Nadia2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Nadia2

on

  • 385 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
385
Views on SlideShare
331
Embed Views
54

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 54

http://nadialalalililulu.blogspot.com 54

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Nadia2 Nadia2 Document Transcript

  • INFORMATION TO USERS This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI films the text directly from the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from anytype ofcomputerprinter. The quality ofthis reproduction is dependent upon the quality ofthe copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adverselyafreet reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oversize materials (e.g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand comer and continuing from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. Each original is also photographed in one exposure and is included in reduced form at the back ofthe book. Photographs included in the original manuscript have been reproduced xerographically in this copy. Higher quality 6” x 9” black and white photographic prints are available for any photographs or illustrations appearing in this copy for an additional charge. Contact UMI directly to order. UMIA Bell &Howell Information Company 300 NorthZed>Road, Ann Arbor MI 48106-1346 USA 313/761-4700 800/521-0600 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • A SATURDAY YOUTH ARTS PROGRAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRESERVICE ART EDUCATION by Joy Topaz Smith Copyright © Joy Topaz Smith 1996 A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the DEPARTMENT OF ART In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS WITH A MAJOR IN ART EDUCATION In the Graduate College THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 1 9 9 6 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • UMI Number: 1383573 Copyright 1996 by Smith, Joy Topaz All rights reserved. UMI Microform 1383573 Copyright 1997, by UMI Company. All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. UMI300 North Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, MI 48103 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 2 STATEMENT BY AUTHOR This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library. Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder. SIGNE APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR This thesis has been approved on the date shown below: Dr. Lynn Galbraith Date Associate Professor of Art Education Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to thank all of my friends who stood by me throughout the researching and writing of this inquiry, especially Sara Pakkala, who was always there to listen and encourage me. I also would like to give a special thanks to the Manzanita ISR team: Gloria Hoyme, Andrea Chadwick, Elizabeth McKindley, Char Cohen and Karen Hill who continually bent over backwards to help me accomplish this goal. Thank you to the wonderful teachers who participated in this study, particularly Caryn Isom, who so graciously gave her time and effort to this project. And to Lou Garard, thank you for trusting in my ability and for sharing with me all of your best teaching secrets. I will use them wisely! Thanks to Mary Jondrow, Colleen Nichols, James Lanier and Paige Vladich for volunteering their time and their resources for this study. I would also like to express my deep appreciation for my two wonderful parents, Paul and Vicki Smith, for whom without none of this would have been possible. Their undying love and support has given me the strength to accomplish more than I ever though possible. Finally, thank you to my committee: Dr. Lynn Galbraith, for her trust, her insight and her constant encouragement; Dr. Elizabeth Garber for her willingness to find time to talk, listen and advise, and Dr. Dwaine Greer, for giving me so many opportunities to take on new challenges and for his eternal words of wisdom. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 4 DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work to the one person who has been there day and night throughout this research endeavor. Robert, you have given me endless hours of patience, countless words of encouragement, and six long years of understanding. Thank you for all of your help these past months and for continuing to love me in spite of it all. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................... 8 ABSTRACT.............................................................................................. 9 1. STATEMENT OF INQUIRY................................................................10 Introduction............................................................................................10 Combining Theory and Practice........................................................ 12 Wildcat Art: A Rationale for its Implementation........................ 13 Description of Inquiry...........................................................................15 Program Description................................................................ 15 Personal Involvement................................................................17 Statement of Inquiry.................................................................18 Study Design and Methodology..........................................................20 Significance of the Study..................................................................... 22 Limitations of the Study........................................................................22 Organization of Chapters.................................................................... 23 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................................................24 Organization of the Chapter............................................................... 24 Introduction........................................................................................... 24 Classroom M anagement..................................................................... 26 Preventive Techniques.............................................................. 28 Reactionary Techniques.......................................................... 31 Curriculum and Lesson Planning.......................................................32 How Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan?....................... 33 What Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan?..................... 33 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE).............................. 34 DBAE: Effects on Teacher Training.......................................36 Community Outreach............................................................................37 Saturday Art Schools................................................................. 37 Advocacy......................................................................................39 Organizational Skills..............................................................................40 Field Experiences....................................................................................43 Student Teaching...................................................................... 44 Reflective Teaching.............................................................................. 47 Strategies for Teaching Art ................................................................ 48 Aesthetics.....................................................................................49 Criticism.......................................................................................50 Art History...................................................................................51 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI)................................ 52 Summary of the Literature.................................................................52 3. THE 1995 WILDCAT ART EXPERIENCE..........................................55 Organization of the Chapter...............................................................55 Introduction...........................................................................................55 Methodology..........................................................................................56 Characteristics of the Site and Sample................................. 56 The Method.................................................................................57 Background............................................................................................59 Wildcat Art: A Detailed Description of Its Structure 59 Study Results.........................................................................................66 Pre-experience Questionnaires.............................................. 66 Post-experience Questionnaire.............................................. 69 Conclusions.............................................................................................71 4. CASE STUDY OF #4..............................................................................74 Organization of the Chapter............................................................... 74 Introduction...........................................................................................75 M ethodology..........................................................................................76 Characteristics of the Site and Sample................................. 76 The Method.................................................................................76 Interviews....................................................................................78 Study Limitations.....................................................................79 The Case Study......................................................................................80 Classroom M anagement.........................................................80 Curriculum and Lesson Planning...........................................84 Community Outreach................................................................85 Organizational Skills................................................................. 87 Conclusions.............................................................................................88 5. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.............................. 90 Introduction...........................................................................................90 Im plications...........................................................................................91 Recommendations For Change.........................................................91 Topics for Discussion............................................................... 92 Mandatory Classroom Observations.................................... 93 Development of Committees...................................................94 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued Conclusion.............................................................................................96 6. APPENDIX A ...........................................................................................97 Questionnaire # 1 ......................................................................98 Questionnaire # 2 ......................................................................98 Questionnaire # 3 ......................................................................99 Questionnaire # 4 ....................................................................100 Pre-experience Interview...................................................... 102 Post-experience Interview...................................................... 106 Final Interview......................................................................... 108 Interview Release Form........................................................108 7. APPENDIX B..........................................................................................112 Public Relations Committee...................................................113 Wildcat Art Site Committee...................................................116 Advertising and Design Committee.................................... 118 Community Outreach and Staff Support Committee 120 8. APPENDIX C ..........................................................................................122 Planning A Discipline-Based Art Lesson............................ 123 Wildcat Art Observer Notes................................................. 127 Wildcat Art Discipline Contract.......................................... 130 Wildcat Art Emergency Form.............................................. 131 Wildcat Art Release Form.................................................... 132 1995 Wildcat Art Brochure................................................... 133 1995 Wildcat Art Flyer...........................................................135 1995 Wildcat Art Information Sheet.................................. 136 9. APPENDIX D..........................................................................................138 10. REFERENCES........................................................................................ 142 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • LIST OF TABLES TABLE 3.1, Completed Educational Requirements.......................68 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 9 ABSTRACT A supplemental Saturday Youth Arts Program was examined to determine whether or not its implementation into a preservice art education program better prepared students for student teaching. This work presents two case studies. Data from the first study, which looked at sixteen preservice art teachers, found that (1) students lacked adequate knowledge on how to write discipline-based lesson plans; (2) community outreach was undervalued by students and (3) there was a lack of sufficient preparation time to take on all the variables involved in operating the lab school. The second study followed one of the students into her student teaching to look for professional growth in four areas: (1) classroom management; (2) curriculum and lesson planning; (3) community outreach and (4) organizational skills. Findings indicated that students can achieve high levels of professional growth as a result of this kind of experience, thus they are better prepared for student teaching. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 10 CHAPTER 1 STATEMENT OF INQUIRY Introduction The teaching of art is a multi-dimensional skill that requires the ability to think and act quickly to the rapidly changing dynamics of the art room. In its best form this includes the planning of sequential discipline-based (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987; Greer, 1984), multicultural (Champlin, 1995; Chanda, 1992; Stuhr, Petrovich-Mwaniki, & Wasson, 1992), age-appropriate (Eisner, 1987), creative, novel, interdisciplinary (Champlin, 1995), collaborative (Champlin, 1995; Zimmerman, 1994a), community relevant (Baker, 1990; Day in Goodwin, 1994) and evaluative (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987; Gentile, 1989; Greer, 1984) curriculum that can be modified to meet the needs of all learners in the school. An art teacher must also possess the skills, knowledge and ability needed to communicate curricular ideas and concepts to pupils in ways that create meaningful art experiences. This requires the teacher to be an efficient classroom manager who clearly outlines and reinforces expected behaviors and outcomes for each activity in the lesson. He or she needs well-established classroom procedures for everyday functions like the distribution and the collection of supplies, and to be able to anticipate and prevent potential problems before they start (Susi, 1989,1990a, 1990b, 1996). Added on to these instructional and managerial demands are requests that art teachers engage in: reflective thinking (Pultorak, 1993; Susi, 1995), action-research (Galbraith, 1988; May, 1993) and leadership opportunities (Gupton, 1995; Howey, 1988; Jeffers, 1995). Furthermore, they should be Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 11 advocates for the arts in their community through workshops, presentations and regular art exhibitions. Efland asserts that in order to remain at the top of their field, art educators must be life-long learners, continually keeping abreast of national trends in art education (in Goodwin, 1993). Art teachers also take on various other roles which require highly developed interpersonal skills. An art teacher is constantly working interactively and collaboratively with a variety of people in school settings during activities like district and site committee meetings, faculty presentations, bus duty, parent-teacher conferences, open house, talent shows, plays and other school events. In addition they often become set designers for plays, display coordinators for the library or office bulletin boards, the resident artist who comes into the classroom to help with special projects, and the school’s interior designer. Participation in these kinds of miscellaneous school activities are often perceived as the "what goes without saying" job requirements of art teachers. The expectations that befall art teachers on a daily basis raise many questions about the nature of preservice art teacher education. How can we better prepare preservice art teachers to take on the disparate responsibilities of professionals in our field? Do we provide our preservice students adequate opportunities to integrate university dictated theory with professional practice? More specifically, how do we give them the skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed to teach art effectively? Questions like these reflect a growing interest in the field on the nature of preservice art teacher preparation programs (Galbraith, 1990, 1995b; Zimmerman, 1994a). "Although there is a long and excellent tradition of research in art education, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 12 limited studies exist specifically on preservice art education" (Galbraith, 1990, p. 51). Therefore, comprehensive inquiries into the nature of our preservice programs seem long overdue. In partial response to the request of the National Art Education Association (NAEA) task force on teacher education which calls for research in preservice laboratory and clinical experiences (Galbraith, 1995a), this paper describes the preservice art education program offered at The University of Arizona in Tucson. While degree requirements and general descriptions of course work are discussed, this inquiry looks specifically at a Saturday Youth Arts Program. It was initiated in response to reform trends in preservice teacher education research as well as to satisfy the College of Fine Arts' desire to create outreach programs that help the university build more interactive partnerships with the Tucson community. The Saturday Youth Arts Program, hereafter referred to as Wildcat Art, has since become a vital component of our preservice program. Demonstrated through the findings of this inquiry, the Wildcat Art program helps preservice students begin to form clearer pictures of what art teaching involves and provides them a much needed opportunity to put theory into practice. Combining Theory and Practice Providing meaningful experiences where theory and practice meld in the minds of preservice art teachers is difficult at best. There is however, a common belief that the two can and do interact with one another in the day to day lives of in-service art teachers. Knowing this, how can the interaction between theory and practice best be shown in preservice art programs? Is it Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 13 possible to create more field-based opportunities in the university where theory and practice work together in a mutually interactive relationship? Nadaner (1983) suggests that "teacher education in the university begins with the recognition that practice is always permeated by some theoretical assumptions and that a more deliberate, reflective application of theory can only improve practice" (p. 66). In a program like Wildcat Art, students can begin to see connections between theory and practice when thinking reflectively about their own teaching of lessons or their observed lessons of peers. "Students thus, have the opportunity... to articulate meanings and questions that have immediate significance for them. These questions can then be related in the university to treatments of the same questions by art educators and philosophers" (Nadaner, 1983, p. 68). This is how the Wildcat Art program approaches the unavoidable collision between the relevancy of university-based theory and the everyday realities of art teaching in practice. Wildcat Art: A Rationale for its Implementation Since preservice teachers learn to teach from their experiences of actually being there to watch, interact, and make decisions in the classroom, it seems imperative to provide them these kinds of opportunities during their preservice education (Britzman, cited in Galbraith, 1995b). Realizing this, the University of Arizona, like other institutions1 began the Wildcat Art program. Wildcat Art was designed with the premise that preservice 1 Buffalo State College, City University of New York, East Carolina University, Indiana University, Purdue University, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Penn State & the University of the Pacific, for example, all have either Saturday Art programs or Summer Art programs in place. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 14 teachers in art education needed more hands-on interaction with youth and expanded opportunities to put theory into practice. Its goals are to: (1) Provide expanded field-based opportunities that meet the needs of our preservice art education students. (2) Make valuable connections between the university, the schools and the community. These connections will provide communication that may educate, inform and inspire community members to support art education in the public schools. (3) Provide an opportunity for youth from differing backgrounds and socio-economic status to come together to share creative ideas and artistic concepts. (4) Cultivate the youths' knowledge in the visual arts, including study in each of the four art disciplines of criticism, aesthetics, art history and studio. The hope is that through this broad, multi- media approach, students will deepen their understanding and appreciation of the arts. Because The University of Arizona's Art Education Department is separate from the College of Education, field experiences are difficult to provide for students. Currently, students working toward their B.F.A. in art education have their only required field experience2 through course work taken in the college of education. These experiences are almost exclusively in secondary schools and are not geared toward the specific needs of the preservice art education student receiving certification in grades K-12. Created in the Spring of 1994, Wildcat Art has operated as a three unit class3 offered to both undergraduate and graduate students seeking their teaching certification in art. The class takes students through the process of setting up a lab school including advertising and recruiting youth, finding 2 One semester, consisting of thirty hours of observation at one school site. 3 Wildcat Art is listed in the University of Arizona's general catalogue as ARE 338L: Secondary School Art, and is convened with the graduate course ARE 558L: Theories of Curriculum and Instruction in Art. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 15 adequate space to house art classes on The University of Arizona campus, ordering, inventorying and distributing supplies, writing age appropriate curriculum and comprehensive discipline-based lesson plans, establishing fair and consistent classroom management plans for each age level and finally, working collaboratively with their peers in teams to create, teach and evaluate their lessons. University students are expected to take the course as a culmination of their preservice course work. This ensures that they have taken the minimum of nine credits of secondary education course work which provides a basic knowledge of general teaching pedagogy, basic classroom management techniques, lesson and unit planning, as well as educational psychology and the nature and functions of schools in society.4 In addition, they are expected to have completed most of their studio requirements and nearly twenty credits in art education. Description of Inquiry Program Description The program is led and coordinated by a master teacher who has been an art specialist in the Tucson area for fifteen years. She has designed the course content from its inception and has worked in collaboration with the faculty of the Art Education Department to develop a community outreach program that meets the needs of the College of Fine Arts, the Art Education Department's faculty and students, Tucson area youth and the greater Tucson 4 These courses are offered in the college of education and are listed in the course catalog as TTE 300: Classroom Processes and Instruction, EDP 310: Learning in Schools and EDUC 350: Schooling in America. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 16 community. It has continued to grow, and in its third year became a money making endeavor for the department. Wildcat Art offers its patrons comprehensive discipline-based instruction in the visual arts using a variety of two-dimensional and three- dimensional media. Every lesson taught has instructional time allocated for each of the four disciplines of art history, criticism, aesthetics and studio. The youth are broken up into three age groups for instruction. These groups are referred to as being either Primary (grades 1-3), Intermediate (grades 4-7), or Secondary (grades 8-12). Each age group has a separate curriculum to allow for the differing needs of those who are more mature or more highly skilled. The program, currently offered only during the Spring semester, consists of 11 two and one-half hour lessons on Saturday mornings. This permits each grade level 4 five hour lessons and 2 shorter two and one-half hour lessons. One of the two short lessons is placed in the middle of spring semester during the University's spring break, and the other is located at the end of the program. This provides the preservice teachers one off weekend for spring break. The final Saturday is reserved for a student art exhibition which displays all the artwork produced in the ten weeks of Wildcat Art. The classes are instructed by approximately twenty preservice art teachers. During the planning of the program near the beginning of the spring semester, the preservice students break up into smaller groups of three to form teaching teams. These teams work collaboratively to develop and teach three art lessons; one art lesson to each of the three grade levels. On Saturdays when teams are not teaching, they are required to observe, evaluate and assist their peers teach their lessons. This concentration of preservice Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 17 teachers in each grade level's class provides pupils enrolled in Wildcat Art a low student-teacher ratio; roughly 6:1. Personal Involvement I became involved with Wildcat Art as an undergraduate in the program’s first year. I felt that as a result of the Wildcat Art experience, I went into student teaching with six fully developed lesson plans which included visual displays, supply lists, notes on the design and layout of supply distribution, charts for time management and activity sequencing, and I had the experience of having already pre-taught the lessons. In addition, I had an image of the nature and demands of teaching art and through reflection upon my early teaching experiences, I knew specific areas I wanted to develop and refine while student teaching. When I came back to the department the next year as a graduate student, I again became involved with the Wildcat Art program. The second year I worked closely with the instructor as the Assistant Director of Wildcat Art. From this position, I took on a variety of responsibilities which included, but were not limited to: (1) facilitating classroom discussions; (2) evaluating teaching using Madeline Hunter's Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI); (3) providing comprehensive feedback of lessons taught; (4) giving emotional support to students enrolled in the course; (5) designing the Wildcat Art logo and distribution materials and (6) supervising and overseeing the daily operations of the lab school including student drop-off and pick-up, the health room, staff lounge, three classrooms and a culminating student art exhibition. Other components of my role as Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 18 Assistant Director involved assisting preservice teachers with discipline issues, addressing parental questions and concerns and brainstorming with teaching teams to find solutions for logistical problems with space, supplies an d /o r technology. Statement of Inquiry My appreciation of the skills and practical knowledge I learned as a result of Wildcat Art inspired me to further investigate its installation in our art education program. Did it help to better prepare preservice students for their student teaching experience; If so, how? Did it aid in the translation of theory into practice by providing preservice teachers an image of discipline- based art teaching? Or was it only a means through which preservice teachers gained practical experience? What skills, if any, did it develop in preservice art education students? Specifically, did Wildcat Art increase preservice teachers' professional knowledge and competence in the areas of: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills? If relative professional growth in the four areas occurred, did that growth continue or retard during student teaching? Finally, has the installation of the Wildcat Art field-experience into our preservice art teacher education program resulted in better prepared, more competent, and highly skilled professionals? As beginning art teachers, are our graduates more likely to reach higher levels of professional development (Kagan, 1992) earlier than they might have otherwise? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 19 In choosing to focus my research around the areas of: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills, I discovered more questions which served to further define each area of inquiry. A brief list of questions for each area is listed below. Often, answers to the questions in any category could provide insight into the other three areas: Classroom Management Was the organization of the lesson and the supplies conducive to creating an environment that discouraged discipline problems? What kind of motivation was used to engage pupils in the content or ideas being taught? Did art education students develop their own management style? Curriculum and Lesson Planning Did lessons build upon prior learning? Were lessons discipline-based? Were activities and discussions relevant to the lesson’s objectives? Did pupils have an understanding of what it was that they were learning? Were lessons based on an established curriculum? How did individual lessons fit within a larger curriculum? Community Involvement In what ways did preservice students communicate with parents to share ideas, inform them of the lesson objectives an d /o r discuss discipline issues? Has Wildcat Art helped to foster a better relationship between The University of Arizona's preservice art teachers and the community? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 20 Organizational Skills Was time used effectively? How much time was given to each of the particular disciplines? Were transitions between activities in the lesson smooth and efficient? How prepared was the teacher to teach the lesson? Seeking answers to these and other questions helped to create an accurate image of Wildcat Art's place in our preservice art teacher preparation program and how effective it has been in preparing art teachers to meet the many demands of public school art education. Study Design and Methodology To attain some basic information about the students in the class, I distributed a series of three pre-experience questionnaires and one final post­ experience questionnaire to the class enrolled in the Spring of 1995 (see Appendix A for questionnaires). These helped me to better assess the preservice students’ diverse interests and learning experiences. After spending four weeks with the students, I selected5 four of the seven traditional undergraduate students in which to observe and measure professional growth in the each four areas discussed earlier: (1) Classroom Management, (2) Organizational Skills, (3) Community Involvement and (4) Organizational Skills. For each subject of study, #1, #2, #3 and # 4 ,1gathered materials that would enable me to construct a clear picture of their pedagogical knowledge, teaching experience and preconceived beliefs of effective art education in practice. My data consisted of each subject's class 5 The subjects were selected based on my personal assessment of their commitment to the program and willingness to participate in a research study. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 21 notes and required journals,6 my own personal notes made while observing the subjects teaching in each of the three grade levels, the observation notes of the program Director and the required evaluation forms of peers who viewed the lesson. I then collected from each subject the lesson plan and related instructional materials for each lesson observed. In addition, I set up informal pre- and post-experience interviews7 to more thoroughly investigate my four areas of interest. The pre-experience interview attempted to assess their preconceptions about the experience, their ideas about DBAE, their level of education and their individual teaching philosophies. The post-experience interview asked the subjects to reflect on the experience and to look for change in their beliefs or ideologies. From the four case studies, I selected one student, hereafter referred to as #4, to follow through her student teaching experience.8 I observed her four times during her student teaching and on the final visit to the site, a video cassette recording of her instruction was made. To support the data collected on her teaching in the classroom, I was given copies of her lesson plans and her personal notes. Contact was made with the university student teacher supervisor who, upon request, made notes during observations with special attention to #4's skills in each of the four study areas. I also sat in on one post-observational feedback session between the university supervisor and #4 in which #4 was asked reflective questions concerning her perceived teaching strengths and possible areas for refinement. The issues from the prior 6Journals were kept as a part of course requirements up through the ninth week of classes, when the instructor no longer thought they were an essential component to the art education student's education. 7 Interview questions can be found in Appendix B. 8 #4 conducted the student teaching component of her certification requirements in the Spring of 1996. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 22 W ildcat Art experience and the student teaching experience were brought together in a final interview conducted immediately after the completion of #4's student teaching assignment. I asked questions that looked for relative professional growth and changes in her beliefs, attitudes and preconceptions in each of the four areas of interest. Significance of the Study Inquiries into the nature of Saturday Youth Arts Programs are rare. An investigation of their possible benefits to students and departments could help pave the way for more universities to provide lab school experiences for their students. Specifically, it provides The University of Arizona's Art Education Department insight into how the Wildcat Art program functions w ithin its larger art education curriculum, and provides an opportunity to further refine its overall program. An examination such as this addresses several questions: Can a supplemental program aid in the development of the professional growth in preservice art teachers? Are students better prepared for their student teaching experience as a result of the Wildcat Art program? Does the program effectively provide university students the opportunity to put theory into practice? Why or why not? W hat areas of the program need refinement? Answers to these questions will provide a variety of implications for art teacher preparation. Limitations of the Study The study is limited in its generalizations. It has been conducted at one southwestern university and discusses only two case studies which cannot be Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 23 considered inclusive of all students attending this university or any university since no two experiences can be considered the same. In addition, there is the possibility of my own bias. My close affiliation with the program may have altered my objectivity when reviewing the data. It is possible that another researcher might have interpreted the same information differently than what is presented here. However, I made an effort to collect data from a variety of sources so that my personal notes were not the only place from which assumptions and generalizations were made. Organization of Chapters Chapter 2 reviews the current literature in the areas of: Classroom Management, Curriculum and Lesson Planning, Community Outreach, Organizational Skills, Field Experiences, Reflective Teaching and Strategies for Teaching Art. Chapter 3 further describes the Wildcat Art program and analyzes the research conducted through four questionnaires distributed to the Spring 1995 participants. Chapter 4 presents the case study of #4 and analyzes data collected during both her Wildcat Art and student teaching experiences. Chapter 5 discusses the implications of the findings in Chapters 3 and 4 on preservice teacher education and makes recommendations for change in the implementation and execution of future Wildcat Art sessions. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 24 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF CURRENT LITERATURE Organization of Chapter This chapter is intended to provide a comprehensive look into the research and literature that most directly relates to, influences or supports the concerns of this inquiry into Saturday school art programs. The chapter begins with a discussion on reform efforts for art teacher education. It then presents a literature review in each of the four areas central to this inquiry. These are: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach and (4) Organizational Skills. Since this inquiry focuses on the benefits of implementing a Saturday Youth Arts Program to better prepare student teachers, a separate review was done on field experiences. Finally, this review would not be complete if it did not also discuss reflective teaching practices and various strategies for teaching art. Through an examination of the research conducted in these areas, a better understanding of the interests and concerns of this inquiry will be achieved. Introduction One goal of art education departments who are involved in teacher training is to more effectively prepare their preservice teachers for the student teaching component of their education. To ensure the quality of teacher preparation programs, demands for reform have been voiced. Recently, Hutchens (1995) organized a set of four propositions for improving teacher preparation. These were: (1) the creation of a national association of Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 25 discipline-based art education programs; (2) stronger support for art education in our university governing boards and our state departments of education through "building a national corporate and governmental constituency for art education reform efforts" (Hutchens, 1995, p. 15); (3) more field-based research by faculty and doctoral students and (4) abolishment of departmental elitism in Colleges of Fine Arts so that faculty from art education, art history and studio collaborate, rather than isolate, their efforts to better prepare preservice art teachers. Meeting these goals will position art teacher preparation programs as a united front and help to overcome current deficiencies in individual universities. At a local level, art teacher educators within the institutions need to develop collaborative relationships with in-service professionals in their communities. These community-based relationships combined with improved communication between faculty in the College of Fine Arts and the College of Education could create expanded educational opportunities for preservice art teachers. However, before beneficial changes can occur, all those involved in the preparation of preservice art teachers need to come to a consensus on "...whether or not the 'education' in art education is as important as the 'art' in art education" (Champlin, 1995, p. 17). I believe faculty members who educate, train and encourage our preservice teachers, should bear in mind that "...teacher and education go hand-in-hand" when making their decision (Champlin, 1995; p. 17). Considering these requests for change, one role for art teacher educators could be to provide students opportunities to combine their knowledge in both art and education through course work offered specifically Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 26 in the practical application of educational theory. This does not mean to imply that the addition of one or two methods courses into the curriculum can solely accomplish all the challenges set forth in calls for reform. However, supplemental courses, like Wildcat Art, can act as agents for change in art teacher preparation programs. To understand Wildcat Art's complex orientation and potential rewards to The University of Arizona's preservice art education program, I looked to the literature to discover what had been done in related areas. Due to the relatively limited resource base in art education, I had to expand my investigation to include literature in general education. This proved to be an adequate source of information for my inquiry since many interests in general education research are broad-based and inclusive of teaching in the visual arts. In this review I use research in general literature to provide background and support in each content area, yet focus more specifically on art education research when possible. As listed earlier, the seven subjects of this review are: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach; (4) Organizational Skills; (5) Field Experiences; (6) Teacher Evaluation and (7) Strategies for Teaching Art. While the literature often overlaps from one area to another, I emphasize each as a separate unit in order to present a cohesive body of research. Classroom Management Many challenges present themselves to beginning teachers like those enrolled in Wildcat Art, but their greatest is classroom management (Arends, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 27 1991; Good and Brophy, 1987; Jones & Vesilind, 1995). This is because the classroom environment is made up of a variety of complicated, immediate and simultaneous interactions between the teacher, the students and instructional materials in the room. The complexity of teaching is often overwhelming for beginning teachers since their success and reputation as teachers depends on their ability to control their environment (Jones & Vesilind, 1995). A study conducted by Ellingson (1991) examined how teacher educators prepare their preservice teachers to meet the managerial demands of teaching. Through her research, Ellingson determined that educating preservice teachers about classroom management from a generic frame of reference, rather than one that was discipline specific, did not make a significant difference in their application of classroom management strategies during student teaching. In a related study, Stockrodd (1990) looked at six middle-school art teachers to determine what kind of instruction dominated art education at that level. While there were disparities among the teachers in the amount of time they spent in managerial, appraisal and substantive instruction, Stockrocki found that all six engaged in appraisal instruction the most. Appraisal instruction is defined as a process of monitoring student performance and give encouragement or suggestions for improvement (Sevigny, in Stockrocki, 1990). The second highest form of instruction was managerial in which teachers control both class functions and student behavior (Stockrocki, 1990). Finally, the teaching of art content, substantive instruction, was used the least. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 28 While vast amounts of research have been conducted on classroom management in general education, there is considerably less which is specific to art education. However, many of the strategies and suggestions m ade in general education are easily transferred to the specific needs of art teachers. This section is focused on a discussion of both preventative techniques teachers can employ to limit discipline issues in the classroom and proven strategies for how to stop discipline issues once they have begun. Preventive Techniques Concerns about classroom management have prompted research on how effective art educators organize their lessons and environments to limit management issues (Araca, 1990; Susi, 1989,1990a, 1990b, 1996). Susi (1989, 1990a, 1990b, 1996) has focused his research on the physical setting of the classroom. He (1990a) argued that because classroom environments are so familiar they are often overlooked as a resource that is easily manipulated to prevent potential problems. His studies on effective teachers' use of classroom space found that effective teachers use their space to encourage time on-task behavior. They did this by carefully planning their environment, reviewing their expectations and reinforcing correct procedures (Evertson, Emmer & Anderson; Evertson & Emmer in Susi, 1989). When planning the organization of a classroom space, Susi (1990a) encourages teachers to keep in mind that much like the creation of a work of art, the layout of a classroom for a given instructional function will most likely result from a process of experimentation that involves an awareness of the environmental variables involved, the behavior patterns of the students, and the nature of the activity taking place.... Well planned classroom spaces Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 29 tend to be dynamic, fluid environments that move and change in patterns that reflect the characteristics of a lesson (pp. 95 & 97). However, no single layout will meet the needs of all aspects of an art lesson (Susi, 1990a, 1990b). The teacher must find one that best meets his or her instructional needs. In a later work, Susi (1996) outlined six categories for improving student behavior and overall classroom management. These were: (1) thorough preparation for the school year; (2) careful planning of the classroom space; (3) constant monitoring of student behavior; (4) catching disruptions before they begin; (5) quickly eliminating disruptions when they occur and (6) using a pre-planned approach when dealing with misbehavior. Adherence to these guidelines can create behavior-minded teachers that anticipate potential problems and stop them before they start (Susi, 1996). General education research adds to this work on classroom space by presenting preventive strategies that effective teachers use during instruction. Preservice art teachers at The University of Arizona use the Arends (1991) text Learning to Teach to learn about basic classroom management strategies and research. Therefore, it seems pertinent to use this resource to identify the preventive techniques Wildcat Art participants were familiar with and knowledgeable about. Arends describes the following preventive strategies: (1) Establish rules and procedures for student movement, student talk and downtime; (2) teach the rules and make them routine; (3) pace lessons appropriately and maintain momentum; (4) plan for the opening and closing of class as well as transitions between activities; (5) use a cue or signaling Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 30 system to alert students of any changes in the activity and (6) promote student accountability.9 Other issues that affect classroom discipline are consistent use of positive reinforcement (Brophy & Good, 1987, Johnson, 1988a; Quick, 1993) and motivation (Arends, 1991; Brophy & Good, 1987; Johnson, 1988a). Each has its own set of strategies that when used correctly set up preventive environments. Through recognizing and reinforcing students for their good behavior, success on assignments and appropriate contributions to class discussions, teachers can set up positive classroom climates where students receive attention for their accomplishments rather than their inappropriate "attention-getting" behaviors (Brophy & Good, 1987). However, Brophy and Good warn that not all students are motivated by praise and that too much positive reinforcement can create situations in which children are motivated only if external rewards are promised. Another factor in the creation of preventive environments relies on how teachers motivate their students to engage in learning. Teachers can motivate students by creating activities that ensure student success (Brophy & Good, 1987), varying the instructional format or teaching environment (Brophy & Good, 1987; Quick, 1993) or making the learning meaningful to students by relating it to their daily lives (Brophy & Good, 1987; Johnson, 1988a). Teacher attitudes can also create atmospheres that discourage inappropriate behavior. To create preventive environments teachers must: (1) respect and care for their students; (2) be consistent in their behavior so that students see them as credible; (3) assume responsibility for their students’ 9 For further definition of each strategy see Arends (1991), pp. 164-170. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 31 knowledge acquisition; (4) value education and expect their students to feel the same way and (5) communicate these beliefs to their students and model them in their behavior (Brophy & Good, 1987). Reactionary Strategies Little has been written in art education regarding reactionary strategies to managerial issues.10 Therefore, I shall rely on what I found in general education research. Arends (1991) tackled issues of classroom management by presenting a variety of research findings on effective teaching. "This line of research [recitation] supports the image of the teacher as 'ringmaster' (Smith & Geoffrey, 1968), involved in monitoring classes through the exhibition of behaviors such as withitness [and] overlapping" (Jones & Vesilind, 1995, p. 314).11 Other reactionary strategies described by Arends (1991) are quick response time to inappropriate behavior (Quick, 1993) and the enforcement of logical consequences (Dreikurs in Arends, 1991). Arends also advocates Evertson and Emmer's guidelines for managing inappropriate behavior: (1) maintain eye contact with student until mis-behavior stops and appropriate behavior returns; (2) remind the student of the correct behavior or rule and have the student identify it as well and (3) impose the necessary consequences consistently. 10 Reactionary is defined as teacher responses to behavior once it has begun. 11 In 1970, Kounin (cited in Arends) defined eight different variables that teachers exhibited while managing groups. Two of these were: (1) withitness—the teacher's awareness of his or her environment to the extent that he or she is able to catch misbehavior quickly and correctly and (2) overlapping—the teacher’s ability to do more than one thing at a time (e.g. stopping misbehavior without disrupting the lesson's momentum). For more information on Kounin’s studies see: Kounin, J.S. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 32 Brophy & Good (1987) recommend ignoring minor misbehavior. If it becomes impossible to do so, then a teacher should maintain eye contact with misbehaving student until he or she has understood the message. Another strategy Brophy & Good advocate is touching the disruptive student's shoulder and gesturing the appropriate behavior. Physical proximity is also known to be effective in eliminating minor misbehavior, as is use of a disruptive student's name during instruction to regain their attention (Brophy & Good, 1987; Quick, 1993). Additionally, Quick (1993) warrants the use of time-out and making a lesson out of the behavior as potential solutions for minor problems. In light of this research it is important to remember that while preservice students may have knowledge of these studies and their finding, they may not be able to recall them immediately. They need opportunities which enable them to try different techniques in order to determine those that work best for them (Quick, 1993). As the preservice art teachers in Wildcat Art went through the program, their managerial repertoire grew with their experience teaching and evaluating lessons. Curriculum and Lesson Planning The planning process as described in general education literature focused on how to plan effective lessons, while research in art education looked specifically at what to plan. Therefore, the review first looks broadly at general education findings then narrows its focus to discipline-based art education and its influence on instructional planning. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 33 How Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan? In the 1970’s Taylor12 (in Good & Brophy, 1987) found that when experienced teachers planned their lessons they focused first on the lesson's subject matter, then on the corresponding activities. Often their plans neglected to include specific objectives or tools for evaluation. In a later study, Borko and Niles (in Brophy & Good, 1987) found that preservice teachers could learn from Taylor's findings. Borko and Niles concluded that while experienced teachers may not need to, beginning teachers should write comprehensive lesson plans which include thoughtful objectives and multiple evaluation procedures in addition to content and related activities. Comprehensive planning for inexperienced teachers has also been recommended by Brophy and Good (1987). They found that initial planning helps beginning teachers identify their goals and examine their thought processes (Brophy and Good, 1987). Brophy and Good (1987) argue that over­ planning is necessary since it provides preservice teachers a feeling of confidence and builds a solid foundation for instruction. What Should Preservice Art Teachers Plan? Bemey (1990) stated that an art curriculum should reflect "the importance of the fine arts to learning, the centrality of art to the development of an individual's uniqueness within a unified society and the disciplinary nature of the study of art" (Parrott dted in Bemey, 1990, p. 31). These ideas correspond to the prevailing theory in art education known as discipline-based art education or DBAE. 12 Taylor's studies also discovered that most teacher's planned around their pupil’s needs, interests and abilities (cited in Good & Brophy, 1987). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 34 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) In 1979, the National Art Education Association (NAEA) defined a quality art teacher preparation program as one that stresses an appreciative component, including criticism, a studio component and an art history component (Rogers & Brogdon, 1990). These guidelines organized ideas that had been surfacing in art education literature since the sixties. Five years after the NAEA came out with its report, Greer (1984) wrote Discipline-Based Art Education: Approaching Art as a Subject of Study. It was in this landm ark work that Greer brought together art education's disparate ideas into a coherent theory he titled discipline-based art education (DBAE). A discipline-based approach to the organization of a visual arts curriculum includes content from the disciplines of aesthetics, criticism, art history, and production (Clark, Day and Greer, 1987; Greer, 1984). In a discipline-based approach, "...the four disciplines are taught interactively to build an increasingly developed understanding and enlightened appreciation of works of art" (Greer, 1987, p. 227). As its premise, discipline-based art education, as a part of general education, aims to develop mature students who are comfortable and familiar with major aspects of the disciplines of art and who are able to express ideas with art media, who read about and criticize art, who are aware of art history, and who have a basic understanding of issues in aesthetics. The general goal of DBAE is a developed understanding of the visual arts for all students (Clark, Day, & Greer, 1987, p. 138). In a later article Greer (1987) briefly defined each discipline. He wrote that study in aesthetics leads students to reflect on their "experiences and understandings of art" (Greer, 1987, p. 229), while criticism examines the meaning of works of art and makes value judgments based on those Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 35 conclusions. Art historical investigations encourage pupils to relate works of art to larger historical, social and cultural phenomena. Finally, activities in production allow students to develop their expressive skill in the various art media. Despite its accepted integration into preservice preparation programs and professional practice, DBAE has met considerable resistance from scholars in the field. Moorman (1989) summarized many of these criticisms in her article The Great Art Education Debate, but specifically she raised questions regarding DBAE's exclusion of non-western, decorative and folk arts and its decidedly male outlook. In addition, Moorman brought forth an argument originated by Philip Yenawine against aesthetic scanning, a largely advocated approach to teaching the discipline of art criticism. Yenawine argued that "you can scan a Constable, but you can't scan Islamic art—or any of the decorative traditions. And a term like 'expressive qualities' is not very useful if you're talking about a Botticelli or any art which has nothing to do with personal expression" (dted in Moorman, 1989, p. 130). In response to these and other attacks aimed at DBAE, its original premise has altered considerably since its first definition by Greer (1984). DBAE now: seems to define art more broadly, includes art of other cultures, seems to no longer promote only the 100 canons of art made by dead white Euro-American makes, seems to embrace the 'popular arts' as worthy of serious consideration, no longer equates aesthetics with aesthetic experiences and responses, realizes the limitations of aesthetic scanning, acknowledges that art has social content as well as form, and is tolerant of contributions of feminist scholars. (Greer, 1987, p. 94). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 36 DBAE: Effects on Teacher Training With the development of a new paradigm for art education, the former philosophy for teaching art has gradually disbanded. Over the past ten years, DBAE has established itself as the dominant theory in the field. This has persuaded colleges and universities to re-evaluate their teacher preparation curriculum to include the tenets of DBAE (Feinstein, 1989; Rogers & Brogdon, 1990). They have had to add courses in aesthetics and criticism, as well as expand their art history and studio offerings to ensure that their preservice teachers will have the knowledge necessary to enforce a discipline-based curriculum in their schools. A discipline-based curriculum in higher education has proved to be a duel challenge for institutions in that (1) colleges and universities must re­ structure their programs to find time, funding, and knowledgeable faculty to teach courses in each of the four disciplines and (2) those courses must offer both content and teaching strategies specific to that discipline. Feinstein (1989) best describes the complexities of the latter in her statement "we cannot presume that students can take a course in aesthetics, for example, and by themselves figure out how to teach it to youngsters" (p. 8). If we assume that institutions can meet these conditions, then it seems necessary to provide students an opportunity to put their knowledge into practice. Even though the discipline-based theory is well established in higher education, it has yet to become the dominant practice in public schools. Part of this problem may lie in preservice teachers' assumptions about what art looks like in the classroom. Another contributor may be that up until the current decade the curriculum of most fine art departments was Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 37 dictated by a "creative self-expression" approach to art education (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987). This theory, fueled by modernist ideology, placed its emphasis on activities which develop a child's assumed inherent creativity (Clark, Day & Greer, 1987). The remnants of a creative self-expression based curriculum can still be seen in that many preservice programs in art education focus the bulk of certification and degree requirements on broad based studio experiences with intense study in two or three studio areas. With much of their own art education from a creative self-expression model, many preservice teachers attain their assumptions of how to teach art based on their experiences learning art (Hutchens, 1995). These assumed ideals remain intact even after courses in art education theory and pedagogical practices. To meet this challenge, Galbraith (1995b) suggests that institutions find ways to develop within preservice teachers an image of what art teaching looks like. Implementation of a program like Wildcat Art into the curriculum may be a viable solution. Community Outreach Saturday Art Schools Saturday art schools have a substantial history. Their early origins began in Canada with Arthur Lismer’s Halifax Saturday School of the 1880’s and the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design which conducted Saturday Morning Art Classes for Children from 1932 through the present day (Pearse & Soucy, 1987). Traditionally, Saturday arts schools served two purposes, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 38 these were: (1) to provide art programs for children and (2) to create an opportunity for preservice teachers to practice teaching (Pearse & Soucy, 1987). In fitting with tradition, contemporary Saturday schools provide specific benefits not only to the community members involved, but also to the art education students that teach them. First, they help university students ’'become familiar with the challenges of teaching art in the public schools" through dialogue with peers and careful observation (Arnold, 1994, p. 50). Secondly, they enable preservice art teachers to recognize that children are "unique beings" who respond to situations in a variety of ways (Ryder, 1994). Finally, working with the community encourages preservice teachers to "bridge the gap between the schools [the university] and the community at large by finding, restoring and using those bridges that are there" (Boyer, cited in Arnold, 1994, p. 51). While many universities claim Saturday arts programs in their preservice art education curriculum (Zimmerman, 1994a), very little has been written on how these programs are constructed within in their respective communities. To meet community needs, Saturday schools seem to build programs for one of three community populations: (1) disadvantaged or educationally challenged students (Pisano, 1974; Ryder, 1994); (2) gifted and talented youth (Clark & Zimmerman, 1987; Feldhusen & Sokol, 1982; Gregory, 1982) or (3) a combination of the two (Arnold, 1994; Walker, 1980). Wildcat Art best fits into the third category, though it could be argued that it is oriented more towards a gifted and talented population than not. Cooperative community relationships between students in university and students in the public schools can also help build support for the arts as a Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 39 part of a basic education. Walker observed that "The joy of discovery and the challenge of problem solving contributed effectively to [the youth's] overall experiences and, if but for a little while, art was as im portant, involving and as basic as any other subject available in the educational arena (Walker, 1980, p. 69). If students leave supplemental programs with excitement and renewed interests art learning, their parents may become inspired by their child's wonder and curiosity and become advocates for arts in the schools. In- service art specialists could potentially feed off of this excitement and use it to promote community support for their own programs. Advocacy An omnipresent need in art education is one of public support for visual arts education as a necessary component of our children's basic education. Advocacy is considered to be the best weapon art teachers can use to fight the marginality of the arts in education. As practicing art specialists, preservice teachers will have to constantly battle a public who sees art education as unnecessary or ornamental (Eisner, 1987). To face these challenges and win, they need to be taught community building strategies which will help them justify their programs to students, their parents and community members. While those traditionally in the arts are usually unwilling to lobby for change, McGoff (1988) argues that art teachers have a professional responsibility to be vocal advocates for art education in the schools. Advocacy art education can be done in a variety of ways. Some small- scale ideas involve the organization of student displays, participation in Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 40 community exhibitions, formulation of monthly art newsletters which discuss program goals and the organization of a art support group that is made up of interested parents who are willing to be educated about the visual arts' role in education. These kinds of small-scale advocacy projects can provide art specialists tremendous community support when it comes time for the school board to determine what programs need to be cut or substantially reduced. If art teachers work hard to involve students, parents and the community into their programs, they are far less likely to be eliminated when budgets are limited. Colleges and universities need to prepare preservice art teachers for these ongoing challenges by providing them the tools and the knowledge to be leaders in their schools and school districts (Degge, 1987; Dunn, 1992). One way to do this is to provide opportunities for them to work with and meet parents and community members through outreach programs. These kinds of experiences often prove to be beneficial for all involved. There is a large demand in communities for art instruction (Degge, 1987). While much of the need is for adult art instruction, there is significant community interest in similar programs for youth. It was in response to both a community need and an educational one that The University of Arizona organized and implemented the Wildcat Art Saturday Youth Arts Program. Organizational Skills Time has become an increasing dilemma in art education (McGoff, 1988). Time, or more specifically, lack of time for teaching the visual arts is a result of the diminutive value that is placed on it by society. Eisner (1987) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 41 provided a possible reason for the minimal attention the arts receive in general education when he stated that "intellect is regarded as something that is best cultivated through subjects like mathematics and physics... since the school's first obligations are to cultivate intellect, and since the arts are believed to deal with emotions, the arts in this view are ornamental" (p. 11). This results in the perception of art as "fun", and separate from those activities which require cognitive exercise. Because of the limited time art educators have to teach the visual arts to their pupils, it should be viewed as a precious commodity and used effectively. Time based research is complex in that it describes many items ranging from student specific behaviors like engaged time or time-on-task, to teacher controlled issues like planned time, procedural time, or allocated time.13 Time effectiveness is directly related to issues of teacher effectiveness in that the teacher must have a good grasp on the needs of his or her students, be aware of environmental conditions which could effect the lesson's outcomes, have sound management structures and utilize relevant activities that engage students in their learning (Arends, 1991). Specific research in art education on time organization and teaching effectiveness confirmed that two out of the four variables that influence quality of instruction are organizationally specific (Johnson, 1989). These were the planning component and the presentation sequence. Johnson described the planning component as the activity a teacher engages in when focusing on the main concepts of the lesson. During this time they need to find diverse ways to provide students explanations and invent innovative 13 For further description, please see Arends (1991), p. 70. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 42 activities with which guide them through the new material. Similarly, the planning component involved thought on how to help students construct their own knowledge of the material. When sequencing lessons, Johnson advocated that teachers revisit prior learning and relate its usefulness to the acquisition of new knowledge or skills. Her research verified that careful planning involves "the organization of information into a coherent sequence, the use of an adequate number of illustrations or examples, precision and concreteness of expression, keeping in touch with students' comprehension and providing enough practice to ensure mastery" (Evertson, Emmer, Clements, Sanford and Worsham, dted in Johnson, 1989, np). Also important to this study is the organization of the curriculum structure to include the four disciplines. Eisner (1987) presented four possible curricular structures for the organization of discipline-based content in an elementary classroom. These were: (1) setting aside a set time each week for instruction in a particular discipline; (2) designing an integrated structure which combines art with another subject; (3) creating areas in the school or classroom where students can engage on independent projects which develop their knowledge in art and (4) a combination of the first three structures. Other possible structures for the organization of the disciplines have been described by Erickson and Katter (1988). These were: (1) co-equity—each discipline is taught separately from the others; (2) assimilation—components lose their individual identity and become fragmented and (3) amalgamation or consolidation—"components work together in a variety of emphases, all the while maintaining their individual identities" (np). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 43 For most beginning teachers it is both a blessing and a curse that there is no set recipe for discipline-based instruction. Decisions like how much time to devote to each discipline, in which order should the disciplines be taught, and how much emphasis to place on the disciplines at each grade level is left up to the teacher's professional judgment (Eisner, 1987). Based on my own experience, discipline-based instruction in the secondary schools is most often organized in a structure similar to Erickson and Katter's assimilation model (1988). It was also the most used organizational method of the Wildcat Art participants at all three grade levels. Field Experiences Early field experiences of preservice art teachers at The University of Arizona consisted of one semester of self-directed classroom observations as well as "simulated field experiences" in the form of interactive video-discs14. The Wildcat Art experience seeks to integrate theory with practical experiences to "improve new teacher's understanding of themselves, their role as educators and their understanding of classroom pedagogy and children" (McDermott, Gormley, Rothenberg & Hammer, 1995, p. 185). It attempts to foster growth in the preservice teachers' decision-making skills and their reflective thought on those decisions, as well as help them make the cognitive jump from student to teacher. Oppewal (1993) has suggested that these kinds of early experiences develop preservice teachers' pedagogical expertise before they enter student teaching. 14 See Galbraith (1993) for a full description of interactive video-disc instruction. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 44 Research states that teacher education programs may be more beneficial to preservice students if they integrate their methods courses with actual classroom teaching (Goodlad; Holmes Group; Meade; in McDermott, Gormley, Rothenberg & Hammer, 1995). Oppewal (1993) indicated that field experiences where preservice students act as teachers may be more beneficial to their development as teachers than those that are purely observational in orientation. Likewise, Zimmerman (1994b) concluded that "preservice art teachers are well served by engaging in concrete situations in which art teaching and learning take place" (p. 65). Student Teaching While field experiences are accepted as beneficial to teacher preparation programs, there is a deep rooted concern that the educational knowledge provided in university course work becomes obsolete once students leave the domain of their teacher training institutions. "The student teaching experience, in many cases, most probably marks and represents not only the physical separation of preservice teachers from their art teacher education, but also their intellectual detachment as well" (Galbraith, 1993, p. 9). The new influential factor in a preservice teacher’s education becomes his or her cooperating teacher. Research indicates that student teachers quickly match the behaviors, practices and expectations of their cooperating teachers (Jeffers, 1993). Jeffers studied the "mimicking" tendencies of student teachers and found that student teachers learn in one of two ways. The first learning behavior, the conformist, occurs when students are limited in their growth as teachers by external factors like school expectations. To conform, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 45 student teachers accept the ideas and practices of their cooperating teachers as truths and do not question or make professional observations about their ideas or practices. Conformity, therefore, provides a narrowly developed pedagogical knowledge. The second learning behavior, the imitative, is similar to the first because mimicking behaviors are still apparent. However, the student teachers do not blindly accepting their cooperating teachers’ beliefs and practices as perfect. Rather, they pride themselves in their ability to fool themselves and others that they are actually teaching. The imitation process allows them to step back away from their role-playing to analyze and "make professional judgments about their practice as they make finer and finer discriminations about what is real or essential and what is not" (Jeffers, 1993, p. 90). Looking at these two models of learning to teach, it is easy to understand why teacher educators would be concerned with their reduced role in preservice teachers' development. If the preservice art teacher is placed with a cooperating teacher who is not sympathetic to the goals of discipline-based art education, as is often the case (Byrne, 1995), this situation becomes even more disturbing. Thus, the question for teacher educators becomes one that investigates how they can make their university classes more meaningful to beginning teachers. Winitzky and Kauchak (1995) proposed an intriguing and insightful explanation for why this phenomenon occurs. They described a theory of skill learning first originated by Anderson, entitled ACT* for Adaptive Character of Thought (cited in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995). The ACT* theory is based on two kinds of knowledge: (1) declarative knowledge which Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 46 involves an understanding of facts and concepts and (2) procedural knowledge which is composed of specific plans of action for performing specific goal achieving skills. "When confronted with a novel problem, the learner integrates relevant declarative with procedural knowledge in a holding area called working memory. The learner then executes some action, and receives feedback on this action. This feedback is used to revise what is stored in memory" (dted in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995, p. 221). This process occurs each time the learner encounters a new problem and thus transforms knowledge into script that reads like an "if-then" statement. If a certain situation occurs, then a specific action is executed. As the learner develops his or her own procedural knowledge, fragmented segments of declarative knowledge compile into a "single production that does the work of the sequence" (cited in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995, p. 221). This becomes a defining factor as to why most professionals contribute their learning development to their experiences in the field. Winitzky and Kauchak use Anderson's theory to describe the notion that students learn how to teach from solving problems in the field. Because classroom problem-solving experiences lead to integrating declarative knowledge into [procedures], it is no longer necessary to consciously retrieve this information...Consequently teacher candidates forget that they ever had this separate store of knowledge, and they loose awareness of its import (cited in Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995, p. 223). Declarative knowledge becomes subsumed into procedural knowledge and becomes unconscious. Teachers literally don't remember ever having learned it in the first place. This understanding of knowledge acquisition provides a foundation for the expansion of field-based opportunities within Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 47 the university. If problem-solving experiences are combined with a feedback component within the university classroom, teachers my come to value their university education more highly. Therefore, when evaluating our programs, it is essential to ask "do we provide opportunities for our preservice clientele to think and act like art teachers?" (Galbraith, 1990, p. 52). Field experiences can "lay the groundwork for student teaching by providing opportunities for prospective teachers to acquaint themselves with the classroom from a teacher's perspective, and to begin to develop and integrate schemata for teaching by studying the teaching of others" (Livingston & Borko, 1989, p. 41). Reflective Teaching An important aspect of the Wildcat Art program that has not before been mentioned is that it attempts to teach preservice teachers to analyze their own teaching and discover other alternatives to pedagogical problems. This practice is called reflective teaching and has become somewhat of an educational buzzword in recent years. While it is sometimes linked to leadership (Zeichner & Liston, 1987) its purpose in the Wildcat Art program is to help preservice teachers look "within themselves to clarify instructional intentions, examine assumptions that underlie expectations, and consider the personal sensitivities necessary for productive interaction with youngsters" (Susi, 1995, p. 112). Methods used to develop these characteristics in Wildcat Art's preservice teachers were journal writing and post-observation conferences. Reflective journals have been proven to help preservice art teachers learn Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 48 about "what they know, how they feel, what they do, and how they do it" (Yinger & Clark in Zimmerman, 1994b, p. 60). The other technique used, post-observational conferences, was conducted as soon after the teaching experience as possible. While the conferences did use evaluative language from Hunter's (1982) Mastery Teaching, they also focused on questions that engaged students in reflective thought and self evaluation. In his research on higher order reflection among novice teachers, Pultorak (1993) presented a list of reflective analysis questions. These questions are good indicators of the types of reflective questions asked during post-observational conferences: (a) What were the essential strengths of the lesson? (b) What, if anything, would you change about the lesson? (c) Do you think the lesson was successful? Why?.... (f) Can you think of another way you might have taught the lesson?... (h) Do you think the content covered was important to the students? Why? (Pultorak, 1993, p. 290) Through this kind of reflective discussion, Students examined their personal behaviors, their solutions to instructional problems and their teaching decisions (Susi, 1995). Strategies for Teaching Art My inquiry into this area focuses on the question "How do art teacher teach their content effectively?" Since the skills and instructional models for production are somewhat obvious, I have chosen to answer this question in relation to the disciplines of aesthetics, criticism and art history. Presented here are brief descriptions of what is important to teach for each of these disciplines as well as strategies for teaching activities. I have also included a brief section on Madeline Hunter's Essential Elements of Instruction for effective teaching since this was the instructional method university students used to evaluate teaching. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 49 Aesthetics Aesthetics is often considered to be the most difficult of the four disciplines to teach because art teacher have little or no knowledge of it or experiences with it (Hagaman, 1990). "Hamblen (1987) and others have noted, it is unclear what sort of aesthetics is called for in a discipline-based approach to art education. The term 'aesthetics' may refer to a variety of things..." (Hagaman, 1988, p. 19). However, it is most often defined as the philosophy of art which investigates its nature and values. Aesthetics is a necessary component of students’ art education for three reasons: (1) So that they will come to understand the nature of philosophical inquiry as it relates to their own thinking and the thinking and writing of others. (2) So that they might learn the skills involved to engage in philosophical inquiry. (3) So that they might find pleasure and fulfillment in engaging in philosophical inquiry and appreciate the value of philosophical inquiry (Stewart, nd). There are a variety of innovative techniques teachers can use to teach aesthetics in the classroom. Hagaman (1990) presented inventive puzzles as a way of engaging students in lively discussions about the nature of art. Puzzles present cases where perplexing issues about the natures and values of art are investigated through student discussion. An example is: "the Louvre is on fire. You can save either the Mona Lisa or the guard who stands next to it, but not both. What do you do?" (Hagaman, 1990, np). Another example describes "Ruby, an elephant in the Phoenix zoo, who paints, creating colorful abstract works of art (Lankford, 1988). Is Ruby an artist? Is w hat she makes art?" (Hagaman, 1990, np). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 50 To involve students in philosophical inquiry Stewart (nd) recommends: encouraging students to ask aesthetic questions and write about them in journals, designating class time for discussions about aesthetic issues or engaging students in "great debates" where students argue a situation from differing stances. Another activity is the In-Out-Maybe game which requires students to determine if an object is art, is not art or might be art. This enables students to examine their own assumptions about the nature of art. All of these activities are starting points from which teachers can develop their students' ability to think philosophically about art. Criticism Instruction in criticism can create within students an understanding of the meaning and significance of works of art. Critical inquiry helps to develop critical thinkers who are able to synthesize and analyze art concepts. Tollifson (1990) described the four components of art criticism as: (1) a formal description of the work; (2) an analysis of the way the properties are organized; (3) an interpretation of the work's mood and meaning and (4) a value judgment of the artwork. Often these are put together in an activity described earlier, aesthetic scanning. This activity involves students in a discussion about the art object's formal properties. It is a useful technique for encouraging student talk about works of art. Other creative teaching strategies for criticism are games like "three card draw, 20 questions, art bingo and art on trial" (Tollifson, 1990, np). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 51 Art History Instruction in art history should be based on content in four areas: "attribution (where, when, and by whom was a work made), iconography (what symbols are present and what do they mean), provenance (what is the history of the work itself) and function (the purpose for which the work was made)" (Greer, 1987, p. 31). This information needs to be structured in a way that makes it relevant to students (Dake 1995). To do this, Dake (1995) suggested that teachers discuss the essence of works of art not their surface qualities. Dake defines the essence of artworks as the political, economic and social constructs within which the artist lived and created. This kind of investigation and individualization of the artist and artworks can foster within students lifelong relationships with art. Parks (1994) outlined three approaches that teachers could use to organize their lessons. These were: (1) the traditional or positivist approach which requires objective observation of the artwork to produce facts; (2) the idealist approach, including thematic, sociological and anthropological approaches, which seeks to understand the contexts and meaning of art objects and (3) the instrumentalist approach which uses art history as a tool for studio. Rather than using only one of these methodologies, Parks advocated a combination of all three. "Thematic approaches can be the 'hook' or motivation than grabs the interests of the students. Idealist concerns like cultural or historical context, make the lessons meaningful, while accompanying studio activities will reinforce the concepts being taught" (Parks, 1994, p. 81). This kind of integrated approach can provide comprehensive art historical experiences for students. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 52 Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI) Mastery Teaching or EEI was developed by Madeline Hunter as an instructional format which identified a list of teaching behaviors that are considered effective, It is based on "...the premise that the teacher can use the principals of learning to accelerate student achievement, and that good teaching consists of very specific teacher behavior" (Johnson, 1988a, np). Hunter indicated four elements for effective instruction. These were: (1) select an objective at the correct level of difficulty for students; (2) teach to the objective; (3) use principals of learning to facilitate the learning of students and (4) monitor the students and adjust the teaching. Hunter and Gee (1988) stated that teachers should begin lessons with an anticipatory set. This sets the stage for the learning. Secondly, the teacher should deliver the content to be taught clearly and teachers should check their students for understanding through either overt or covert active participation. The teacher should then encourage the student to practice the information taught to make sure the student can execute the task with a degree of success. When this has happened, the student can engage in independent practice which helps students "...to develop automaticity, accuracy, and increasing creativity and artistry without the guidance of a teacher" (Hunter & Gee, 1988, np). Summary of the Literature Preservice art teacher education had been under scrutiny since the advent of DBAE. Questions have been raised as to how institutions can best educate their students for their student teaching experiences as well as their Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 53 professional careers. The University of Arizona attempted to improve their students' preservice education with the implementation of the Wildcat Art Saturday Youth Arts Program. This investigation into the nature of that program looked into the following areas of related literature: (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach; (4) Organizational Skills; (5) Field Experiences; (6) Reflective Teaching and (7) Strategies for Teaching Art. One of preservice teachers' greatest challenges is classroom management. Research has proven that a generic approach to classroom management strategies is as effective as one that is discipline specific (Ellingson, 1991). Further, preventive approaches to classroom management, especially those dealing with spatial organization and preliminary and extensive planning are more effective than reactionary techniques which focus on stopping desist behavior once it has begun. Preservice art teachers must include both clearly stated objectives and outlined evaluation procedures in their lesson plans to have a solid foundation for their instruction. In regard to content, curricula should include sequential instruction in each of the four disciplines of aesthetics, art history, criticism and studio. This discipline-based approach is necessary for youth to develop a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of the visual arts. Since there is no prescribed formula for how to teach a discipline- based lesson, there are numerous theories for how the disciplines are best taught. These options were discussed herein as well as possible strategies for teaching the disciplines of aesthetics, art history and criticism. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 54 Other attributes of effective teachers are their organizational characteristics and the extent of their community outreach. Decisions on how much time to devote to each discipline, in which order should the disciplines be taught and how much emphasis to place on each one is left up to the teacher's professional judgment (Eisner, 1987). To fight the marginality of art in the general curriculum, both in-service and preservice art teachers must accept their role as art advocates by instigating small-scale advocacy projects. Preservice students need field experiences to form images of what discipline-based art instruction looks like. Research shows that education programs that combine methods courses with actual teaching are more effective in preparing preservice teachers than those that do not. It has been an issue in higher education that field experiences, specifically student teaching are often considered to be more valuable by professionals than their preservice course work. This may be attributed to Anderson’s ACT* theory which describes the cognitive development necessary for teachers to gain practical knowledge. Finally, engaging preservice teachers in reflective thought can help preservice teachers to analyze their own teaching and discover other alternatives to pedagogical problems. When combined, these seven elements contribute to provide a comprehensive look into the research and literature that most directly relates to, influences or supports the concerns of this inquiry into Saturday school art programs. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 55 CHAPTER 3 THE 1995 WILDCAT ART EXPERIENCE Organization of the Chapter This chapter discusses the findings of research conducted on the Wildcat Art participants during the Spring semester of 1995. This chapter first describes my research methodology on this, the first of two studies I conducted on the Wildcat Art program. It then describes the Wildcat Art Saturday Youth Arts Program in detail, beginning with the preparatory weeks, continuing into the daily running of the lab school and ending with the final student art exhibition. While the description is an accurate record of the activities of the 1995 program, it does not provide a complete record of all that took place during the lab school. The chapter then goes on to present information discovered through four questionnaires distributed both prior to the experience and after the program's completion. The general study, described here, discusses the preconceptions, concerns and suggestions of the sixteen university students enrolled in the program during that semester and offers conclusions based on the collected data. Introduction Wildcat Art, currently preparing for its fourth year as a part of The University of Arizona's Art Education program, has undergone a variety of changes since its inception. Changes have occurred as a result of recommendations made by the university students enrolled in the course at Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 56 the end of each semester. Since this research was conducted during the second year of the program, descriptions herein may not accurately describe the program as it currently exists. However, while some elements of the program have altered from year to year, its basic structure has remained consistent. Methodology Characteristics of the Site and the Sample The site is a large southwestern university with a total current student body population of more than 33,500. Approximately 25,300 of this number are undergraduates. The art education program is located within the Art Education Department that is a part of the College of Fine Arts. The art education program currently has three prominent professors, two adjunct faculty members and four graduate teaching assistants. The department claims 18 graduate students and 49 undergraduates who have declared art education as their major. The art education majors enrolled in Wildcat Art during the spring semester of 1995 made up the sample for this inquiry.15 The sample consisted of sixteen university students: 4 graduate and 12 undergraduate. Fifteen16 of the students were working towards their teaching certificate in art.17 Of the undergraduates, only seven were traditional students. Despite the fact that 15 Wildcat Art is listed in The University of Arizona's general catalogue as ARE 338L: Secondary School Art and is convened with the ARE 558: Theories of Curriculum and Instruction in Art. It is offered only during the Spring semester. 16 One student was not interested in receiving teaching certification because she did not see a use for it in her future. However, after her Wildcat Art experience, she discovered that she enjoyed teaching and went on to become certified the following year. 17 Art certification in Arizona includes grades K-1Z Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 57 69% of the sample students were in the middle or near the end of their preservice art education course work, they generally had few teaching experiences. For most involved, Wildcat Art was their first opportunity to teach art to youth. During the Spring of 1995, Wildcat Art operated as a three unit class offered to both undergraduate and graduate art education majors who sought certification in art. It consisted of two weekly classes which met for one hour and fifty minutes each session until the opening of the lab school at which time the class met once a week for an hour long staff meeting and on Saturday mornings for approximately three hours. Regular class meetings often lasted over their assigned time due to the extensive coordination of the various details needed for the successful realization of the program. Students volunteered this time and were compensated for it by recording their "overtime" in a required log which documented their activities throughout the semester.18 The Method A descriptive research method was best suited for this inquiry on the beliefs of the preservice art teachers enrolled in Wildcat Art because of its concern with assessing the attitudes and opinions of a predetermined sample. According to Gay (1996), descriptive studies generally collect their data through questionnaires, interviews or observation. While there are inherent 18 Other possible activities included hanging an art exhibition at a local school, painting a mural in lab school classrooms, creating a time line for each grade level to use for instruction, making posters which displayed the lab school rules and consequences, organizing and inventorying supplies, coordinating the distribution of basic supplies to each grade level classroom, etc. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 58 problems with this method, like poor participant response to questionnaires or bias in interviews and observations, it provided me an effective method for data collection. To obtain general information on the preservice teachers in Wildcat Art, I constructed three short questionnaires and one comprehensive final questionnaire to help me formulate answers to the following questions: (1) What were the main concerns of preservice art teachers going into their first teaching experience? Did the Wildcat Art program help them to fill in the gaps in their preservice education? Participants’ responses to this question could indicate gaps in the preservice program and provide knowledge of what and possibly where those gaps were. (2) What were the preservice art teachers' learning expectations of the Wildcat Art program? Were they fulfilled at die end of the course? Answers to questions about these concerns would provide knowledge of preservice art teachers' images of what art teaching should look like and give valuable feedback on whether or not The University of Arizona's preservice art education program meets the perceived needs of its students. (3) How did structures existing within the Wildcat Art program help or hinder the university students' perceived development as teachers? Did they value the lab school experience? Why? Answers to questions about these concerns provided insight into what benefits the art education students felt they received as a result of the Wildcat Art program and what they felt should be changed to make the experience a better one. By Leedy's (1993) suggestion, I kept my questionnaires direct and brief by only asking questions that would provide enough information to formulate answers to my questions. I utilized a combination of open- and closed-form questions. This allowed for some personalization of their replies while also providing me with specific data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 59 To answer my research questions, I needed to collect data at two points in the semester. These were: (1) at the beginning of the semester, before the lab school opened and (2) at the end of the semester, after the final teaching day. Each questionnaire was distributed and collected within the first ten minutes of class. Before they were distributed, I explained to the class the purpose of the questionnaires. In addition, I explained that their participation would provide them an opportunity to influence their own education because if relatively large correlations between items were found when examining their responses, the department might be encouraged to adjust the program accordingly. They were also instructed that the questionnaires were voluntary and anonymous, but that I would greatly appreciate their time and effort. A longitudinal study, one that included data collection on the 1994- 1996 Wildcat Art participants, may have provided more comprehensive information than that which is presented here. However, despite this inquiry's limited generalizability and scope, it maintains its usefulness as a precursory investigation into the validity and benefits of implementing Saturday school field experiences into art teacher preparation programs. Background Wildcat Art: A detailed description of its structure Since its inception, Wildcat Art has been instructed by a master art specialist who has an M.A. in art education and over fourteen years experience teaching art in the public schools. She is highly respected by department faculty and has taught the Department's elementary art methods Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 60 course for a number of years as adjunct faculty. She is an active member of the Arizona Art Education Association (AAEA) and has attended multiple National Art Education Association (NAEA) conferences. I was involved with the program as a graduate student who was enrolled in the class for credit. Since I had already taken the class as an undergraduate the previous year, I was encouraged to take a leadership role in the class as the Assistant Director. Using the syllabus and notes outlined by the Director, we worked together to organize lectures, formulate daily activities, problem solve and reflect on the experience throughout the duration of the program. I was not involved with grading other than in exceptional situations when the Director questioned me about specific instructional elements of a lesson I had observed. My role was mainly administrative, but I spent numerous hours in consultation with students brainstorming teaching techniques and strategies, providing feedback on their instruction or further explaining the class content. The program was organized so that during the first eight weeks of the semester the class worked together to formulate their own unique image of what the lab school would look like. The first week of class was spent discussing the kind of commitment, professionalism and dedication inherent in implementing a Saturday Youth Arts Program. The second week, students participated in "getting to know you" exercises and other group building activities. These helped the university students form relationships with one another and discover each other's areas of strength. A chart was put together which rated the students' abilities in each of the four art disciplines. Based on this information, students were Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 61 invited to select two or three member teams with which they would collaboratively prepare and teach discipline-based art lessons to youth. This was done with the assumption that working in teams would encourage students to reflect on their teaching experiences through discussions of alternate solutions to instructional problems with their peers. This idea has been supported by Howey (1988). He discovered that a team of teachers who work closely together can often provide their students higher quality instruction and greater insights than those working alone. In addition, Bucholz, Roth and Hess's research found that working with peers develops each team member’s interdependence as well as cultivates an awareness of shared responsibility (dted in Ryder, 1994). A shared sense of responsibility was especially important because there could be no weak links if we were going to provide the youth attending the program the best possible experience. After splitting into six different teaching teams, students were given the choice of four committees to join as a representative of their team. These were the Primary, Intermediate and Secondary curriculum committees and the Advertising committee.19 The curriculum committees were given class time during the second and third weeks to come up with an age-appropriate sequential curriculum20 that was sensitive to multicultural concerns. A t the 19 The Advertising Committee's tasks were to create a logo, a brochure and posters for distribution to Tucson area schools for recruitment of interested youth. They were also required to type up and distribute press releases for campus and city papers. The committee also took on the responsibility of designing t-shirts for the Wildcat Art staff which identified us as a unit, rather than individuals. These became popular with the program's youth, and have since become anothersource of income. 20 The first year did not have a sequential curriculum. Instead, each grade level's instruction was divided between 2-D and 3-D media. Activities and content for the disciplines were chosen as compliments to the studio component of the lesson. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 62 same time, the advertising committee developed a Wildcat Art logo, brochure and poster. Published lesson plans were taken from the Art Education Department's curriculum resource library and combined to form each curriculum. When the curriculum teams were finished with this task, grade level curricular themes21 were explained to the class and the location of possible lessons were distributed to each of the teaching teams. The advertising committee put these ideas together in a brochure (see Appendix C) and class members began distributing them to area schools during the third week of the program. A rationale for the creation of the four committees is the support researchers have provided for involving teachers in decision-making processes known as teacher leadership (Barth, 1988; Gupton, 1995; Howey, 1988). "Study after study underscores the benefits of dynamic, organic, fluid organizations where problem solving and decision making reside at the level of those responsible for making decisions" (Howey, 1988, p. 29). Furthermore, "whenever people feel that they are important to the organization and have input into making decisions about their own work, they are usually happier and more likely to work hard to make new ideas work" (Gupton, 1995, p. 72). By providing preservice teachers the opportunity to participate in decisions that would dramatically influence the development and execution of the Wildcat Art program, they began to feel a sense of ownership of it and commitment to it. This was a necessity since the success of the program 21 Each curriculum used a thematic approach to unit planning. This helped them meet multicultural concerns by using lesson content to educate students about the cultural similarities and differences in our community. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 63 depended entirely on their willingness to actively participate in it and dedicate themselves to it. While criticisms of teacher leadership in the form of collaborative teams have been voiced, its failure has been seen as a lack of willingness and a general feeling of insecurity due to time restraints, fatigue or inability to assume the responsibility (Gupton, 1995; Howey, 1988). There seems to be a variety of ways to combat these kinds of motivational problems. One is to provide leadership education in preservice teacher preparation programs. "Helping student teachers to assume early in their practice the responsibility for constructing their own knowledge is consistent with the kinds of skills needed for classroom teachers to become true change agents and reflective professionals capable of sharing in school-wide leadership" (Gupton, 1995, p. 79). By providing the college students enrolled in Wildcat Art opportunities to begin participation in leadership activities, they may be empowered to take on similar roles in their professional careers. After curricular demands were met, the preservice teachers were then instructed on the components and instructional methods of a discipline-based lesson plan. A detailed lesson plan structure (see Appendix C) which combined EEI and discipline-based theory was distributed. This was meant to be used as a guideline for the development of personalized lesson plans. An assumption here was that since prerequisites for enrollment in Wildcat Art included art education classes22 which discussed discipline-based theory and the four disciplines, students were knowledgeable about DBAE theory. Therefore, instruction focused on effective teaching methods, strategies for 22 Two semesters of ARE 496H/596H: Current Issues in Art Education Theory and Practice. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 64 teaching the art disciplines and the Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI) (Hunter, 1982). During weeks six and seven, the class broadened its focus to deal with concerns regarding classroom space, supply ordering, rules, regulations and other procedures needed for effectively teaching the youth enrolled in the program. Forms were developed that dealt with emergency health situations, disciplinary concerns and situational considerations such as a written release form for parents or guardians who pick-up each child after the program’s completion on Saturdays (see Appendix C). University classrooms were transformed into creative and interactive learning environments conducive to art instruction. By the eighth week, students had achieved these tasks and were focused on the first day of lab school. Another element of the Wildcat Art program that has been alluded to, but not yet fully explained, is the role of the teaching team that is in the class, but is not instructing the lesson. With only three classes taught per week, half of the teaching teams are "off" each Saturday. Therefore, an observation component was added to the course. This provided each classroom with two teaching teams. One of these teams actually taught a lesson while one observed the lesson using a structured observation form (see Appendix C). This provided students an opportunity to engage in a focused observation by analyzing the classroom environment, investigating student dynamics and thinking reflectively on the teaching taking place. Focused observations have been proven to draw attention to teaching's improvisational characteristics, thus helping preservice teachers to appreciate "...the cognitive demands of successful improvision” (Ribich, 1995, p. 41). This was believed to be an Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 65 important element in their development as teachers since it encouraged reflective thought on teaching action. Another component of the lab school was the registration procedure. As registration forms were received, confirmation packages had to be sent out to the participant's homes. This packet included a confirmation letter which discussed the location of the classes, a map of how to get there and information about orientation on the first day. It also contained a form package which included the disciplinary contract, release form and emergency form. These were to be filled out and brought to orientation the first day of the lab school. Lab school days began at 8:30am for teaching teams and 9:00am for observing team members. Teaching teams set up visual displays, organized their environment and supplies and otherwise prepared for teaching their lessons. Observing teams were required to help their corresponding teaching teams in any way possible up until 9:15am at which time they were responsible for one of three tasks: (1) greeting program participants and their parents at the drop-off and pick-up site; (2) walking program participants from the drop-off and pick-up site to the courtyard outside the classrooms or (3) supervising youth while they played games or drew thematic chalk murals in the courtyard. Promptly, at 9:30am, the observing team members for each grade level led their group of students into their classrooms for instruction. If at any time during the lab school a child needed a drink, to use the bathroom or had a health emergency, observing team members were responsible for assisting or supervising that child. Otherwise, they were meant to be silent observers, unless they were directed by the teaching team to do something Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 66 else. The director and I rotated around the three classrooms during the two and a half hours of instructional time recording observations and assisting in discipline issues or health concerns on the rare instances in which they occurred. At the close of lab school, observing members escorted their age level groups up to the pick-up area and checked them off a list as they left. All observing team members had to be present until the last student of their group was picked up. On occasions when students were not collected, one observing team member would take them to call home and would stay with them until a parent or other guardian arrived. On the last day of the lab school, a comprehensive art exhibition was held on The University of Arizona campus in a gallery space.23 Each child's artwork from all six lessons was displayed. Parents, youth and other guests were invited to attend the exhibition between 10:30am and 12:00noon. This experience provided the youths with a sense of pride and accomplishment. After a graduation ceremony, in which participants were given certificates of achievement, the artwork was carefully taken off the walls and placed in portfolios containing the students' preliminary sketches. Study Results Pre-experience questionnaires Response for each of the three pre-experience questionnaires was low. The first, second and third response rates were 56%, 63% and 38%. Therefore, I can not discuss these results as inclusive of all the university students 23 Please see Appendix D for images of the lab school and the final student art exhibition. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 67 enrolled in the Spring 1995 Wildcat Art program. However, the results do indicate many substantial findings which provide insight on how the program could be altered to better meet the needs of the preservice art teachers enrolled in the course. The first questionnaire indicated that curriculum and lesson planning was the respondents' most serious concern regarding Wildcat Art. This was also reflected in their response to the next question which asked them to rank in order, 1 being the highest, 5 the lowest, what they felt needed to be covered in class to help prepare them for their teaching experience. 89% of the respondents listed "how to prepare discipline based lesson plans” as their greatest need, with 100% of the respondents listing it in the top two. Discipline and classroom management was their second highest concern with 89% of the respondents listing it in the top three positions. The second questionnaire consisted of two open-ended questions that dealt with the curriculum committee's decisions. This helped establish whether or not the committee was representative of the group's concerns. The first question asked what they considered to be the most challenging aspect of creating a curriculum. Six of the nine respondents' answers revolved around group consensus and compromise. An example of this kind of response can be seen through the answer of one student who wrote that his or her greatest challenge was "working in groups; trying to communicate [his or her] ideas while compromising with others." Other ideas were expressed about the order and placement of individual lessons within the curriculum (2:10) and what content should be taught (2:10). Three students chose not to answer the second question. However, of the seven who did, all agreed that Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 68 they were satisfied with the curriculum decisions made by the teams. When asked whether or not they felt that making encompassing curriculum decisions would make lesson planning easier, 10:10 respondents believed that it would. Their reasons why resembled this reply: "this will give the teaching teams a starting point and an idea of what direction to lead the students for the next team." The third and final pre-experience questionnaire asked students what they hoped to gain from the Wildcat Art class. 100% of the respondents24 listed experience as their main goal. Some expanded on this and included other ideas. Two students mentioned organizational skills as important, while another expressed his or her desire to leam teaching strategies which would enable him or her to "...communicate abstract concepts to younger children". The second question asked students to list their position in their education up to that point. Since the response rate for this questionnaire was poor, I discarded the information I had obtained from the questionnaire and asked the class directly to give me this information by raising their hands. The information I received from this is listed in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Student Teaching TTE 30025 ARE26 course work 4 FaH 1995 3 Completed 8 Most Completed 7 Spring 1996 5 Currently EnroUed 3 In The Middle 5 Beyond Spring 1996 8 Not Completed 5 Very Few Completed 24 The third questionnaire had the lowest response rate with only six of the sixteen possible returning their questionnaires. 25 TTE 300: Classroom Processes and Instruction. This course teaches the fundamentals of teaching including classroom management, instruction and planning processes. It is also the class within which students do 30 hours of classroom observation. This is the only other field experience in their education besides simulated field experiences using interactive video disc technology. 26 ARE is the acronym for Art Education in the general catalogue. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 69 Based on the prerequisite that a student needs to be student teaching within the next year to be enrolled, these numbers indicated that only 11:16 students should have been in the class. University students are expected to take the course as a culmination of their preservice course work in art education, but these numbers verified that only 50% of the preservice students enrolled had the art education background necessary (competed 21 credits of Art Education [ARE] course work) to take on this challenge. This becomes especially worrisome when compared to the completion of their secondary education course work. The TTE 300 class provides preservice teachers a basic knowledge of general teaching pedagogy, basic classroom management techniques and instruction in lesson and unit planning. The data show that a scant 19% of the class had this learning completed prior to their Wildcat Art experience. Post-experience Questionnaire The final questionnaire yielded a 100% response rate and is therefore representative of all the university students enrolled in Wildcat Art during Spring 1995. This questionnaire was much longer than the pre-experience questionnaires and allowed for more open-ended responses. When asked if the overall curriculum structure was a good one, 44% agreed that it was. However, 38% said that it was both good and bad. Good and bad answers are defined as a "yes, but..." answer to the question. Some examples of these kinds of student responses were: "I liked the idea of having a large curriculum for organizational purposes, but it would have been nicer to have Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 70 a little more flexibility with what we were supposed to teach" and "It provided a unifying theme, but sometimes one that was confusing and not tied to our specific areas [of studio expertise]." Since the curriculum was meant to be sequential it is interesting to note that nearly half (44%) of the preservice teachers did not keep in mind what came before or after their lessons when organizing their lesson content. In regard to what the preservice teachers felt they had learned the most about as a result of the Wildcat Art experience, curriculum and lesson planning was at the top of the list. 60% of the respondents scored it highest with 100% listing it in the top three. Based on the number of placements in the top three positions, students ranked their learning in the five given areas as: (1) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (2) DBAE Theory into Practice; (3) Classroom Management; (4) Organization and (5) Community Outreach. When asked what was the most beneficial aspect of the program to them as individuals, practical experience and lesson planning were listed most. One student commented: "I think this has really provided a great experience with planning lessons and actually teaching to all age levels. I don't know what I would have done without this class before student teaching." 94% of respondents felt that they were better prepared for student teaching as a result of Wildcat Art. They listed an increased sense of confidence in their teaching, lesson planning and organization as the skills they had acquired which would help them during student teaching. Suggestions for improvements were plentiful and fairly diverse. Four responses expressed dissatisfaction with the way points were distributed and asked that an alternate way to grade be found. Others requested that more Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 71 time be spent on learning to write "good" lesson plans. Some comments voiced a concern about the excessive work load, with two respondents suggesting that the class be changed from three to four credits. Along these same lines, some suggested "an increase in the time frame to extend the entire Wildcat Art preparation and teaching process" possibly over two semesters. Other noteworthy suggestions were reducing teaching teams to two people, providing opportunities for individual teaching experiences and better recruitment of youth (begin it earlier and distribute information more equitably). I left an area in the questionnaire for additional thoughts. Respondents used this area mainly as a forum for offering more suggestions or complimenting the class. Comments here were expressive and unique. Some examples of these were: "I think that this class was one of the most beneficial in the department. It was a great and hard experience and I feel much more prepared for student teaching and 'real' teaching"; "Glad I got the chance to learn the overall teaching experience" and "The class was a wonderful experience and I feel it is the only class in the whole department that teaches you how to be a teacher. We leam[ed] how to write lessons, order supplies, solicit community support, common sense things that schools will expect you to know." Conclusions Based on the findings above, it is obvious that lesson planning is an area of deficiency in the preservice teachers' education. This could be caused by any number of reasons. One could be that their preservice art education courses are not adequately covering lesson planning in their class content. As a result, students are coming into Wildcat Art with poor training on not only Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 72 how to write lesson plans, but how to organize and teach the disciplines as well. Another reason could be that since prerequisites for the course are not being adequately enforced, many of the preservice teachers in the class have not taken even basic educational course work in classroom management, instruction and lesson planning and are therefore inadequately prepared. A final reason could be that there is an assumption made by faculty in the Art Education Department that lesson planning and teaching strategies should be taught in Wildcat Art and that it is not the responsibility of other classes to do this. If this is the case, I caution that "methods classes alone are not adequate to teach both the subject matter content and the methodology of DBAE to the preservice art specialist, along with curriculum, multicultural issues, the state of art education in the nation, the myriad of tools to deal with school culture, as well as assess the merit of resources and text materials for art education" (Champlin, 1995; p. 17). Another finding based on this inquiry into the general program is that curriculum designed by the curriculum committees was a failure. It did not represent the needs and interests of the class and furthermore, students did not take into consideration what had come before or after the lessons they taught. As a result, the program curriculum was a mishmash of individual components unrelated to the whole. I believe that this was because preservice teachers did not have the lesson writing skills nor the experience to take on such a challenge. I argue however, that the general curriculum themes that the class created are interesting and novel ones and should not be discarded without considering if a sequential curriculum is important in supplemental art schools like Wildcat Art. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 73 A third theme that emerged from the findings was that community outreach is undervalued by students. They do not seem to see Wildcat Art as an opportunity to develop their communication with parents and the community, nor do they seem to have learned any advocacy skills to take with them into their student teaching and professional careers. This is of concern because the program was implemented to meet a community need, yet students were unwilling to take advantage of this potential resource. This brings up interesting questions about how students were made aware of this opportunity. Is the value of community outreach and the development of advocacy skills communicated to these students? How can Wildcat Art change its focus to encourage preservice teachers to take better advantage of this resource? The study also points to two structures in Wildcat Art that may require further refinement. These are: (1) lack of sufficient time to take on all the variables involved in the lab school operation and (2) that teaming m ay not always provide the best experience for every student. While teaming seemed to work for most students, the few students who wished to take on more individual responsibility felt limited by their teams. One student wrote that "it was very difficult to work in a group and [then] discover... (after-the-fact) that your teaching styles were really totally different." However, most of the preservice students valued their experience considered it an important element in preparing them for their student teaching. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 74 CHAPTER 4 A CASE STUDY Organization of the Chapter This chapter discusses research conducted on one preservice teacher's progress through the Wildcat Art program and into her student teaching. The study looked for professional growth in four areas: classroom management, curriculum and lesson planning, organizational skills, and her involvement with the community. This research began as a larger study involving four Wildcat Art preservice teachers during the Spring semester of 1995. The subject presented in this case study, hereafter referred to as #4, was selected from those four original subjects as exemplary of Wildcat Art's effectiveness in preparing preservice teachers. This chapter first defines professional growth then lists Kagan's (1992) developmental stages of learning to teach. While it is only a brief introduction to the research conducted in this area, it offers a foundation for the nature of this inquiry. The chapter then discusses my methodology for this case study. This includes a description of #4 which provides background information on how she became interested in teaching art. With an image of #4 clearly drawn, I present and analyze the data collected on #4 over a one and a half year period. The study relates #4's development in Wildcat Art, by looking at data collected during the program, including pre- and post-experience interviews, her required journal, and notes taken by various individuals, and compares it with the data collected during #4's student teaching. Using these Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 75 comparisons, I make conclusions about #4's professional growth and discuss the effectiveness of the Wildcat Art program in preparing preservice teachers for the student teaching component of their preservice education. Introduction Since this study examines relative professional growth in each of the four areas27 as a result of the Wildcat Art experience, a small discussion on how this term is defined is important. While much is written on the differences between novice and professional teachers (Borko & Livingston, 1989; Moskowitz & Hayman, 1974), studies which describe the way teachers leam to teach are less prevalent. In 1992, Kagan conducted a review of the literature in this area. After reviewing 40 articles she found that: professional growth among novice and beginning teachers is both behavioral and conceptual. Growth consists of a least five components: 1. An increase in metacognition: Novices become more aware of w hat they know and believe about pupils and classrooms and how their knowledge and beliefs are changing. 2. The acquisition of knowledge about pupils: Idealized and inaccurate images of pupils are reconstructed. Knowledge of pupils is used to modify, adapt and reconstruct the novice's image of self as teacher. 3. A shift in attention: As the image of self as teacher is resolved, a novice's attention shifts from self to the design of instruction to pupil learning. 4. The development of standard procedures: Novices develop standardized routines that integrate instruction and management and grow increasingly automated. 5. Growth in problem solving skills: Thinking associated with classroom problems solving grows more differentiated, multidimensional and context specific. Eventually, novices are able 27 (1) Classroom Management; (2) Curriculum and Lesson Planning; (3) Community Outreach and (4) Organizational Skills. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 76 to determine which aspects of problem solving repertoires can be generalized across contexts. Using these components as indicators of professional growth, a clearer image of #4's development as a teacher can be seen. Methodology Characteristics of the In-depth Case Study At the time of the study, #4 was a 24 year old female. She became interested in teaching art as a result of her love of studio art. When I first met her, she was in her fifth year of college and had attended three other colleges besides The University of Arizona. These were Chapman University in Orange, CA; Arizona State University in Phoenix, AZ; and Pima Community College in Tucson, AZ. She had completed two of the three required secondary education courses and was taking the third, TTE 300, concurrently with Wildcat Art. While most of her studio requirements had been met, she had only completed nine of the 18 necessary credits in art education. Her future plans involved taking a year off after graduation to live and work in France. The Method After spending four weeks with the preservice teachers enrolled in the Wildcat Art program during the Spring of 1995,1 selected four traditional28 undergraduate students to observe and look for professional growth in the four areas of: (1) classroom management, (2) curriculum and lesson 28 I chose traditional students because I believed that they would most likely have the least amount of experience. This was necessary for an accurate indication of the professional growth the students attained. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 77 planning, (3) community outreach and (4) organizational skills. These four areas were selected as a result of my own personal experiences with the program the year before. They were meant as general outlines and I made only very broad and tentative hypotheses on what I expected to find. For each subject29 of study, #1, #2, #3 and #4,1 gathered materials that would enable me to construct a clear picture of their pedagogical knowledge, teaching experience and preconceived ideas of what effective art education looks like in practice. My data consisted of each subject's class notes and required journals,30 my own personal notes made while observing the subjects teaching in each of the three grade levels, the Director's observation notes and the required evaluation forms of peers who viewed the lesson31. I also collected each subject's three lesson plans and the related instructional materials. Triangulation helped reduce the bias inherent in qualitative case studies in two ways. First, it helped provide a better picture of each subject's instruction and secondly, it provided a way to check that my personal notes and observations were accurate records. In addition, I conducted informal pre- and post-experience interviews32 to more thoroughly investigate the beliefs, attitudes and assumptions of the four subjects. The pre-experience interview provided personal information and allowed me to assess their preconceptions about the experience, their ideas about DBAE, their level of education and their individual teaching philosophies while the post-experience interview asked the subjects to reflect 29 3 females and 1 male. 30Journals were written in as a partof course requirements up through the ninth week of classes, when the instructor no longer thought they were an essential element to their education. 31 Please see Appendix C for the observation forms used for peer evaluation of the teaching teams. 32 Interview questions can be found in Appendix B. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 78 on the experience and to look for change in their beliefs or ideologies. Both of these were recorded to ensure that I had an accurate record of these proceedings. After I reviewed the information collected on the four case studies33,1 selected one student, to follow through her student teaching experience.34 I observed her four times during her student teaching and on my final visit, made a video cassette recording of her instruction. I was also given copies of her lesson plans and her personal notes. Contact was made with the university's student teacher supervisor who, upon request, made detailed notes during two observation sessions with special attention to #4's skills in each of the four study areas. Issues from both the Wildcat Art and student teaching experiences were brought together in a final interview35 conducted immediately after the completion of #4’s student teaching assignment. The final interview asked reflective questions that looked for relative professional growth and changes in her beliefs, attitudes and preconceptions in each of the four areas of inquiry. Interviews Besides collecting data from a variety of outside sources, I chose to use interviews as my main way of extracting the beliefs and experiences of my 33 Subject #2 dropped out of the research study mid-way through the semester. In addition, #1 completed her student teaching out of state so she was also eliminated as a candidate for the in-depth case study. 34 #4 conducted the student teaching component of her certification requirements in the Spring of 1996. 35 This interview was also recorded. The three interviews were then transcribed and delivered to #4 for her approval. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 79 four study participants. The interview method I chose was informal rather than formal. By setting up a relaxed, open and trusting environment, I hoped that the interview process would be less intimidating and more inviting. This I hoped, would encourage my subjects to answer honestly, rather than indirectly in an attempt to avoid an undesired answer. Since the study began with four participants, I required an interview that utilized both a structured and unstructured approach36 (Guba and Lincoln, in Myers, 1992). The interviews were structured in that I had prearranged questions that were based on a set of issues related to the four areas of my study. However, the interviews were flexible enough that a respondent's answer to any of the interview questions could and often did lead to spontaneous discussions unrelated to the original question. In using this mixture of both a structured and unstructured interview format, I hoped to create a situation that was more like a casual conversation than a quiz on how much educational jargon they could recite in one hour. While a semi­ structured interview method can be considered inconsistent with qualitative research, I retained this approach for the final interview w ith #4. This seemed appropriate since the other two interviews were conducted in this m anner. Study Limitations This inquiry is limited in its generalizability and scope since it was conducted at one southwestern university and discusses only one case which 36 Myers (1992) described a structured interview as one that presents the interviewer as the holder of knowledge, while an unstructured interview identifies the interviewee as the expert who teaches the interviewer his or her information. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 80 cannot be considered inclusive of all students attending this university or any university since no two experiences can be considered the same. In addition, there is the possibility of my own bias. My close affiliation with the program and my personal relationship with #4 may have altered my objectivity when reviewing the data. It should also be mentioned that #4 was considered by her university supervisor to be an "atypical" student teacher in that her skills rose above and beyond most beginning teachers (Telephone conversation, Spring 1996). Therefore, bias may exist as a result of her inherent teaching ability. Other factors which may have influenced the study are: (1) #4 had some previous teaching experience before she came into the art education program at The University of Arizona;37 (2) one semester of course work separated #4's lab school experience and her student teaching and (3) #4's student teaching site was located within an economically privileged area of Tucson.38 The Case Study Classroom Management During the pre-experience interview, #4 was asked to describe her image of herself as a teacher. She saw herself as an enthusiastic, but casual and easy going teacher. She wanted to be the kind of teacher that all students like and respect. However, class control was important to her. Her ideal classroom environment was one that was controlled, but not controlling: "the kids know what they need to do and stick to what the plans are... I'm fun 37#4 taught skiing in Colorado to young children, and preschool art in Tucson. 38 The site had a comparatively large art budget, high community involvement and support for the arts and education, and excellent working conditions. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 81 to be around and everything’s really going [well] and they’re excited about what they're doing and leave everything else out of the room." When asked how she thought she might handle discipline problems in the classroom, #4 related an awareness of the relationship between rules and student behavior. I think making sure that students know what's expected of them from the beginning and what is not [is important]... You've got to give some chances, you know, [but] not keep letting them have chances. I mean, you've got to draw the line somewhere... I don't want to be a discipline person. I know you have to be to some extent in some ways, but I think letting all the students know where the line is and this is what happens when you cross it [is best] (#4, Pre-experience Interview, March 2,1995). This philosophy was evident on her first day of teaching at the lab school. The following describes an incident that occurred during the instruction of her teaching team's Australian cave painting lesson to the Primary group. I had a little bit of classroom management to deal with, one boy kept taking off, running ahead, climbing the highest on the fountain etc... I stopped with him and explained that it was very important that we stay together [while on the walkabout] and that he should be able to see me all the time. That worked for a little while and then he needed to be reminded. I think that if I would have taken a more serious tone and really stressed the rules of what to do and not to do on an excursion, he would have realized that his behavior was not so good. For a longer field trip this would have been important, but I think that for our half an hour tour on campus, my casualness and two or three reminders were enough (#4 Journal, March 4,1996). As #4 dealt with more behavior issues like the one listed above, she began to refine her ideas of discipline. She became more aware of how to incorporate Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 82 preventative techniques into her lesson plans to elicit appropriate behavior rather than waiting for problems to begin. By her third Wildcat Art lesson, #4 began to set up her classroom environment in a way that contributed to a well disciplined classroom. Her Intermediate classroom was described as: ...nicely filled with a portrait of Faith Ringgold and reproductions of her work. There were also books that contained stories by Faith. A story board of Tar Beach was also hung at the back of the room... The supplies were neatly set up at the back. Papers and mat board were divided by their colors. There were also supply baskets that contained pencils, glue and rulers. For this particular project, which was story quilts, there [was] fabric, material, lace, buttons and sequins laid out for the students (Observer Form I, April 22, 1995). Another preventative technique she used to prevent minor misbehavior was what Quick (1993) called "extending the behavior to its most extreme" (np). The Intermediate classroom was a college classroom that had chairs and tables bolted to the floor in a "U" format. Chairs swiveled back and forth as well as around. This enabled students to move in and out of them easily. The chairs became an issue for teachers of the Wildcat art program, because the Intermediate students enjoyed rocking in them during classes. To combat this problem, #4, at the very beginning of class, asked her pupils to "wiggle" in their chairs for 30 seconds. This was done with the understanding that after this experience they would not be allowed to engage in this behavior again. This drastically reduced student movement for the rest of the lesson. When asked about her management techniques during the post­ experience interview, #4 listed her development as a manager rather than an abstract image as she had before the lab school experience. "I think I got better Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 83 at seeing something, seeing and adjusting right away instead of kind of waiting until it got really crazy" (Post-experience Interview, May 12,1995). In this statement #4 demonstrated that she has begun to integrate the managerial and instructional functions of teaching into a cohesive action. Additionally, her image of herself as a teacher and a manager had matured into one that was more aware of her students as people You don't really think that you should give children or students... knowledge [about what's expected of them] ahead of time... I think coming right out and saying [what is] inappropriate behavior right in the beginning really helps alleviate a lot of the problems. Just being aware that if you do that, if you tell them this is not okay [they will know and not do it] because [otherwise] they have no idea what's okay and what's not (Post-experience Interview, May 12, 1995). By the end of her student teaching, #4 seemed to have developed a much firmer stance on classroom management and was aware that she had made early mistakes in her casual approach: Discipline was hard. I think I was successful in some ways because I gave them much stricter discipline than they were used to. But I think in my own classroom, I would be much harder with it and right off the bat... They were used to such a relaxed style and... at first I went into their wanting to be liked, 'cause that was just human instinct, you know? And that was a little bit of my downfall... (Final Interview, May 13,1996). This statement demonstrates #4's professional growth in this area. After acquiring knowledge about her pupils, #4 determined that she could not be their best friends and their teacher. She used this information to re­ frame her ideas about classroom management. Her revised view became one more concerned with control than her original perception. She realized that she needed to find a balance between establishing and maintaining class control and developing a good rapport with her students. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 84 Curriculum and Lesson Planning Before Wildcat Art, #4 had never planned a discipline-based lesson. Her lessons for Wildcat Art were extremely thorough. Objectives, motivators, vocabulary and activities were outlined for each learning activity. All three of her Wildcat Art lesson plans included related learning experiences between the four disciplines. On the average, these lesson plans were six pages long. However, during student teaching, #4's lesson plans reduced in their complexity throughout the semester. By the end of her student teaching, they had become little more than general themes for each day. While her early student teaching lesson plans were far less complex than her Wildcat Art lesson plans, they were still somewhat comprehensive and explanatory: Sketchbook in group 1. Try to finish up - make sure you've met all the criteria - leave finished box on front tables with plastic and air vent 2. Respect others' projects Process: GREENWARE > fire BISQUEWARE > fire GLAZE----- Finished *If you had anything in the show, it's in the office (Lesson Plans, January 9,1996). By the middle of the semester, however, her lesson plans had transformed into brief statements: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 85 INTRODUCE SCULPTURAL PROJECT • Show slides • 3 sketches (Lesson Plans, March 12,1996) These kinds of plans reflect what Winitzky and Kauchak (1995) called "a by-product of increasing skill" (p. 223) This idea is based on an understanding that as teachers gain experience, they develop their procedural knowledge. With an adept procedural knowledge in place, a step-by-step lesson planning format becomes redundant since many of those steps become combined into single actions. After teachers have experience in classrooms they form basic understandings of how students learn and what methods work best for certain situations. They no longer need the extensive planning they may have used at the beginning of their teaching experiences. However, this kind of lesson planning seems inadequate for the kind of quality visual arts instruction The University of Arizona strives for its students to produce. Did #4 reduce her lesson plans because she had achieved higher levels of teaching expertise, or because she was not held accountable for her lesson plans by either her student teaching supervisor or her cooperating teachers? Could it be that this kind of planning was modeled by her cooperating teachers? Interestingly, when asked about her "brief statement" lesson planning format #4 never discussed what kind of impact, if any, this had on her feeling of preparation for each day, or what kind of impact this kind of planning had on her students. Community Outreach In the pre-experience interview, I asked #4 her opinion about involving the community in her future art program. She answered with Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 86 tremendous enthusiasm stating: "I think that its really important because, if you win [the community] over, they become supportive of you and everything you do” (Pre-experience Interview, March 2, 1995) When asked how she would form bonds with the community, she thought she would involve them through open houses or sending a letter home, a practice required in Wildcat Art. Her parent letter from the Primary group illustrates how she used letter writing to communicate her lesson objectives to her student's parents. Today we talked about symbols and their different meanings. The students made their own symbols which were transferred to their faces in the same way the Aborigines transferred symbols to their faces. We then experienced a bit of dreamtime with a legend and aboriginal music (Parent Letter P, March 11, 1995). When I asked a similar question after #4's student teaching, she had difficulty describing examples of how she solicited parental involvement during her student teaching. After prompting, she recalled her use of evaluation forms as a community builder between her, her students and their parents. Because grades were based on whether or not the students met specific criteria, forms provided parents with specific information as to what their son or daughter had done or failed to do. Using these forms gave her confidence when speaking to irate parents about their child's grade(s). She believed that these also became very helpful in her communication with students. These forms demonstrate how #4 made the cognitive leap from self- centered concerns to student-centered concerns. They helped her improve the clarity of her instruction by providing a format by which her students would be graded. This helped her to more clearly analyze her desired Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 87 outcomes for student learning. Additionally, the forms provided her an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of her teaching through her students’ written reflections to specific content-based questions. Organizational Skills When asked whether or not she believed in DBAE during the pre­ experience interview, #4 responded: "Yeh, I do. I don't know how in my classroom I would quite yet weigh the different areas, like how much criticism is essential... [but] it's definitely important to have more than studio." Before she had taught, she believed that instructional time between the four disciplines should be distributed as: (1) studio 50%; (2) art history 25% and (3) criticism and aesthetics combined 25%. Her Wildcat Art lesson plans seemed to reflect these guidelines somewhat, though studio probably received more time than she had stated and art history much less. During Wildcat Art, her organization of the four disciplines in her lessons most closely resembled Erickson and Katter's (1988) amalgamation structure with each discipline working together to form a single unit, while still maintaining their separate identities. However, during her student teaching, #4 assumed a different model. She used a co-equity approach, with each discipline taught unrelated to and separate from the others. She did this by setting aside one day out of each week to teach one of the four disciplines. Some of the activities she chose were student presentations on artists or art movements, and a criticism game called Token Response. When she had completed her student teaching, I again asked her how the four disciplines should be weighed in each lesson. She drastically Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 88 modified her pre-teaching ideals by giving considerably more time to studio and completely eliminating criticism and aesthetics: (1) studio 75-80% and (2) art history 25-20%. When I asked her if she had tried to incorporate the four disciplines into her teaching she said: I think we covered art history and aesthetics and criticism, you know, kind of jumping back and forth... but then, even while you're doing the studio and walking around, I would try to [tell] students working in a certain way, [about ]... another artist [who worked in a similar way]... So it kind of peeks in every once and a while when you're teaching studio. Thus #4 altered her image of herself as a discipline-based teacher as a result of her student teaching. It is an important consideration here that neither of her cooperating teachers were advocates of DBAE, therefore #4 had no model from which to learn. This seems to support May's findings that "the goals of practicing teachers, are at times, 'at-odds' with the theories and practices of university teacher educators" (cited in Galbraith, 1993). Therefore, increased coordination between the university and in-service professionals seems to be imperative if theory from university is to become solidified in the practices of recently certified art teachers. Conclusions These findings reflect previous research on the professional development of beginning teachers (Jones & Vesilind, 1995; Kagan 1992; Winitzky & Kauchak, 1995) . In order for #4 to achieve higher levels of professional development, she had to first have an image of herself as a teacher, then modify it based on her learning about her students. Wildcat Art helped #4 to develop an image of herself as a teacher. W ithout this Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 89 experience, #4 would have spent time developing this image during her student teaching while also attempting to teach, organize supplies, write lessons and learn about her students. Because #4 already had this knowledge in place, she could focus her attention on learning about her students, then modify and adjust her teaching based on that information. It seems apparent then, that the kind of field experience offered through Wildcat Art can help beginning teachers develop strong self-images, therefore enabling them greater opportunities for professional growth during student teaching. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 90 CHAPTER 5 IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction I believe that Wildcat Art is an essential component to The University of Arizona's art teacher preparation program. Looking at Wildcat Art comparatively over three years that I have been involved with it, it is overwhelmingly obvious that most students want, even crave, the kind of practical experiences offered by this course. Wildcat Art gives students those experiences by providing a forum on which they can practice teaching discipline-based lessons. While Wildcat Art does not provide a completely realistic teaching experience, it does help students create an image of themselves as teachers. This image, essential for professional growth, is an important aspect of their development from art education students to art teaching professionals. The Wildcat Art teaching experience also helps to unite students' theoretical or declarative knowledge with their practical or procedural knowledge, thus creating a vital link between university based theory and art teaching practice. Students can discuss issues in their classes and use that information to modify and adapt their teaching. This is a powerful component of the program in that students develop their image of teaching in unison with their preservice education. This allows art teacher educators an opportunity that has previously been denied in traditional student teaching formats. University course work may become more meaningful as students put this knowledge into practice, thus somewhat reducing the role Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 91 that the cooperating teacher has as the sole bearer of a preservice teacher's practical knowledge. Implications In order to improve preservice education, teacher educators need to listen and respond to calls for reform. They must be willing to accept change. This includes the implementation of additional field experiences both within the university structure in the form of Saturday art schools, and outside its confines in the public schools. For field based experiences to be rewarding for all involved, university faculty will have to establish relationships w ith their colleagues in the public schools. Continuous communication between the two must occur for this partnership to be effective and beneficial to students. Educators on both ends will need to be enthusiastic about what this change will bring. This means that in-service professionals will welcome students into their classrooms, will discuss their teaching pedagogy with them and will share their instructional methods. University professors must be willing to incorporate discussions about these field experiences into their already stressed curriculum. If these changes can occur, preservice teachers will come into the field as student teachers with a clearly formed image of art teaching in practice thus enhancing their learning and their development as teachers. Recommendations For Change Since my experience with the Wildcat Art program has given me the opportunity to participate it as both a student and an educator, I have seen a variety of changes within its structure. Each year adjustments have been Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 92 made in an attem pt to provide more meaningful experiences for preservice teachers. Based on my observations of the program and on the findings of the two case studies, I have produced three recommendations for change. These are: (1) topics for discussion in art education classes prior to, or concurrently with Wildcat Art; (2) mandatory classroom observations in public schools and (3) the development of committees to take on the various operational responsibilities of the lab school. Topics for Discussion Every year, numerous issues arise that need to be discussed. Because of the rapid pace of the Wildcat Art class, these issues can't and don't receive adequate attention. I propose that these issues or topics be incorporated into the content of other art education classes. While this will be an added burden on the curriculum of those courses, the topics are worthwhile and integral to the development of knowledgeable and skilled art teachers. These topics could be addressed in a variety of ways: (1) a formal presentation from an expert in the area, (2) a group research project and presentation or (3) an interview project in which students interview a professional in the field and write their reflections of the interview. I have compiled a list of topics that have come up over the three years I have been involved with the Wildcat Art program. Because of the nature of these topics, some might best be discussed in course work prior to the Wildcat Art experience, while other topics might be most relevant if discussed at the same time that students are dealing with the issue in Wildcat Art. Listed here are some possible topics for research/discussion: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 93 • W hat school districts use EEI? What instruments do other school districts use to evaluate teacher performance? • How do you meet the needs of children with special abilities? For example: hearing impairment, ADD/ADHD • How do you teach a lesson that incorporates a variety of learning styles? What strategies can you use to teach a visual learner? An auditory learner? A kinesthetic learner? etc... • What does the research say about cooperative learning? How can you incorporate cooperative learning techniques into a discipline-based art lesson? • What are some questioning strategies that involve all students in the learning? What are some techniques for implementing these ideas into discipline-based art lessons? • What are some time management techniques that will help you to meet your commitments? What are some ways to manage stress? Mandatory Classroom Observations While art education students have field experiences in their general education classes, they are not always placed in an art room and even when they are, they only view one art teacher's method of instruction. I believe that the preservice art teachers enrolled in the Wildcat Art program would gain considerable knowledge from additional field experiences in the public schools. I therefore recommend that Wildcat Art students spend a minimum of ten hours observing art teachers in the public schools before the opening of the lab school. This kind of experience would grant them a better understanding of the complexities of art teaching on a daily basis. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 94 Additionally, this kind of field experience would this help them form an image of what art teaching looks like in practice. It would also provide the preservice art teachers an opportunity to see how experts organize their supply distribution, handle art related discipline issues, reinforce appropriate behavior, establish efficient clean-up procedures, etc. This kind of practical information would become especially relevant to preservice teachers if they knew they would soon have an opportunity to immediately implement these strategies into their own teaching. To strengthen their learning and to develop reflective teaching skills, university students would benefit from a written reflection of each of their observations. Observations and their corresponding reflections should focus on only one or two aspects of the teaching they observed. This would enable preservice art teachers to learn about specific instructional behaviors rather than attempting to comprehend all the actions and decisions an experienced art specialist makes during a fifty minute art class. Furthermore, I strongly recommend that these observations take place in at least two different sites and at two different age levels, preferably elementary and high school. Development of Committees In the three years that Wildcat Art has been operating, students have been given a points menu from which they chose activities to do. The amount of points they earned determined 20% of their grade. At the beginning of the semester each student selected activities that he or she wanted to participate in or complete. However, as the semester progressed, some students earned more points by volunteering for non-menu activities, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 95 thus opting out of their earlier commitments which created a deficiency in certain areas. At the end of the year, when most people have more menu points than they need, motivation to do spur of the moment tasks was non­ existent. To make the staff run more like a school environment, I suggest that each student receive their points by signing up for a committee. Committees would meet once a week for a half an hour during class time to accomplish tasks they are required to do. After the lab school opens, meetings would instead be held every two weeks. On the first day of the committee meetings, each committee member will be presented with an agenda that lists all that committee's required tasks and their date of completion. Each committee member would need to keep a log of how much time they spent working on committee tasks. Some students will obviously work harder than others, so in addition to the log, I suggest that there be both a peer and a self evaluation at midterm and again at the end of the semester. This would ensure that all committee members participate in completing their tasks. I feel that the development of committees would unite the class and give them a group identity since they would most likely be working with classmates outside their teaching teams. I have distributed tasks between four committees39. The committees are: (1) Public Relations which manages registration and the final art exhibition; (2) the Wildcat Art Site committee which handles orientation and coordinates site based issues like setting up the class environments; (3) Advertising and Design which creates flyers, brochures, t-shirts, etc...; and (4) 39 For a complete description of each committee's requirements, please see Appendix B Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 96 Community Outreach and Staff Support which participates in community activities like hanging student art displays and supports the staff with additional projects. I feel that these changes could help the program run more efficiently and would give preservice teachers a better learning experience. Conclusion Change in education is a slow process. It often meets barriers and falls to the wayside. While there are inherent problems w ith the Wildcat Art program, like its overwhelming time commitment and personal involvement, most students who go through the program admit that it was an incredible learning experience and are appreciative of the skills and knowledge they learned as participants in it. In addition it is a wonderful resource for the community. Many of our Secondary students are from low socio-economic backgrounds and attend the classes on scholarships. This enables them to focus on their artistic strengths and develop them in a way that extends the learning offered in their regular art classes. Furthermore, younger students enrolled in the program have the opportunity to develop their skills while simultaneously building lasting relationships with works of art and artists. The implementation of such a program can only improve an existing preservice art teacher preparation curriculum. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • APPENDIX A Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 98 QUESTIONNAIRE #1 Name? (optional)_______________________________ . 1. Please indicate what your most serious concern is regarding Wildcat Art. 2. Please rank in order, 1 being the highest, 5 the lowest, what you feel we need to cover in class to prepare you for your teaching experience. Discipline/Classroom Management How to prepare DBAE lesson plans ______What to do when addressing controversial subject matter (nudes, religion, etc...) How to evaluate student work Communication with parents QUESTIONNAIRE #2 Name? (optional)_______________________________ . 1. What did you consider the most challenging aspect of creating a curriculum or advertising campaign? 2. Are you satisfied with the curriculum decisions the teams made? 3. Do you feel that making this encompassing curriculum decisions will make lesson planning easier for teaching teams? If so, how? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • QUESTIONNAIRE #3 Name? (optional)_______________________________ 1. What do you hope to gain from this Wildcat Art experience? 2. When will you do your student teaching? Fall 1995______ Spring 1996______ Fall 1996______ Spring 1997______ 3. Have you taken: TTE 300 EdP 310 EDUC 350 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 100 QUESTIONNAIRE #4 Now that the lab school is nearly over, and some of the feelings of anxiety are over, it is important that you do some reflective thinking about the experience by answering the following questions. 1.) Was the decision to make an initial large curriculum plan a good one? 2.) How did the unit plan for each age level affect your lesson planning? 3.) Did you keep in m ind what had come before, or what would come after when organizing the content to be taught during your lessons? 4.) Please rank in order, 1 being the highest, 5 the lowest, what you feel you've learned the most about as a result of this experience. Discipline/Classroom Management Lesson Planning Organization (time sequencing, time on task, etc...) Community Outreach Putting theory into practice (DBAE) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 101 Please write freely on the following questions. Be assured that all answers w ill be held in strict confidence. 5.) W hat are one or two areas you'd like to see improved upon in regard to this class. 6.) Specifically what has been the most beneficial aspect of this program for you. 7.) Do you feel better prepared for a student teaching experience as a result of this experience? Please explain. 8.) Any additional thoughts? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 102 PRE-EXPERIENCE INTERVIEW Subject #__________. May I record the interview? (yes) ______ (no) 1.) What is your date of birth?___________________ . 2.) Are you a resident of Arizona? (yes) (no) 3.) What are your parents occupation? Mother:_____________________________________________ Father:______________________________________________ 4.) How did you become interested in education? 5.) What year are you in school?____________________________ Do you have any other degrees? Did you attend any other college besides U of A?________ Where?_____________________________________________ 6.) What Art Education classes have you taken? ARE 130 Appreciating the Visual Arts ARE 306 Images and Ideas in the Visual Arts ARE 330 Foundations of Art Education ARE 338L Secondary School Art ARE 361 Creative Arts Methods ARE 400 Art for Exceptional Learners ARE 431 The Teaching of Art ARE 434 Multicultural Issues in Art Education ARE 496a Aesthetics and Criticism Seminar ARE 496b History and Production Seminar Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 103 7.) What education classes have you taken? ___________ EDP 310 Learning in the Schools ___________ EDUC 350 Schooling in America ___________ TTE 300 Classroom Processes & Instruction ___________ LRC 435 Language, Reading, and Culture ___________ TTE 338L Teaching Art in Secondary School 8.) When will you do your student teaching?. 9.) Have you had any teaching experience? Please explain. 10.) Why did you take 338L? What do you hope to gain from it? 11.) Are you around children often? If so, how? 12.) What are your future plans? Do you plan to teach art in the public schools? Will you pursue a master's degree? In what subject area? Do you have any minors? In what? 13.) Why do you want to teach art? 14.) How do you see yourself in the role of a teacher? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 104 15.) Do you consider yourself an organized person. Why or why not? 16.) How do you plan to put together lesson plans with your team? How will the team work together to teach the lesson? 17.) Do you think it will be easier to teach with a team, or do you wish you could teach on your own? 18.) Have you planned a discipline-based lesson before? 19.) What amount (in percentage) do you feel each discipline deserves? Aesthetics Criticism History Production 20.) How will you handle discipline problems? What tactics do you believe in? 21.) What would you do in the following scenarios? Scenario #1: A student is not being disruptive, but is not working on the assignment. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 105 Scenario #2: A student draws a marijuana leaf in his or her drawing. Scenario #3: Students are talking during your demonstration and are disrupting other classmates. You have asked them to quiet down both personally and in front of the class, what do you do? Scenario #4: Two students become verbally abusive to you and/or each other. 22.) What is your opinion on involving the community in an art program? 23.) How do you see yourself getting involved with the parents you will be working for in Wildcat Art? 24.) W hat constitutes professionalism in an art teacher? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 106 POST-EXPERIENCE INTERVIEW Subject #_________ . May I record the interview? (yes) (no) 1.) What was your involvement with parents if any? Do you feel as though you established experience working with parents as a result of this experience? If so, how? 2.) How did you solve management problems in the classroom? Do you feel as though you developed a personal discipline style? 3.) Tell me about a discipline problem that you feel that you handled well? 4.) How did you use organization, meaning distribution of supplies, clean-up procedures, the timely layout of the four disciplines, etc... as way to avoid discipline problems? 5.) How did you put together lesson plans with your team? How much time to each of the four disciplines etc... 6.) How did your team teach the lesson? What area we you held most responsible for? Do you think you will use any of the six artist files you’ve completed for student teaching? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 107 7.) In retrospect, was it easier to teach with a team? Why? 8.) What specific things would you like to see changed regarding this program? What suggestions do you have that would’ve made this a more enjoyable experience for you. 9.) How has this program benefited you? 10.) W hat areas do you feel you've grown in? Do you feel better prepared to do your student teaching? What areas will you focus on improving during your student teaching? 11.) Should Wildcat Art remain a part of UA's curriculum? Why? 12.) What is your summer address so I can forward information to you? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 108 FINAL INTERVIEW Subject . Date:_________________________ . May I record the interview? (yes) (no) 1.) How did you work with CFHS staff and administration? What role, if any, did you play at faculty meetings, or other school events that m ight have help build a relationship between art and other disciplines? 2.) How was interaction with CFHS staff and administration similar or different to the interactions you had with the Wildcat Art staff? 3.) How did you communicate to either parents, students, school staff, and or the community? For example: art displays, letters home with students, school newsletter, evaluation comments, collaboration with other teachers, or involvement on district-wide or site-specific committees. 4.) How did you solve discipline problems in the classroom? Do you feel as though you have developed a personal discipline style? If so, what is it? 5.) Tell me about a discipline issue or classroom management problem you think you handled well. Tell me about one you would like to have handled differently? How did your experiences in Wildcat Art help to prepare or not prepare you for these kinds of situations? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 109 6.) Did you attempt to create a discipline-based curriculum? If so, how did you do this? 7.) How did you go about organizing your curriculum? Was your curriculum subject to your cooperating teacher's input, or dictation? 8.) Were any of your lessons based on published curriculum? Why or why not? 9.) Do you feel that your lessons were sequential? Was previous learning applied to later lessons, etc... 10.) What kind of assessment strategies did you use? 11.) Did you use any Wildcat Art curriculum? Why or why not? .12.) W hat lesson planning strategies, if any, did you practice in your student teaching? (unit files, DBAE lesson plans, downtime activities, etc.) 13.) How did you organize time in lessons? How was time distributed among each of the four disciplines? (lecture vs. studio time) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 110 14.) How far in advance did you prepare and plan for new units (Wildcat Art vs. Student Teaching?) 15.) How were supplies distributed? How was space organized in the classroom? (kiln closet, tables, paper, portfolios, projects both current and completed, etc.) 16.) Did you have a budget for materials? How did your budget differ from the Wildcat Art budget? 17. How do you feel that Wildcat Art helped to prepare or not prepare you for your student teaching experience? What was the most important thing you feel like you learned from Wildcat Art (the one that made the biggest difference during your student teaching)? 18. In what area(s): organization, discipline/classroom management, lesson planning/curriculum, or community involvement do you feel you've made the greatest growth (strengths). In what area(s) do you need more refinement? Please explain. 19. Do you believe the Wildcat Art program was an important part of your preservice teacher education? Why or why not? 20. What is your permanent address so that I can send you your transcriptions, video tape and a copy of my thesis? Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • I ll INTERVIEW RELEASE FORM Subject #_________ . I consent to allow the information I gave to Joy T. Smith during an interview o n ___________________________________ to be used for research purposes only. I understand that this information will be held in strict confidence, and my name will not appear in any of the written work. In the event that this work is published, I would like , or not like a copy of the published article. I will_______ , or will not_______, allow Joy T. Smith to read my journal. I understand that if I agree, information that is relevant to her research may be used. signed:___________________________________ . dated:_______________. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 112 APPENDIX B Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 113 PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE pa0*i REGISTRATION Due A RT Due D ate EXHIBITION D ate • Make a chart of who is First day • Reserve Gallery the entire A.S.A.P covering which schools for of class Joseph Gross Gallery for fined the distribution of flyers to art exhibition. eliminate repeats. • Chart progress - visual board By the • Coordinate Exhibition with Six weeks that shows how many kids second the Gallery director. before the we have from day one on. week of end of the classes semester • organize a time when the inform staff can get access to the class of gallery for hanging. hanging times. • Check answering machine Through­ • Collect each teaching team's at least 3 daily and return calls of out estimations on space needed weeks inquiry. semester to display work. before the • Organize the display—Assign art show spaces • Coordinate incoming Until • Give art show invitations/ one week information: enroll­ announcements to the Dean before (1) Write child’s name on ment is and to Andy Polk. show check if different than final parent. • Also place copies in Art one week (2) Alphabetize registration faculty boxes if you'd like. before slips and put grade levels show together. (3) Organize information on scholarships - who received them? • Prepare confirmation mailing Until information: three (1) Registration confirmation days letter —regular pay and before the scholarships (receive from first Sat. ad. Committee) of lab (2) Include code ofconduct. school release form, and emergency information Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 114 PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE P^ 2 I REGISTRATION I DuePate | ART EXHIBITION | ^eDate j • Address and send out confirmation packets A.S.A.P • Reserve a musical act for final art exhibition 6 weeks before show • Place directional signs from Park garage. Mountain, Harvill Pkg. Lot to Downstairs Harvill for Registration By 8:30am on the first day of lab school • Organize a Food and drink reception table for the art show • Decorate table 2 weeks before show dayofthe show • Alphabetize all known registered students by grade level. • Include boxes for each of the forms sent home with the confirmation letter (a) code of conduct (b) Release Form (c) Emergency Form also: (d) paid fees column —place at Registration table so that as parents Register their kids, you can mark off that you've received all forms and paym ents By die first day oflab school By the first day oflab school • Figure out graduation areas for each grade level. How will you pass out certificates of achievement? • Designate an area for Portfolios to be distributed/ collected. 2 weeks before art show. Report ideas to the class • Put together Registration table: -cover table with paper -decorate with balloons -extra copies of forms -extra pens -box to place paperwork -alphabetized class list to check off stuff -envelope for checks -distribute Orientation letter (receive from ad. committee) by the first day of lab school • Designate a place for student evaluations with pencils. • A box to collect parent and student forms. 2 weeks before art show • Once all information has been collected at Registration, clean-up area and go to Orientation. 1st day of lab school (9:45am) • Will you need to distribute t- shirts that were ordered? If so, figure out a way to do this, (see ad. committee for more information.) 3 weeks before show Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 115 PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE P^ 3 I REGISTRATION I d m D ate j ART EXHIBITION I 01,8Date I • Alphabetize all information received during Registration. • Place in grade level binders. • Each binder should have: (a) Attendance Lists (b) Code ofConduct (c) Release Forms (d) Emergency Form also: Figure out who we still need to either receive money from or get information on. Bythe second Sat of lab school • Put together a clean-up crew to fix up Gallery after the art show. at least three to four weeks in advance • Type up alphabetized grade lists. Put two boxes per Saturday: (1) attendance (2) check-out at curb By the second Sat. of lab school • Anything else that is needed for this project. As needed • Anything else that is needed for this project. As needed Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 116 WILDCAT ART SITE COMMITTEE w , WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE? DUE DATE? • Responsible for Orientation on the first day of lab schooL For duties see page 2. • Organize and Inventory all Wildcat Art supplies. Type up a list that includes the item and its location. Hang an inventory list in each supply closet or one for all the cabinets. A.SA.P. —Before an order is placed to NASCO for supplies. • Check offincoming supplies from NASCO order. Add new items to supply list documenting their arrival and their location. As items arrive • Reorganize supply shelves once every two weeks after lab school begins. Blackout consumed goods to keep supply list updated. Every two weeks after lab school begins • Classroom Environments: Organize materials and determine what is needed. You must make up for the deficiencies. (1) Rules and consequences for EACH grade level (2) Mobiles (Principals and Elements of Design) one per grade level (3) Art In Our World (Map and Lettering) one per grade level (4) Time Line —one per grade level (5) Roll-up Murals (if people want one. ex: The Color Wheel) (6) Free-time Activity Box/Area (Art Books, Coloring Worksheets, Art Games, etc...) (7) Anything Else? Must be completed the week before lab school starts. • Put together PORTFOLIOS by labeling and stapling them, —one per child (first and last name—correct spelling!) —different colored label for each grade level (ex. Red=Primary, Blue=Intermediate, Yellow=Secondary, etc...) —get portfolio labels from ad. committee —Make extra portfolios at all levels for late joiners By the second week of lab school. • Organize technical support chart List who needs what equipment on each day of lab school. If there is overlapping, one must be ordered from Visual Resources by a graduate TA. One week before lab schoolbegins. • Create themes for the outside chalk drawings for each Saturday. Report theme to staff at the staff meeting before each Saturday. • Responsible for all site issues that come up during staff meetings. As needed. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 117 WILDCAT ART SITE COMMITTEE paae2 | ORIENTATION Due Date • Organize WILDCAT ART!!! cheer for the end of Orientation Week before classes begin • Organize an area to set up t-shirts to parents and students. Also have copies of t-shirt order forms available if we run out. (Get t-shirt information from ad. committee) Week before classes begin • Coordinate t-shirt sales money and orders during Orientation, (give order forms to ad. committee) By 1st staff meeting • Decorate Auditorium: Balloons (1) Write Wildcat Art on the chalkboard. (2) Rope off staff seats (3) Slide show from past years (?) (4) Music on inside the auditorium to create a nice environment. (5) Provide refreshments (coffee, donuts) for students and parents while they wait. 1st day of lab school • Take down decorations, etc... after Orientation. Clean up auditorium when orientation is over. • Clean up refreshments area. Return items to where they belong. By the end of the 1st day of lab school • Collect Cheer Cards and give to Lou. By the end of the 1st day of lab school • Get all balloons together from Registration and Orientation to be distributed to Primary kids. By 11:30 am • Take down all signs that lead people to downstairs Harvill. (See Registration people —Ad. committee) • Give them to Lou for safe-keeping. By the end of the 1st day of lab school • Anything else that is needed for this project. As needed Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 118 ADVERTISING AND DESIGN COMMITTEE | WHAT IS NEEDED? DEUVERTO? DEADLINE • FLYER - Change format? Update information? Change Logo? Lou A.S.A.P. • Type up or Revise confirmation letter on WILDCAT ART letterhead. (a) Scholarship letter (b) Regular Pay letter PRCommittee By the third week of class. • Design or Revise letter for Orientation PRCommittee One week before the first Saturday of lab school. • Make directional signs for Registration (1) From Park Garage to Harvill (2) From Mountain to Harvill (3) From Harvill Pkg. Lot to Harvill (4) Around Harvill leading to downstairs ramp PRCommittee One week before the first Saturday of lab school. • Re-design a WILDCAT ART T-shirt? A.S.A.P. • Order staff WILDCAT ART T-shirts -Adult sizes S-XL —Quote prices from a variety of printers. —Find the best price and take orders (sizes) from staff. Make sales projection for Orientation. —Place order to printer. —Inventory when they arrive. —Distribute to staff. —Orientation t-shirts should be inventoried, and delivered to PR committee for sale at Reg./Orient. T-shirts are your project T-shirts should be ordered at least three weeks in advance for arrival before the first day of lab school. • Design a WILDCAT ART T-shirt Order Form -Adult sizes S-XL -Child sizes S-L PR Committee One week before the first day of lab school. • WILDCAT ART!!! Cheer Cards for Orientation one letter or exclamation point per person. PRCommittee One week before the first day of lab school. • Design/Revise Portfolio Labels Site Committee On or before the first day of lab school. • Write a PRESS RELEASE about Wildcat Art program. Deliver to all Tucson Newspapers By the second week of UA classes. • Name Tags: Staff and Students ForStudents: One color per grade level ex: Red=Primary, Blue=Intermediate, etc... note: Revisions may need to be made on spellings, etc. Staff: In Faculty Lounge Students: On grade level carts Before the first day of lab school. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 119 ADVERTISING AND DESIGN COMMITTEE | WHAT IS NEEDED? | DELIVER TO? DEADLINE • Make up Grade Level signs to lead students for orientation, chalk area, and graduation ceremony. On grade level carts. Before the first day of lab school. • Any reminders that need to go home to parents must be prepared by advertising committee. Photocopy and deliver to grade level teachers. When needed. • Write a PRESS RELEASE about Wildcat Art final art exhibition. Deliver to all Tucson Newspapers, ind. Lo Que Pasa, and The Wildcat. At least two weeks before final art show. • Design/Revise Final Art Exhibition Invitation and Thank You letter on WILDCAT ART letterhead. note: Packet should include Invite, Letter, Map to Gross Gallery, and Parent Evaluation. Photocopy packets and deliver to grade level teachers. The last teaching Saturday before the finad art show. • Revise/Re-design new parentand student evaluations? PR Committee The staff mtg. before the last teaching Saturday. • Photocopy student evaluations for final art show. PR Committee The last staff meeting before the fined art show. • Any other advertising related tasks that come up during staffmeetings orclasses. As needed. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 120 COMMUNITY OUTREACH AND STAFF SUPPORT COMMITTEE I ACTIVITY I WHAT IS NEEDED? I DEADLINE | Youth Art Month (YAM) • Pre-hang at St. Michael's Parish Day School • Good Earth hanging Month of March Step-Into-The- Arts Help hang at the TMA education center Work at the Saturday afternoon arts fair sponsored by Step-Into-The-Axts. note: Call Colleen Nichols at Manzanita School for more information. Month of March SPRING FLING • Contact SPRING FLING office to ask if they will support an art education experience tent again this year. Ifso, figure out an adequate budget proposal. Will they provide a tent, tables and chairs? • Coordinate public art display if possible. • Organize at least 4 separate do-it-and-take-it activities. Volunteers from art education can take on these responsibilities. Each Activity leader needs to take on the responsibility of finding an activity, figuring out what supplies will be needed, and preparing those supplies for that weekend. Enough for at least 200 kids. • Make up a volunteer work time table. When will you open up and close down? Who will monitor each station? For how long? etc... • Purchase supplies and distribute them to activity leaders. • How will materials get to SPRING FLING tent? Who will collect them at the end of the day? • See Lou for more details. SPRING FUNG is usually held during the first weekend of April. All work should be completed by the end of March. I'drecommend weekly meetings with all those who are interested in participation at the beginning of February. Second Sunday • See Lou for details. Classroom Help • Hanging art displays at Canyon View Elem. and other Tucson area schools. As needed. Organize Lesson Plans into Class Notes • Each teaching team will give you their three lesson plans and any photocopied information they'd like to share. This will be compiled by grade level and placed in a class notes packet WILDCAT ART staff can purchase. Three weeks before the end of the semester. Organize Lesson Fair • Each teaching team displays their lessons including their visual resources, sources of information, worksheets, etc... so that each person in the class can get information on that lesson if they would like to. Near the end of the semester. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 121 COMMUNITY OUTREACH AND STAFF SUPPORT COMMITTEE pa9e2 | ACTIVITY | WHAT IS NEEDED? DEADLINE Record issues that need to be addressed at a later point • These are issues that are too large to handle all at once, or cannotbe discussed because oftime restraints. Compile a list of these topics from each staff meeting and put them in a column entitled Revisited Items under the BIN at the next staff meeting. As needed. Other items • If things come up that need to be done, it is your job to do that work, even if it seems like it should be another committee's job. As needed. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 122 APPENDIX C Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Planning a Discipline-Based Art Lesson Topic/Title: Grade: Date: Curriculum Resource: Objective(s): A e sth etic Scanning/Art History image(s): Artist(s): Objective(s): Anticipatory Set: Vocabulary: Scanning Questions (Guided Practice): Sensory Formal Technical Expressive Evaluation Criteria: Closure: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 124 A e s t h e t i c s Objective(s):- riaterials: Anticipatory Set: D em onstration /A ctivity (Guided Practice): independent Practice: Evaluation Criteria: Vocabulary: Closure: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 125 Criticism Objective(s): Materials: Anticipatory Set: Vocabulary: D em on stration /A ctivity (Guided Practice): independent Practice: Evaluation Criteria: Closure: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Objective(s): Studio Production Anticipatory Set: D em onstration/A ctivity (Guided Practice) independent Practice: Evaluation Criteria: Vocabulary: Closure: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Wildcat Art Observer Notes Observers:_____________________ Date:_______________ Grade:____________Teaching Team: Lesson Objective: Aesthetic Scanning | Art History 1Studio Production | Criticism 1 Aesthetics Sub-Objective Teaching to the Objective Monitoring & Adjusting Reproducedwithpermissionofthecopyrightowner.Furtherreproductionprohibitedwithoutpermission.
  • Aesthetic Scanning Art History Studio Production Criticism Aesthetics Anticipatory Set Active Participation Motivation Reinforcement Retention Closure Reproducedwithpermissionofthecopyrightowner.Furtherreproductionprohibitedwithoutpermission.
