benefits of implementing a Saturday Youth Arts Program to better prepare student teachers, a separate review was done on field experiences. Finally, this review would not be complete if it did not also discuss reflective teaching practices and various strategies for teaching art. Through an examination of the research conducted in these areas, a better understanding of the interests and concerns of this inquiry will be achieved. Introduction One goal of art education departments who are involved in teacher training is to more effectively prepare their preservice teachers for the student teaching component of their education. To ensure the quality of teacher preparation programs, demands for reform have been voiced. Recently, Hutchens (1995) organized a set of four propositions for improving teacher preparation. These were: (1) the creation of a national association of Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  28. 28. 25 discipline-based art education programs; (2) stronger support for art education in our university governing boards and our state departments of education through "building a national corporate and governmental constituency for art education reform efforts" (Hutchens, 1995, p. 15); (3) more field-based research by faculty and doctoral students and (4) abolishment of departmental elitism in Colleges of Fine Arts so that faculty from art education, art history and studio collaborate, rather than isolate, their efforts to better prepare preservice art teachers. Meeting these goals will position art teacher preparation programs as a united front and help to overcome current deficiencies in individual universities. At a local level, art teacher educators within the institutions need to develop collaborative relationships with in-service professionals in their communities. These community-based relationships combined with improved communication between faculty in the College of Fine Arts and the College of Education could create expanded educational opportunities for preservice art teachers. However, before beneficial changes can occur, all those involved in the preparation of preservice art teachers need to come to a consensus on "...whether or not the 'education' in art education is as important as the 'art' in art education" (Champlin, 1995, p. 17). I believe faculty members who educate, train and encourage our preservice teachers, should bear in mind that "...teacher and education go hand-in-hand" when making their decision (Champlin, 1995; p. 17). Considering these requests for change, one role for art teacher educators could be to provide students opportunities to combine their knowledge in both art and education through course work offered specifically Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  29. 29. 26 in the practical application of educational theory. This does not mean to imply that the addition of one or two methods courses into the curriculum can solely accomplish all the challenges set forth in calls for reform. However, supplemental courses, like Wildcat Art, can act as agents for change in art teacher preparation programs. To understand Wildcat Art's complex orientation and potential rewards to The University of Arizona's preservice art education program, I looked to the literature to discover what had been done in related areas. Due to the relatively limited resource base in art education, I had to expand my investigation to include literature in general education. This proved to be an adequate source of information for my inquiry since many interests in general education research are broad-based and inclusive of teaching in the visual arts. In this review I use research in general literature to provide background and support in each content area, yet focus more specifically on art education research when possible. As listed earlier, the seven subjects of this review are: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach; (4) Organizational Skills; (5) Field Experiences; (6) Teacher Evaluation and (7) Strategies for Teaching Art. While the literature often overlaps from one area to another, I emphasize each as a separate unit in order to present a cohesive body of research. Classroom Management Many challenges present themselves to beginning teachers like those enrolled in Wildcat Art, but their greatest is classroom management (Arends, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  30. 30. 27 1991; Good and Brophy, 1987; Jones & Vesilind, 1995). This is because the classroom environment is made up of a variety of complicated, immediate and simultaneous interactions between the teacher, the students and instructional materials in the room. The complexity of teaching is often overwhelming for beginning teachers since their success and reputation as teachers depends on their ability to control their environment (Jones & Vesilind, 1995). A study conducted by Ellingson (1991) examined how teacher educators prepare their preservice teachers to meet the managerial demands of teaching. Through her research, Ellingson determined that educating preservice teachers about classroom management from a generic frame of reference, rather than one that was discipline specific, did not make a significant difference in their application of classroom management strategies during student teaching. In a related study, Stockrodd (1990) looked at six middle-school art teachers to determine what kind of instruction dominated art education at that level. While there were disparities among the teachers in the amount of time they spent in managerial, appraisal and substantive instruction, Stockrocki found that all six engaged in appraisal instruction the most. Appraisal instruction is defined as a process of monitoring student performance and give encouragement or suggestions for improvement (Sevigny, in Stockrocki, 1990). The second highest form of instruction was managerial in which teachers control both class functions and student behavior (Stockrocki, 1990). Finally, the teaching of art content, substantive instruction, was used the least. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  31. 31. 28 While vast amounts of research have been conducted on classroom management in general education, there is considerably less which is specific to art education. However, many of the strategies and suggestions m ade in general education are easily transferred to the specific needs of art teachers. This section is focused on a discussion of both preventative techniques teachers can employ to limit discipline issues in the classroom and proven strategies for how to stop discipline issues once they have begun. Preventive Techniques Concerns about classroom management have prompted research on how effective art educators organize their lessons and environments to limit management issues (Araca, 1990; Susi, 1989,1990a, 1990b, 1996). Susi (1989, 1990a, 1990b, 1996) has focused his research on the physical setting of the classroom. He (1990a) argued that because classroom environments are so familiar they are often overlooked as a resource that is easily manipulated to prevent potential problems. His studies on effective teachers' use of classroom space found that effective teachers use their space to encourage time on-task behavior. They did this by carefully planning their environment, reviewing their expectations and reinforcing correct procedures (Evertson, Emmer & Anderson; Evertson & Emmer in Susi, 1989). When planning the organization of a classroom space, Susi (1990a) encourages teachers to keep in mind that much like the creation of a work of art, the layout of a classroom for a given instructional function will most likely result from a process of experimentation that involves an awareness of the environmental variables involved, the behavior patterns of the students, and the nature of the activity taking place.... Well planned classroom spaces Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  32. 32. 29 tend to be dynamic, fluid environments that move and change in patterns that reflect the characteristics of a lesson (pp. 95 & 97). However, no single layout will meet the needs of all aspects of an art lesson (Susi, 1990a, 1990b). The teacher must find one that best meets his or her instructional needs. In a later work, Susi (1996) outlined six categories for improving student behavior and overall classroom management. These were: (1) thorough preparation for the school year; (2) careful planning of the classroom space; (3) constant monitoring of student behavior; (4) catching disruptions before they begin; (5) quickly eliminating disruptions when they occur and (6) using a pre-planned approach when dealing with misbehavior. Adherence to these guidelines can create behavior-minded teachers that anticipate potential problems and stop them before they start (Susi, 1996). General education research adds to this work on classroom space by presenting preventive strategies that effective teachers use during instruction. Preservice art teachers at The University of Arizona use the Arends (1991) text Learning to Teach to learn about basic classroom management strategies and research. Therefore, it seems pertinent to use this resource to identify the preventive techniques Wildcat Art participants were familiar with and knowledgeable about. Arends describes the following preventive strategies: (1) Establish rules and procedures for student movement, student talk and downtime; (2) teach the rules and make them routine; (3) pace lessons appropriately and maintain momentum; (4) plan for the opening and closing of class as well as transitions between activities; (5) use a cue or signaling Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  33. 33. 30 system to alert students of any changes in the activity and (6) promote student accountability.9 Other issues that affect classroom discipline are consistent use of positive reinforcement (Brophy & Good, 1987, Johnson, 1988a; Quick, 1993) and motivation (Arends, 1991; Brophy & Good, 1987; Johnson, 1988a). Each has its own set of strategies that when used correctly set up preventive environments. Through recognizing and reinforcing students for their good behavior, success on assignments and appropriate contributions to class discussions, teachers can set up positive classroom climates where students receive attention for their accomplishments rather than their inappropriate "attention-getting" behaviors (Brophy & Good, 1987). However, Brophy and Good warn that not all students are motivated by praise and that too much positive reinforcement can create situations in which children are motivated only if external rewards are promised. Another factor in the creation of preventive environments relies on how teachers motivate their students to engage in learning. Teachers can motivate students by creating activities that ensure student success (Brophy & Good, 1987), varying the instructional format or teaching environment (Brophy & Good, 1987; Quick, 1993) or making the learning meaningful to students by relating it to their daily lives (Brophy & Good, 1987; Johnson, 1988a). Teacher attitudes can also create atmospheres that discourage inappropriate behavior. To create preventive environments teachers must: (1) respect and care for their students; (2) be consistent in their behavior so that students see them as credible; (3) assume responsibility for their students’ 9 For further definition of each strategy see Arends (1991), pp. 164-170. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  34. 34. 31 knowledge acquisition; (4) value education and expect their students to feel the same way and (5) communicate these beliefs to their students and model them in their behavior (Brophy & Good, 1987). Reactionary Strategies Little has been written in art education regarding reactionary strategies to managerial issues.10 Therefore, I shall rely on what I found in general education research. Arends (1991) tackled issues of classroom management by presenting a variety of research findings on effective teaching. "This line of research [recitation] supports the image of the teacher as 'ringmaster' (Smith & Geoffrey, 1968), involved in monitoring classes through the exhibition of behaviors such as withitness [and] overlapping" (Jones & Vesilind, 1995, p. 314).11 Other reactionary strategies described by Arends (1991) are quick response time to inappropriate behavior (Quick, 1993) and the enforcement of logical consequences (Dreikurs in Arends, 1991). Arends also advocates Evertson and Emmer's guidelines for managing inappropriate behavior: (1) maintain eye contact with student until mis-behavior stops and appropriate behavior returns; (2) remind the student of the correct behavior or rule and have the student identify it as well and (3) impose the necessary consequences consistently. 10 Reactionary is defined as teacher responses to behavior once it has begun. 11 In 1970, Kounin (cited in Arends) defined eight different variables that teachers exhibited while managing groups. Two of these were: (1) withitness—the teacher's awareness of his or her environment to the extent that he or she is able to catch misbehavior quickly and correctly and (2) overlapping—the teacher’s ability to do more than one thing at a time (e.g. stopping misbehavior without disrupting the lesson's momentum). For more information on Kounin’s studies see: Kounin, J.S. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  35. 35. 