  • 129 cn Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 130 Wildcat Art School CONTRACT As a Wildcat Art School participant, I. agree to follow these rules: • Iwill be respectful of other people. • Iwill try not to hurt other people's feelings. • Iwill not hurt people. • Iwill put away the things Itake out to use. • Iwill not use bad language. • Iwill be responsible for completing the tasks Ihave begun. • Iwill be patient and wart my turn. • Iwill not dam age Wfldcat Art School property or equipment. IfIdo not follow these rules, Iagree to these consequences: Firsttime - Warning Second time - Temporary removal from activity Thirdtime - Temporary removal from activity and parents are informed. Fourth time - Immediate suspension from program until after a meeting with parents, staff, child, and program coordinator has occurred. Fifth time - Dismissal from the Wildcat Art School which may include any future Wildcat Art School programs. IMPORTANT: Any participant who purposefully hurts another participant may be dismissed from the program permanently any time within the five-step process. Thiswill be left up to the discretion of the program leaders and the program coordinator. No refund win be given ifa child issuspended or dismissed from the program. ANY FIGHTINGWILLRESULTINANIMMEDIATE PHONE CAU.TOTHEPARENTSAND POSSIBLESUSPENSION FROMTHEAND/OR FUTUREPROGRAMS. Student's Signature______________________ Date. Parent's Signature •____________________ .__________Date. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 131 EMERGENCY FORM Please print ail information requested. Your child may not be able to participate in the program if the emergency form is not complete. Participant's Name:________________________________.A g e:______________ Parents/Guardians' Names:__________________________ ____________________ Address: Z. i p ;______ Phone Number (where you can be reached during program hours): ____________ Name Sc Phone Number of another person we can contact in case of an emergency: Allergies (please list all allergies including food, pollen, medicinal, animal): M edications (please list all medications including prescription, over the counter):______________________________________________ ________________ M edical Conditions (please list any medical conditions including asthma, diabetes, epilepsy):___________________ ___________________________________________ A signature on ONE of the following lines is required to admit your child to the program. Please read them carefully. By signing on the following line, you are giving consenttohave your child treated in the case of an emergency, if you cannot be reached.__________________________ By signing on the following line, you are indicating thatyou DONOT want your child treated in the case of an em ergency.______ _ _ Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 132 Release Form Student Name A g e ________ My child has the permission to leave WildCat Art (Check all that apply) Leave campus on their own Picked up only with authorized adult Adutts authorized to pick up my child: Name: phone:----------------- Name: ______________________ _______---------------------------- N a m e : ________________________ -____ Phone:------------------ N o t © : For the safety of your child we may reguest to check identification of the person picking up your child. Parent Signature:___________________ .______ —D ate:----------------------- Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Registration deadline: March 1,1995 Enrollment is limited... k Eleven weeks of art k Low student/teacher ratio k Family Art Exhibition For more information please contact: U of A Art Education D epartm ent *r 621-1613 WIUCATAKT Saturday Youth Arts Program Sponsored by: The University of Arizona Art Education Department Reproducedwithpermissionofthecopyrightowner.Furtherreproductionprohibitedwithoutpermission.
  • Primary students (grades 1-3) will explore art cultures across the continents. Activities will range from Native American coil pots to decorative Ukranian eggs. Intermediate students (grades 4-7) will follow a timeline through America's cultural past. Join in adventures across time, from Native American masks to story-telling quilts. I n k i n x t h e c x l S t r f i : The Secondary class (grades 8-12) will focus their attention on mastering both traditional and experimental media. What? The program includes instruction in the A pplied Arts, Ceramics, D rawing, Painting, Printm aking, and Public Art. Where? University of Arizona cam pus in the A rt Education D epartm ent at the Harvill Building. (2nd & Olive) When? Saturdays 9:30 a.m. to 12:00 noon. Classes begin M arch 4th, and end w ith an art exhibit M ay 13th. How Much? $95 per student (Family discounts are available) W ildcat A rt is an art school run by the students and faculty of the University of Arizona D epartm ent of A rt Education. It is a place where developing artists can explore the world of art in an exciting, creative, and fun learning environm ent. Distributed by:________________ . Reproducedwithpermissionofthecopyrightowner.Furtherreproductionprohibitedwithoutpermission.
  • 135 £ fU O T U TSaturday YouthArts Program WildcatArt is an art school run by the students andfaculty ofthe University ofArizona Art Education Department. It is a place where developing artists can explore the world of art in an exciting, creative, andfun learningenv ironment. 1/ 1 I I I . c ' . f l v M f l l ' l li n t o till' l t W o i l t i . i I Primary (grades 1-3),Intermediate (grades 4-7), and Secondary (grades 8-12) students will explore majorartmovements, investigate many artistic styles, and will have the opportunity to experiment with a variety of media. Registration deadline: March 1 ,1 9 9 5 Enrollment is limited... T e n w e e k s of a r t ■' L o w s t u d e n t / t e a c h e r r a t i o - Ia m i h Art I n h i b i t i o n What? Theprogram includes instruction in theApplied Arts.Ceramics. Drawing. Painting. Printmaking. and PublicArt Where? UniversityofArizonacampus in theArt Education Department at the HarvillBuilding. (2nd &Olive) When? Saturdays 9-30am. to 12dX)noon. Classes begin March4th. andend with an art exhibitMay 13th. How Much? $95perstudent (Familydiscountsareavailable) 9 Formore information pleasecontact: U of A Art Education Department at 621-1613 9 Registration Form Name:___________________________________________ Address:___________________________________ City:__ State:______________ Zip:________________ Phone:_____ School:______________________________________Grade: Pleasereturn registration with payment to: University of Arizona Art Department Attn: Wildcat Art P.O. Box 210002 Tucson, AZ 85721-0002 Make checkspayable to: UofA Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 136 S taff The director of the Wildcat Art program is Lou Garard. She is a member of the Art Education Faculty ac the University o f Arizona and has been an art specialist in the Tucson area for fifteen years. The assistant director, Joy Smith, is a graduate student in art education and is currently an elementary art educator. The staff of the program consists of sixteen junior, senior, and graduate students. All the students have extensive backgrounds in the visual arts. If you ever have any questions or concerns, all staff members can be reached through the Art Education Department at 621-1613. Curriculum/Calendar The Wildcat Art program uses a discipline-based art curriculum. Discipline-based Art Education simply means that your child will not only have a chance to make art (which we will be doing a lot of), but will also look at and examine art, make judgments about what an is. and will explore the history of an and art making. The types of projects we'll be doing include a variety of media at each of the different grade levels. On the back of this information sheet you will find a calendar of the activities we have planned and the dar<»<t in which they will be completed. Some projects may be changed due to unforeseen circumstances. Drop Off and Pick Up Area Beginning March 4th, students can be dropped off and picked up at the drop off point in the Harvill parking lot (please see the map below for the specific location). Wildcat Art staff members will be there to escort your child to the classrooms and to wait with them for your arrival after class. All staff members will have a badge identifying themselves and will ask students their name as they arrive and leave each Saturday to ensure their safety. Please do not allow your child to go directly to the classrooms and/or do not leave your child with any adults except those identified as staff members. Staff members will be at the specified location for drop off from 9:15 to 9:30 and for pick up from 12:00 to 12:15. If you are later than 12:15 your child will be in the An Education office, located in the Harvill Building room 126. If someone other than yourself is picking up your child, the staff must have your signed written permission to release your child. Park Olive Harvifl Drop OKi PickUD Area CO $•o ©a. CO Palm Mountain Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 137 Supervision Each classroom will have approximately six stall members in it at all times. Three staff members will teach the lesson while three others will be available to assist the teaching team. If your child needs to leave the classroom at any time for any reason, a staff member will stay with them. Health Room The Art Education office will be used as a health room if the need arises. We have minor medical supplies to treat cuts and scrapes and standard practices are in place for dealing with more serious situations. During registration parents were asked to turn in a health card for each child. Please make sure that on that card you've indicated any allergies or special circumstances that might apply to your child. In the event of an illness or accident we will call the people listed on your child’s health card to pick up your child for treatment. Art Exhibition On our last scheduled class. May 13. there will be an art exhibition from 10:30 undl 12:00 noon in the Joseph Gross Gallery on the University of Arizona campus. The students' work from the Wildcat Art program will be kept until that time in order to put the show together. All student art work will go home with the students at the end of the exhibition. Light refreshments will be served and we invite parents and friends to attend. More specific information will be sent home with your child as the event draws near. Calendar of Activities . ' c S '-L' ’’ v =. (grade^l -3 ^ • March;4tfc&: :Mare&EIthi v Australia: Aboriginal Cave Painting Clay Tiles Still-life Drawing Marcfe-lSttr- Asia: Fish Printing Pacific Northwest Coast Eskimo Masks Pablo Picasso: Painting and Collage 'Marchr25th &.AprijEL: Europe: Ukrainian Eggs ReliefSculpture Jenny Holzen Clay Truisms April 8th.&- April 15th. South America Harlem Renaissance: Jacob Lawrence Japanese Printmaking April 22nd. Africa: Clay Tiles Faith Ringgold Story Quilts Graphic Design April 29th Sc May6tb North America: Pinch Pots Memorial and Commemorative Plaques Book Making May 13th Art Exhibition at the Joseph Gross Gallery Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 138 APPENDIX D Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Figure 1: Two primary students display their tribal cards during an Austrailian cave painting unit. Figure 2: A Wildcat Art staff member assists Intermediate students with their story quilts. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 140 Figure 3: Secondary students create a value study using charcoal. Figure 4: A Wildcat Art staff member helps a child with his paper weaving during a university sponsored family day on The University of Arizona campus. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • Figure 5: Both parent and child stop to admire ceramic vessels displayed at the Wildcat Art Student Art Exhibition. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 142 REFERENCES Araca, A. (1990). Environment of middle and secondary art classrooms: Becoming aware of, designing, and implementing changes in the furniture, facilities and spaces. In B.E. Little (Ed.), Secondary Art Education: An anthology of issues (pp. 93-106). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Arends, R.I. (1991). Learning to teach (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Arnold, A. (1994). Building community through arts experiences. Art Education, 47(3), 47-51. Baker, D.W. (1990). "Git real": On art education and community needs. Art Education, 43(6), 41-49. Barth, R.S. (1988). School: A community of leaders. In A. Lieberman (Ed.), Building a professional culture in schools (pp. 129-147). New York: Teachers College Press. Bemey, M.F. (1990). Evaluation preparation programs for music education and visual arts education teachers. In M.F. Bemey (Ed.), Evaluating preparation programs for school leaders and teachers in specialty areas (pp. 127-141). Boston: Klumer Academic Publishers. Byrne, M. (1995). Reflections of a preservice art teacher. In L. Galbraith (Ed.), Preservice art education: Issues and practices (pp. 65-71), Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Champlin, K.N. (1995, October). Effects of school culture on art teaching practices: Implications for teacher preparation. Paper presented at the Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 143 Getty Center for Education in the Arts Sundance Symposium, Sundance, Utah. Chanda, J. (1992). Multicultural education and the visual arts. Arts Education Policy Review, 94(1), 12-16. Clark, G.A., Day, M.D., & Greer, W.D. (1987). Discipline-based art education: Becoming students of art. In R.A. Smith (Ed.), Discipline-based art education (pp. 129-196). Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Clark, G.A., & Zimmerman, E. (1987). More than meets the eye. G/C/T, 10(5), 42-44. Dake, D. (1995). Effective uses of art history in the K-12 art classroom part I: Reaching out to students. NAEA Advisory, Spring. Degge, R.M. (1987). A descriptive study of community art teachers with implications for teacher preparation and cultural policy. Studies in Art Education, 28(3), 164-175. Dunn, P.C. (1992). Leadership and the elementary art specialist: Twenty ways to improve your program's position in the educational system. In A. Johnson (Ed.), Art Education: Elementary (pp. 77-86). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Eisner, E. (1987). The role of discipline-based art education in America's schools. Art Education, 40(5), 6-26, 43-45. Ellingson, S.P. (1991). A comparison of two approaches to preparing preservice teachers to manage classrooms: generic verses discipline- specific. Studies in Art Education, 33(1), 7-20. Erickson, M., & Katter, E. (1988). Integrating the four components of a quality art education. NAEA Advisory, Fall. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 144 Feinstein, H. (1989). Redesigning preservice programs to implement DBAE: institutional realities. Art Education, 42(2), 6-9. Feldhusen, J., & Sokol, L. (1982). Extra-school programming to meet the needs of gifted youth: Super Saturday. Gifted Child Quarterly, 26(2), 51-56. Galbraith, L. (1988). Research-oriented art teachers: Implications for art teaching. Art Education 16(2), 50-53. Galbraith, L. (1990). Examining issues from general teacher education: Implications for preservice art education methods courses. Visual Arts Research, 16(2), 51-58. Galbraith, L. (1993). Familiar, interactive and collaborative pedagogy: Changing practices in preservice art education. Art Education, 46(5), 6- 11. Galbraith, L. (1995a). NAEA research task force on teacher education briefing paper on teacher education research. In NAEA commission on research in art education, briefing papers: Creating a visual arts research agenda toward the 21st century(pp. 78-85). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Galbraith, L. (1995b). The preservice art education classroom: A look through the window. In L. Galbraith (Ed.), Preservice art education: Issues and practice (p. 1-30). Reston, VA: The National Art Education Association. Gay, L.R. (1996). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Simon and Schuster. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 145 Gentile, J.R. (1989). How shall students be graded in discipline-based art education? Art Education, 42(6), 33-41. Good, T.L. & Brophy, J.E. (1987). Looking in Classrooms (4th ed.). New York: Harper & Row. Goodwin, M.A. (1995, October). The national board for professional teaching standards: Implications for art teacher preparation. Paper presented at the Getty Center for Education in the Arts Sundance Symposium, Sundance, Utah. Greer, W.D. (1984). A discipline-based art education: Approaching art as a subject of study. Studies in Art Education, 25(4), 212-218. Greer, W.D. (1987). A structure of discipline concepts for DBAE. Studies in Art Education, 28(4), 227-233. Gregory, A. (1982). Super Saturday: A description of Purdue University's special program for gifted children with special emphasis on the studio arts area. G/C/T, Jan-Feb(21), 13-16. Gupton, S.L. (1995). Developing leadership in preservice teachers. In G.A. Slick (Ed.), Emerging trends in teacher preparation: The future of field experiences (p. 70-84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. Hagaman, S. (1990). Aesthetics in art education: A look toward implementation. ERIC: Art, December. Hagaman, S. (1988). Philosophical aesthetics in the art class: A look toward implementation. Art Education, 41(3), 18-22. Howey, K.R. (1988). Why teacher leadership? Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 28-32. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 146 Hunter, M., & Gee, K. (1988). Art educators: Escalate your teaching skills (part I). NAEA Advisory, Fall. Hutchens, J. (1995, October). Accomplishing change in the university: Strategies for improving art teacher preparation. Paper presented at the Getty Center for Education in the Arts Sundance Symposium, Sundance, Utah. Jeffers, C.S. (1993). Teacher education: A context for art education. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 27(3), 85-94. Johnson, A.N. (1988a). What educational research says about instruction for the visual arts classroom. NAEA Advisory, Spring. Johnson, A.N. (1988b). Maintaining learner attention in the classroom. NAEA Advisory, Spring. Johnson, A.N. (1989). Achieving clarity of instruction in art. NAEA Advisory, Spring. Jones, M.G., & Vesilind, E. (1995). Preservice teachers' cognitive frameworks for class management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(4), 313-330. Kagan, D. (1992). Professional growth among preservice and beginning teachers. Review of Educational Research, 62, 129-169. Lanier, V. (1984). Eight guidelines for selecting art curriculum content. Studies in Art Education, 25(4), 232-237. Leedy, P.D. (1993). Practical research planning and design (5th ed.). New York: Macmillan. Livingston, C., & Borko, H. (1989). Expert-novice differences in teaching: A cognitive analysis and implication for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 40(4), 36-42. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 147 Ribich, F.M. (1995). Providing meaningful field experiences. In G.A. Slick (Ed.), The field experience: Creating successful programs for new teachers (pp. 35-43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. May, W.T. (1993). Teachers-as-researchers or action research: W hat is it, and what good is it for art education? Studies in Art Education, 34(2), 114-126. McDermott, P., Gormley, K., Rothenberg, J., & Hammer, J. (1995). The influence of classroom practice experiences on student teachers' thoughts about teaching, foumal of Teacher Education, 46(3), 184-191. McGoff, R. (1988). Time in the curriculum: The dilemma for arts education, K-6. Design for Arts in Education, 90(2), 44-46. Moorman, M. (1989). The great art education debate. Art News, 88(6), 124-131. Moskowitz, G. & Hayman, J. (1974). Interactions of first year, typical, and "best" teachers in inner-city schools. Journal of Educational Research, 67,224-230. Myers, S.A. (1992). A description and analysis of preconceptions about art and art education held by preservice elementary education students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona. Nadaner, D. (1983). Building theory-practice interactions in art teacher education. Visual Arts Research, 9(1), 64-70. Oppewal, T.J. (1993). Preservice teachers' thinking about classroom events. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(2), 127-136. Parks, M.E. (1994). The art teacher’s desktop reference. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 148 Pearse, H. & Soucy, D. (1987). Nineteenth century origins of Saturday morning art classes for children in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Studies in Art Education, 28(3), 141-148. Pisano, M. (1974). Saturday is for discovery. American Education, 10(10), 31-34. Pultorak, E.G. (1993). Facilitating reflective thought in novice teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(4), 288-295. Quick, P.H. (1993). Survival skills for new (and not so new) student discipline. NAEA Advisory, Winter. Ribich, F.M. (1995). Providing meaningful field experiences. In G.A. Slick (Ed.), The field experience: Creating successful programs for new teachers (pp. 35-43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. Rogers, E.T. & Brogdon, R.E. (1990). A survey of the NAEA curriculum standards in art teacher preparation programs. Studies in Art Education, 31(3), 168-173. Ryder, W. (1994). Linking the college classroom to the community. Art Education, 47(3), 23-44. Stewart, M. (nd). Workshop: Application to the classroom. From The BASIC Curriculum for Art by Erickson, Katter and Stewart. Stockrocki, M. (1990). Forms of instruction used by art teachers with pre­ adolescents. In B.E. Little (Ed.), Secondary Art Education: An anthology of issues (pp. 93-106). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Stuhr, P.L., Petrovich-Mwaniki, L. & Wasson, R. (1992) Curriculum guidelines for the multicultural art classroom. Art Education, 45(1), Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 149 16-24. Susi, F.D. (1989). The physical environment of art classrooms: A basis for effective discipline. Art Education, 42(4), 37-43. Susi, F.D. (1990a). The art classroom as a behavior setting. In B.E. Little (Ed.), Secondary Art Education: An anthology of issues (pp. 93-106). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Susi, F.D. (1990b). Preparing teaching environments for art education. NAEA Advisory, Winter. Susi, F.D. (1995). Developing reflective teaching techniques with preservice art teachers. In L. Galbraith (Ed.), Preservice art education: Issues and practice (pp. 107-118). Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. Susi, F.D. (1996). Becoming a behavior-minded art teacher. Art Education, 49(5), 62-68. Tollifson, J. (1990). Tips on teaching art criticism. NAEA Advisory, Summer. Walker, L. (1980). A university/community children's art program. School Arts, 79(9), 69. Winitzky, N., & Kauchak, D. (1995). Learning to teach: Knowledge development in classroom management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(3), 215-227. Zeichner, K.M., & Liston, D.P. (1987). Teaching student teachers to reflect. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1),23-48. Zimmerman, E. (1994a). Current research and practice about pre-service visual art specialist teacher education. Studies in Art Education, 35(2), 79-89. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 150 Zimmerman, E. (1994b). Concerns of preservice art teachers and those who prepare them to teach. Art Education, 47(5), 59-67. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.