32 Brophy & Good (1987) recommend ignoring minor misbehavior. If it becomes impossible to do so, then a teacher should maintain eye contact with misbehaving student until he or she has understood the message. Another strategy Brophy & Good advocate is touching the disruptive student's shoulder and gesturing the appropriate behavior. Physical proximity is also known to be effective in eliminating minor misbehavior, as is use of a disruptive student's name during instruction to regain their attention (Brophy & Good, 1987; Quick, 1993). Additionally, Quick (1993) warrants the use of time-out and making a lesson out of the behavior as potential solutions for minor problems. In light of this research it is important to remember that while preservice students may have knowledge of these studies and their finding, they may not be able to recall them immediately. They need opportunities which enable them to try different techniques in order to determine those that work best for them (Quick, 1993). As the preservice art teachers in Wildcat Art went through the program, their managerial repertoire grew with their experience teaching and evaluating lessons. Curriculum and Lesson Planning The planning process as described in general education literature focused on how to plan effective lessons, while research in art education looked specifically at what to plan. Therefore, the review first looks broadly at general education findings then narrows its focus to discipline-based art education and its influence on instructional planning. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  36. 36. 33 How Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan? In the 1970’s Taylor12 (in Good & Brophy, 1987) found that when experienced teachers planned their lessons they focused first on the lesson's subject matter, then on the corresponding activities. Often their plans neglected to include specific objectives or tools for evaluation. In a later study, Borko and Niles (in Brophy & Good, 1987) found that preservice teachers could learn from Taylor's findings. Borko and Niles concluded that while experienced teachers may not need to, beginning teachers should write comprehensive lesson plans which include thoughtful objectives and multiple evaluation procedures in addition to content and related activities. Comprehensive planning for inexperienced teachers has also been recommended by Brophy and Good (1987). They found that initial planning helps beginning teachers identify their goals and examine their thought processes (Brophy and Good, 1987). Brophy and Good (1987) argue that over­ planning is necessary since it provides preservice teachers a feeling of confidence and builds a solid foundation for instruction. What Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan? Bemey (1990) stated that an art curriculum should reflect "the importance of the fine arts to learning, the centrality of art to the development of an individual's uniqueness within a unified society and the disciplinary nature of the study of art" (Parrott dted in Bemey, 1990, p. 31). These ideas correspond to the prevailing theory in art education known as discipline-based art education or DBAE. 12 Taylor's studies also discovered that most teacher's planned around their pupil’s needs, interests and abilities (cited in Good & Brophy, 1987). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  37. 37. 34 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) In 1979, the National Art Education Association (NAEA) defined a quality art teacher preparation program as one that stresses an appreciative component, including criticism, a studio component and an art history component (Rogers & Brogdon, 1990). These guidelines organized ideas that had been surfacing in art education literature since the sixties. Five years after the NAEA came out with its report, Greer (1984) wrote Discipline-Based Art Education: Approaching Art as a Subject of Study. It was in this landm ark work that Greer brought together art education's disparate ideas into a coherent theory he titled discipline-based art education (DBAE). A discipline-based approach to the organization of a visual arts curriculum includes content from the disciplines of aesthetics, criticism, art history, and production (Clark, Day and Greer, 1987; Greer, 1984). In a discipline-based approach, "...the four disciplines are taught interactively to build an increasingly developed understanding and enlightened appreciation of works of art" (Greer, 1987, p. 227). As its premise, discipline-based art education, as a part of general education, aims to develop mature students who are comfortable and familiar with major aspects of the disciplines of art and who are able to express ideas with art media, who read about and criticize art, who are aware of art history, and who have a basic understanding of issues in aesthetics. The general goal of DBAE is a developed understanding of the visual arts for all students (Clark, Day, & Greer, 1987, p. 138). In a later article Greer (1987) briefly defined each discipline. He wrote that study in aesthetics leads students to reflect on their "experiences and understandings of art" (Greer, 1987, p. 229), while criticism examines the meaning of works of art and makes value judgments based on those Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  38. 38. 35 conclusions. Art historical investigations encourage pupils to relate works of art to larger historical, social and cultural phenomena. Finally, activities in production allow students to develop their expressive skill in the various art media. Despite its accepted integration into preservice preparation programs and professional practice, DBAE has met considerable resistance from scholars in the field. Moorman (1989) summarized many of these criticisms in her article The Great Art Education Debate, but specifically she raised questions regarding DBAE's exclusion of non-western, decorative and folk arts and its decidedly male outlook. In addition, Moorman brought forth an argument originated by Philip Yenawine against aesthetic scanning, a largely advocated approach to teaching the discipline of art criticism. Yenawine argued that "you can scan a Constable, but you can't scan Islamic art—or any of the decorative traditions. And a term like 'expressive qualities' is not very useful if you're talking about a Botticelli or any art which has nothing to do with personal expression" (dted in Moorman, 1989, p. 130). In response to these and other attacks aimed at DBAE, its original premise has altered considerably since its first definition by Greer (1984). DBAE now: seems to define art more broadly, includes art of other cultures, seems to no longer promote only the 100 canons of art made by dead white Euro-American makes, seems to embrace the 'popular arts' as worthy of serious consideration, no longer equates aesthetics with aesthetic experiences and responses, realizes the limitations of aesthetic scanning, acknowledges that art has social content as well as form, and is tolerant of contributions of feminist scholars. (Greer, 1987, p. 94). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  39. 39. 36 DBAE: Effects on Teacher Training With the development of a new paradigm for art education, the former philosophy for teaching art has gradually disbanded. Over the past ten years, DBAE has established itself as the dominant theory in the field. This has persuaded colleges and universities to re-evaluate their teacher preparation curriculum to include the tenets of DBAE (Feinstein, 1989; Rogers & Brogdon, 1990). They have had to add courses in aesthetics and criticism, as well as expand their art history and studio offerings to ensure that their preservice teachers will have the knowledge necessary to enforce a discipline-based curriculum in their schools. A discipline-based curriculum in higher education has proved to be a duel challenge for institutions in that (1) colleges and universities must re­ structure their programs to find time, funding, and knowledgeable faculty to teach courses in each of the four disciplines and (2) those courses must offer both content and teaching strategies specific to that discipline. Feinstein (1989) best describes the complexities of the latter in her statement "we cannot presume that students can take a course in aesthetics, for example, and by themselves figure out how to teach it to youngsters" (p. 8). If we assume that institutions can meet these conditions, then it seems necessary to provide students an opportunity to put their knowledge into practice. Even though the discipline-based theory is well established in higher education, it has yet to become the dominant practice in public schools. Part of this problem may lie in preservice teachers' assumptions about what art looks like in the classroom. Another contributor may be that up until the current decade the curriculum of most fine art departments was Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  40. 40. 37 dictated by a "creative self-expression" approach to art education (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987). This theory, fueled by modernist ideology, placed its emphasis on activities which develop a child's assumed inherent creativity (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987). The remnants of a creative self-expression based curriculum can still be seen in that many preservice programs in art education focus the bulk of certification and degree requirements on broad based studio experiences with intense study in two or three studio areas. With much of their own art education from a creative self-expression model, many preservice teachers attain their assumptions of how to teach art based on their experiences learning art (Hutchens, 1995). These assumed ideals remain intact even after courses in art education theory and pedagogical practices. To meet this challenge, Galbraith (1995b) suggests that institutions find ways to develop within preservice teachers an image of what art teaching looks like. Implementation of a program like Wildcat Art into the curriculum may be a viable solution. Community Outreach Saturday Art Schools Saturday art schools have a substantial history. Their early origins began in Canada with Arthur Lismer’s Halifax Saturday School of the 1880’s and the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design which conducted Saturday Morning Art Classes for Children from 1932 through the present day (Pearse & Soucy, 1987). Traditionally, Saturday arts schools served two purposes, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  41. 41. 38 these were: (1) to provide art programs for children and (2) to create an opportunity for preservice teachers to practice teaching (Pearse & Soucy, 1987). In fitting with tradition, contemporary Saturday schools provide specific benefits not only to the community members involved, but also to the art education students that teach them. First, they help university students ’'become familiar with the challenges of teaching art in the public schools" through dialogue with peers and careful observation (Arnold, 1994, p. 50). Secondly, they enable preservice art teachers to recognize that children are "unique beings" who respond to situations in a variety of ways (Ryder, 1994). Finally, working with the community encourages preservice teachers to "bridge the gap between the schools [the university] and the community at large by finding, restoring and using those bridges that are there" (Boyer, cited in Arnold, 1994, p. 51). While many universities claim Saturday arts programs in their preservice art education curriculum (Zimmerman, 1994a), very little has been written on how these programs are constructed within in their respective communities. To meet community needs, Saturday schools seem to build programs for one of three community populations: (1) disadvantaged or educationally challenged students (Pisano, 1974; Ryder, 1994); (2) gifted and talented youth (Clark & Zimmerman, 1987; Feldhusen & Sokol, 1982; Gregory, 1982) or (3) a combination of the two (Arnold, 1994; Walker, 1980). Wildcat Art best fits into the third category, though it could be argued that it is oriented more towards a gifted and talented population than not. Cooperative community relationships between students in university and students in the public schools can also help build support for the arts as a Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  42. 42. 39 part of a basic education. Walker observed that "The joy of discovery and the challenge of problem solving contributed effectively to [the youth's] overall experiences and, if but for a little while, art was as im portant, involving and as basic as any other subject available in the educational arena (Walker, 1980, p. 69). If students leave supplemental programs with excitement and renewed interests art learning, their parents may become inspired by their child's wonder and curiosity and become advocates for arts in the schools. In- service art specialists could potentially feed off of this excitement and use it to promote community support for their own programs. Advocacy An omnipresent need in art education is one of public support for visual arts education as a necessary component of our children's basic education. Advocacy is considered to be the best weapon art teachers can use to fight the marginality of the arts in education. As practicing art specialists, preservice teachers will have to constantly battle a public who sees art education as unnecessary or ornamental (Eisner, 1987). To face these challenges and win, they need to be taught community building strategies which will help them justify their programs to students, their parents and community members. While those traditionally in the arts are usually unwilling to lobby for change, McGoff (1988) argues that art teachers have a professional responsibility to be vocal advocates for art education in the schools. Advocacy art education can be done in a variety of ways. Some small- scale ideas involve the organization of student displays, participation in Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  43. 43. 40 community exhibitions, formulation of monthly art newsletters which discuss program goals and the organization of a art support group that is made up of interested parents who are willing to be educated about the visual arts' role in education. These kinds of small-scale advocacy projects can provide art specialists tremendous community support when it comes time for the school board to determine what programs need to be cut or substantially reduced. If art teachers work hard to involve students, parents and the community into their programs, they are far less likely to be eliminated when budgets are limited. Colleges and universities need to prepare preservice art teachers for these ongoing challenges by providing them the tools and the knowledge to be leaders in their schools and school districts (Degge, 1987; Dunn, 1992). One way to do this is to provide opportunities for them to work with and meet parents and community members through outreach programs. These kinds of experiences often prove to be beneficial for all involved. There is a large demand in communities for art instruction (Degge, 1987). While much of the need is for adult art instruction, there is significant community interest in similar programs for youth. It was in response to both a community need and an educational one that The University of Arizona organized and implemented the Wildcat Art Saturday Youth Arts Program. Organizational Skills Time has become an increasing dilemma in art education (McGoff, 1988). Time, or more specifically, lack of time for teaching the visual arts is a result of the diminutive value that is placed on it by society. Eisner (1987) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  44. 44. 41 provided a possible reason for the minimal attention the arts receive in general education when he stated that "intellect is regarded as something that is best cultivated through subjects like mathematics and physics... since the school's first obligations are to cultivate intellect, and since the arts are believed to deal with emotions, the arts in this view are ornamental" (p. 11). This results in the perception of art as "fun", and separate from those activities which require cognitive exercise. Because of the limited time art educators have to teach the visual arts to their pupils, it should be viewed as a precious commodity and used effectively. Time based research is complex in that it describes many items ranging from student specific behaviors like engaged time or time-on-task, to teacher controlled issues like planned time, procedural time, or allocated time.13 Time effectiveness is directly related to issues of teacher effectiveness in that the teacher must have a good grasp on the needs of his or her students, be aware of environmental conditions which could effect the lesson's outcomes, have sound management structures and utilize relevant activities that engage students in their learning (Arends, 1991). Specific research in art education on time organization and teaching effectiveness confirmed that two out of the four variables that influence quality of instruction are organizationally specific (Johnson, 1989). These were the planning component and the presentation sequence. Johnson described the planning component as the activity a teacher engages in when focusing on the main concepts of the lesson. During this time they need to find diverse ways to provide students explanations and invent innovative 13 For further description, please see Arends (1991), p. 70. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  45. 45. 42 activities with which guide them through the new material. Similarly, the planning component involved thought on how to help students construct their own knowledge of the material. When sequencing lessons, Johnson advocated that teachers revisit prior learning and relate its usefulness to the acquisition of new knowledge or skills. Her research verified that careful planning involves "the organization of information into a coherent sequence, the use of an adequate number of illustrations or examples, precision and concreteness of expression, keeping in touch with students' comprehension and providing enough practice to ensure mastery" (Evertson, Emmer, Clements, Sanford and Worsham, dted in Johnson, 1989, np). Also important to this study is the organization of the curriculum structure to include the four disciplines. Eisner (1987) presented four possible curricular structures for the organization of discipline-based content in an elementary classroom. These were: (1) setting aside a set time each week for instruction in a particular discipline; (2) designing an integrated structure which combines art with another subject; (3) creating areas in the school or classroom where students can engage on independent projects which develop their knowledge in art and (4) a combination of the first three structures. Other possible structures for the organization of the disciplines have been described by Erickson and Katter (1988). These were: (1) co-equity—each discipline is taught separately from the others; (2) assimilation—components lose their individual identity and become fragmented and (3) amalgamation or consolidation—"components work together in a variety of emphases, all the while maintaining their individual identities" (np). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  46. 46. 43 For most beginning teachers it is both a blessing and a curse that there is no set recipe for discipline-based instruction. Decisions like how much time to devote to each discipline, in which order should the disciplines be taught, and how much emphasis to place on the disciplines at each grade level is left up to the teacher's professional judgment (Eisner, 1987). Based on my own experience, discipline-based instruction in the secondary schools is most often organized in a structure similar to Erickson and Katter's assimilation model (1988). It was also the most used organizational method of the Wildcat Art participants at all three grade levels. Field Experiences Early field experiences of preservice art teachers at The University of Arizona consisted of one semester of self-directed classroom observations as well as "simulated field experiences" in the form of interactive video-discs14. The Wildcat Art experience seeks to integrate theory with practical experiences to "improve new teacher's understanding of themselves, their role as educators and their understanding of classroom pedagogy and children" (McDermott, Gormley, Rothenberg & Hammer, 1995, p. 185). It attempts to foster growth in the preservice teachers' decision-making skills and their reflective thought on those decisions, as well as help them make the cognitive jump from student to teacher. Oppewal (1993) has suggested that these kinds of early experiences develop preservice teachers' pedagogical expertise before they enter student teaching. 14 See Galbraith (1993) for a full description of interactive video-disc instruction. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  47. 47. 44 Research states that teacher education programs may be more beneficial to preservice students if they integrate their methods courses with actual classroom teaching (Goodlad; Holmes Group; Meade; in McDermott, Gormley, Rothenberg & Hammer, 1995). Oppewal (1993) indicated that field experiences where preservice students act as teachers may be more beneficial to their development as teachers than those that are purely observational in orientation. Likewise, Zimmerman (1994b) concluded that "preservice art teachers are well served by engaging in concrete situations in which art teaching and learning take place" (p. 65). Student Teaching While field experiences are accepted as beneficial to teacher preparation programs, there is a deep rooted concern that the educational knowledge provided in university course work becomes obsolete once students leave the domain of their teacher training institutions. "The student teaching experience, in many cases, most probably marks and represents not only the physical separation of preservice teachers from their art teacher education, but also their intellectual detachment as well" (Galbraith, 1993, p. 9). The new influential factor in a preservice teacher’s education becomes his or her cooperating teacher. Research indicates that student teachers quickly match the behaviors, practices and expectations of their cooperating teachers (Jeffers, 1993). Jeffers studied the "mimicking" tendencies of student teachers and found that student teachers learn in one of two ways. The first learning behavior, the conformist, occurs when students are limited in their growth as teachers by external factors like school expectations. To conform, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  48. 48. 45 student teachers accept the ideas and practices of their cooperating teachers as truths and do not question or make professional observations about their ideas or practices. Conformity, therefore, provides a narrowly developed pedagogical knowledge. The second learning behavior, the imitative, is similar to the first because mimicking behaviors are still apparent. However, the student teachers do not blindly accepting their cooperating teachers’ beliefs and practices as perfect. Rather, they pride themselves in their ability to fool themselves and others that they are actually teaching. The imitation process allows them to step back away from their role-playing to analyze and "make professional judgments about their practice as they make finer and finer discriminations about what is real or essential and what is not" (Jeffers, 1993, p. 90). Looking at these two models of learning to teach, it is easy to understand why teacher educators would be concerned with their reduced role in preservice teachers' development. If the preservice art teacher is placed with a cooperating teacher who is not sympathetic to the goals of discipline-based art education, as is often the case (Byrne, 1995), this situation becomes even more disturbing. Thus, the question for teacher educators becomes one that investigates how they can make their university classes more meaningful to beginning teachers. Winitzky and Kauchak (1995) proposed an intriguing and insightful explanation for why this phenomenon occurs. They described a theory of skill learning first originated by Anderson, entitled ACT* for Adaptive Character of Thought (cited in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995). The ACT* theory is based on two kinds of knowledge: (1) declarative knowledge which Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  49. 49. 46 involves an understanding of facts and concepts and (2) procedural knowledge which is composed of specific plans of action for performing specific goal achieving skills. "When confronted with a novel problem, the learner integrates relevant declarative with procedural knowledge in a holding area called working memory. The learner then executes some action, and receives feedback on this action. This feedback is used to revise what is stored in memory" (dted in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995, p. 221). This process occurs each time the learner encounters a new problem and thus transforms knowledge into script that reads like an "if-then" statement. If a certain situation occurs, then a specific action is executed. As the learner develops his or her own procedural knowledge, fragmented segments of declarative knowledge compile into a "single production that does the work of the sequence" (cited in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995, p. 221). This becomes a defining factor as to why most professionals contribute their learning development to their experiences in the field. Winitzky and Kauchak use Anderson's theory to describe the notion that students learn how to teach from solving problems in the field. Because classroom problem-solving experiences lead to integrating declarative knowledge into [procedures], it is no longer necessary to consciously retrieve this information...Consequently teacher candidates forget that they ever had this separate store of knowledge, and they loose awareness of its import (cited in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995, p. 223). Declarative knowledge becomes subsumed into procedural knowledge and becomes unconscious. Teachers literally don't remember ever having learned it in the first place. This understanding of knowledge acquisition provides a foundation for the expansion of field-based opportunities within Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  50. 50. 47 the university. If problem-solving experiences are combined with a feedback component within the university classroom, teachers my come to value their university education more highly. Therefore, when evaluating our programs, it is essential to ask "do we provide opportunities for our preservice clientele to think and act like art teachers?" (Galbraith, 1990, p. 52). Field experiences can "lay the groundwork for student teaching by providing opportunities for prospective teachers to acquaint themselves with the classroom from a teacher's perspective, and to begin to develop and integrate schemata for teaching by studying the teaching of others" (Livingston & Borko, 1989, p. 41). Reflective Teaching An important aspect of the Wildcat Art program that has not before been mentioned is that it attempts to teach preservice teachers to analyze their own teaching and discover other alternatives to pedagogical problems. This practice is called reflective teaching and has become somewhat of an educational buzzword in recent years. While it is sometimes linked to leadership (Zeichner & Liston, 1987) its purpose in the Wildcat Art program is to help preservice teachers look "within themselves to clarify instructional intentions, examine assumptions that underlie expectations, and consider the personal sensitivities necessary for productive interaction with youngsters" (Susi, 1995, p. 112). Methods used to develop these characteristics in Wildcat Art's preservice teachers were journal writing and post-observation conferences. Reflective journals have been proven to help preservice art teachers learn Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  51. 51. 48 about "what they know, how they feel, what they do, and how they do it" (Yinger & Clark in Zimmerman, 1994b, p. 60). The other technique used, post-observational conferences, was conducted as soon after the teaching experience as possible. While the conferences did use evaluative language from Hunter's (1982) Mastery Teaching, they also focused on questions that engaged students in reflective thought and self evaluation. In his research on higher order reflection among novice teachers, Pultorak (1993) presented a list of reflective analysis questions. These questions are good indicators of the types of reflective questions asked during post-observational conferences: (a) What were the essential strengths of the lesson? (b) What, if anything, would you change about the lesson? (c) Do you think the lesson was successful? Why?.... (f) Can you think of another way you might have taught the lesson?... (h) Do you think the content covered was important to the students? Why? (Pultorak, 1993, p. 290) Through this kind of reflective discussion, Students examined their personal behaviors, their solutions to instructional problems and their teaching decisions (Susi, 1995). Strategies for Teaching Art My inquiry into this area focuses on the question "How do art teacher teach their content effectively?" Since the skills and instructional models for production are somewhat obvious, I have chosen to answer this question in relation to the disciplines of aesthetics, criticism and art history. Presented here are brief descriptions of what is important to teach for each of these disciplines as well as strategies for teaching activities. I have also included a brief section on Madeline Hunter's Essential Elements of Instruction for effective teaching since this was the instructional method university students used to evaluate teaching. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  52. 52. 49 Aesthetics Aesthetics is often considered to be the most difficult of the four disciplines to teach because art teacher have little or no knowledge of it or experiences with it (Hagaman, 1990). "Hamblen (1987) and others have noted, it is unclear what sort of aesthetics is called for in a discipline-based approach to art education. The term 'aesthetics' may refer to a variety of things..." (Hagaman, 1988, p. 19). However, it is most often defined as the philosophy of art which investigates its nature and values. Aesthetics is a necessary component of students’ art education for three reasons: (1) So that they will come to understand the nature of philosophical inquiry as it relates to their own thinking and the thinking and writing of others. (2) So that they might learn the skills involved to engage in philosophical inquiry. (3) So that they might find pleasure and fulfillment in engaging in philosophical inquiry and appreciate the value of philosophical inquiry (Stewart, nd). There are a variety of innovative techniques teachers can use to teach aesthetics in the classroom. Hagaman (1990) presented inventive puzzles as a way of engaging students in lively discussions about the nature of art. Puzzles present cases where perplexing issues about the natures and values of art are investigated through student discussion. An example is: "the Louvre is on fire. You can save either the Mona Lisa or the guard who stands next to it, but not both. What do you do?" (Hagaman, 1990, np). Another example describes "Ruby, an elephant in the Phoenix zoo, who paints, creating colorful abstract works of art (Lankford, 1988). Is Ruby an artist? Is w hat she makes art?" (Hagaman, 1990, np). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  53. 53. 50 To involve students in philosophical inquiry Stewart (nd) recommends: encouraging students to ask aesthetic questions and write about them in journals, designating class time for discussions about aesthetic issues or engaging students in "great debates" where students argue a situation from differing stances. Another activity is the In-Out-Maybe game which requires students to determine if an object is art, is not art or might be art. This enables students to examine their own assumptions about the nature of art. All of these activities are starting points from which teachers can develop their students' ability to think philosophically about art. Criticism Instruction in criticism can create within students an understanding of the meaning and significance of works of art. Critical inquiry helps to develop critical thinkers who are able to synthesize and analyze art concepts. Tollifson (1990) described the four components of art criticism as: (1) a formal description of the work; (2) an analysis of the way the properties are organized; (3) an interpretation of the work's mood and meaning and (4) a value judgment of the artwork. Often these are put together in an activity described earlier, aesthetic scanning. This activity involves students in a discussion about the art object's formal properties. It is a useful technique for encouraging student talk about works of art. Other creative teaching strategies for criticism are games like "three card draw, 20 questions, art bingo and art on trial" (Tollifson, 1990, np). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  54. 54. 51 Art History Instruction in art history should be based on content in four areas: "attribution (where, when, and by whom was a work made), iconography (what symbols are present and what do they mean), provenance (what is the history of the work itself) and function (the purpose for which the work was made)" (Greer, 1987, p. 31). This information needs to be structured in a way that makes it relevant to students (Dake 1995). To do this, Dake (1995) suggested that teachers discuss the essence of works of art not their surface qualities. Dake defines the essence of artworks as the political, economic and social constructs within which the artist lived and created. This kind of investigation and individualization of the artist and artworks can foster within students lifelong relationships with art. Parks (1994) outlined three approaches that teachers could use to organize their lessons. These were: (1) the traditional or positivist approach which requires objective observation of the artwork to produce facts; (2) the idealist approach, including thematic, sociological and anthropological approaches, which seeks to understand the contexts and meaning of art objects and (3) the instrumentalist approach which uses art history as a tool for studio. Rather than using only one of these methodologies, Parks advocated a combination of all three. "Thematic approaches can be the 'hook' or motivation than grabs the interests of the students. Idealist concerns like cultural or historical context, make the lessons meaningful, while accompanying studio activities will reinforce the concepts being taught" (Parks, 1994, p. 81). This kind of integrated approach can provide comprehensive art historical experiences for students. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  55. 55. 52 Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI) Mastery Teaching or EEI was developed by Madeline Hunter as an instructional format which identified a list of teaching behaviors that are considered effective, It is based on "...the premise that the teacher can use the principals of learning to accelerate student achievement, and that good teaching consists of very specific teacher behavior" (Johnson, 1988a, np). Hunter indicated four elements for effective instruction. These were: (1) select an objective at the correct level of difficulty for students; (2) teach to the objective; (3) use principals of learning to facilitate the learning of students and (4) monitor the students and adjust the teaching. Hunter and Gee (1988) stated that teachers should begin lessons with an anticipatory set. This sets the stage for the learning. Secondly, the teacher should deliver the content to be taught clearly and teachers should check their students for understanding through either overt or covert active participation. The teacher should then encourage the student to practice the information taught to make sure the student can execute the task with a degree of success. When this has happened, the student can engage in independent practice which helps students "...to develop automaticity, accuracy, and increasing creativity and artistry without the guidance of a teacher" (Hunter & Gee, 1988, np). Summary of the Literature Preservice art teacher education had been under scrutiny since the advent of DBAE. Questions have been raised as to how institutions can best educate their students for their student teaching experiences as well as their Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  56. 56. 53 professional careers. The University of Arizona attempted to improve their students' preservice education with the implementation of the Wildcat Art Saturday Youth Arts Program. This investigation into the nature of that program looked into the following areas of related literature: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach; (4) Organizational Skills; (5) Field Experiences; (6) Reflective Teaching and (7) Strategies for Teaching Art. One of preservice teachers' greatest challenges is classroom management. Research has proven that a generic approach to classroom management strategies is as effective as one that is discipline specific (Ellingson, 1991). Further, preventive approaches to classroom management, especially those dealing with spatial organization and preliminary and extensive planning are more effective than reactionary techniques which focus on stopping desist behavior once it has begun. Preservice art teachers must include both clearly stated objectives and outlined evaluation procedures in their lesson plans to have a solid foundation for their instruction. In regard to content, curricula should include sequential instruction in each of the four disciplines of aesthetics, art history, criticism and studio. This discipline-based approach is necessary for youth to develop a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the visual arts. Since there is no prescribed formula for how to teach a discipline- based lesson, there are numerous theories for how the disciplines are best taught. These options were discussed herein as well as possible strategies for teaching the disciplines of aesthetics, art history and criticism. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  57. 57. 54 Other attributes of effective teachers are their organizational characteristics and the extent of their community outreach. Decisions on how much time to devote to each discipline, in which order should the disciplines be taught and how much emphasis to place on each one is left up to the teacher's professional judgment (Eisner, 1987). To fight the marginality of art in the general curriculum, both in-service and preservice art teachers must accept their role as art advocates by instigating small-scale advocacy projects. Preservice students need field experiences to form images of what discipline-based art instruction looks like. Research shows that education programs that combine methods courses with actual teaching are more effective in preparing preservice teachers than those that do not. It has been an issue in higher education that field experiences, specifically student teaching are often considered to be more valuable by professionals than their preservice course work. This may be attributed to Anderson’s ACT* theory which describes the cognitive development necessary for teachers to gain practical knowledge. Finally, engaging preservice teachers in reflective thought can help preservice teachers to analyze their own teaching and discover other alternatives to pedagogical problems. When combined, these seven elements contribute to provide a comprehensive look into the research and literature that most directly relates to, influences or supports the concerns of this inquiry into Saturday school art programs. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  58. 58. 55 CHAPTER 3 THE 1995 WILDCAT ART EXPERIENCE Organization of the Chapter This chapter discusses the findings of research conducted on the Wildcat Art participants during the Spring semester of 1995. This chapter first describes my research methodology on this, the first of two studies I conducted on the Wildcat Art program. It then describes the Wildcat Art Saturday Youth Arts Program in detail, beginning with the preparatory weeks, continuing into the daily running of the lab school and ending with the final student art exhibition. While the description is an accurate record of the activities of the 1995 program, it does not provide a complete record of all that took place during the lab school. The chapter then goes on to present information discovered through four questionnaires distributed both prior to the experience and after the program's completion. The general study, described here, discusses the preconceptions, concerns and suggestions of the sixteen university students enrolled in the program during that semester and offers conclusions based on the collected data. Introduction Wildcat Art, currently preparing for its fourth year as a part of The University of Arizona's Art Education program, has undergone a variety of changes since its inception. Changes have occurred as a result of recommendations made by the university students enrolled in the course at Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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