Intentionalism About Emotions

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Intentionalism About Emotions

  1. 1. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion Conclusion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism About Emotion 40 Angela Mendelovici University of Western Ontario / Australian National University 60 Wayne State University - October 13, 2011 80 1 / 46
  2. 2. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotions mm 40 60 80 100 120 Mental states like fear, euphoria, jealously, sadness, anger 40 It’s an open question exactly which states will fall under the same category in a final classification 60 80 2 / 46
  3. 3. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotions mm 40 60 80 100 120 Mental states like fear, euphoria, jealously, sadness, anger 40 It’s an open question exactly which states will fall under the same category in a final classification 60 80 2 / 46
  4. 4. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion’s mental profile: 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something distinctive it is like to have an emotion 40 2 Intentional aspect: Emotions exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 80 3 / 46
  5. 5. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion’s mental profile: 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something distinctive it is like to have an emotion 40 2 Intentional aspect: Emotions exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 80 3 / 46
  6. 6. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion’s mental profile: 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something distinctive it is like to have an emotion 40 2 Intentional aspect: Emotions exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 80 3 / 46
  7. 7. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion’s mental profile: 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something distinctive it is like to have an emotion 40 2 Intentional aspect: Emotions exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 80 3 / 46
  8. 8. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionMy project mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 My project is to offer an account of emotion’s mental profile What features of emotions explains their phenomenal and intentional aspects? 60 80 4 / 46
  9. 9. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionMy project mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 My project is to offer an account of emotion’s mental profile What features of emotions explains their phenomenal and intentional aspects? 60 80 4 / 46
  10. 10. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionOther projects related to emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Other projects that I’m not engaged in ask questions such as How did emotions evolve? 40 What role do emotions play in the mental economy? What is the neural basis of emotions? When are emotions appropriate or inappropriate? Do emotions form a natural kind? If so, which of their features 60 unifies them? These questions might be related to my project, but it is not my aim to address them 80 5 / 46
  11. 11. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionOther projects related to emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Other projects that I’m not engaged in ask questions such as How did emotions evolve? 40 What role do emotions play in the mental economy? What is the neural basis of emotions? When are emotions appropriate or inappropriate? Do emotions form a natural kind? If so, which of their features 60 unifies them? These questions might be related to my project, but it is not my aim to address them 80 5 / 46
  12. 12. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionOther projects related to emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Other projects that I’m not engaged in ask questions such as How did emotions evolve? 40 What role do emotions play in the mental economy? What is the neural basis of emotions? When are emotions appropriate or inappropriate? Do emotions form a natural kind? If so, which of their features 60 unifies them? These questions might be related to my project, but it is not my aim to address them 80 5 / 46
  13. 13. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionOther projects related to emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Other projects that I’m not engaged in ask questions such as How did emotions evolve? 40 What role do emotions play in the mental economy? What is the neural basis of emotions? When are emotions appropriate or inappropriate? Do emotions form a natural kind? If so, which of their features 60 unifies them? These questions might be related to my project, but it is not my aim to address them 80 5 / 46
  14. 14. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionOther projects related to emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Other projects that I’m not engaged in ask questions such as How did emotions evolve? 40 What role do emotions play in the mental economy? What is the neural basis of emotions? When are emotions appropriate or inappropriate? Do emotions form a natural kind? If so, which of their features 60 unifies them? These questions might be related to my project, but it is not my aim to address them 80 5 / 46
  15. 15. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionOther projects related to emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Other projects that I’m not engaged in ask questions such as How did emotions evolve? 40 What role do emotions play in the mental economy? What is the neural basis of emotions? When are emotions appropriate or inappropriate? Do emotions form a natural kind? If so, which of their features 60 unifies them? These questions might be related to my project, but it is not my aim to address them 80 5 / 46
  16. 16. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionOther projects related to emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 Other projects that I’m not engaged in ask questions such as How did emotions evolve? 40 What role do emotions play in the mental economy? What is the neural basis of emotions? When are emotions appropriate or inappropriate? Do emotions form a natural kind? If so, which of their features 60 unifies them? These questions might be related to my project, but it is not my aim to address them 80 5 / 46
  17. 17. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionThe claim mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 I will argue that intentionalism about emotions accounts for emotion’s mental profile better than its competitors 60 80 6 / 46
  18. 18. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion’s mental profile: 1 Phenomenal aspect 2 40 Intentional aspect 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 80 7 / 46
  19. 19. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 40 Feeling theories 2 Cognitivism 3 Hybrid theories 4 Intentionalism 60 80 8 / 46
  20. 20. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 40 Feeling theories 2 Cognitivism 3 Hybrid theories 4 Intentionalism 60 80 8 / 46
  21. 21. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionFeeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are feelings (mere phenomenal characters, or alternatively, bodily feelings) William James, Carl Lange 40 60 80 9 / 46
  22. 22. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionFeeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are feelings (mere phenomenal characters, or alternatively, bodily feelings) William James, Carl Lange 40 60 80 9 / 46
  23. 23. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionFeeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are feelings (mere phenomenal characters, or alternatively, bodily feelings) William James, Carl Lange 40 60 80 9 / 46
  24. 24. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionFeeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are feelings (mere phenomenal characters, or alternatively, bodily feelings) William James, Carl Lange 40 60 80 9 / 46
  25. 25. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with feeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 Accounts for phenomenal aspect of emotions Difficulty accounting for the intentional aspect of emotions Doesn’t say much about why emotions seem to have an 40 intentional aspect 60 80 10 / 46
  26. 26. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with feeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 Accounts for phenomenal aspect of emotions Difficulty accounting for the intentional aspect of emotions Doesn’t say much about why emotions seem to have an 40 intentional aspect 60 80 10 / 46
  27. 27. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with feeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 Accounts for phenomenal aspect of emotions Difficulty accounting for the intentional aspect of emotions Doesn’t say much about why emotions seem to have an 40 intentional aspect 60 80 10 / 46
  28. 28. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with feeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 More sophisticated versions of the theory can avoid this by adding new elements to the theory to account for emotion’s intentional aspect I40 call such theories hybrid theories and consider them later will 60 80 11 / 46
  29. 29. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with feeling theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 More sophisticated versions of the theory can avoid this by adding new elements to the theory to account for emotion’s intentional aspect I40 call such theories hybrid theories and consider them later will 60 80 11 / 46
  30. 30. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionCognitivism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are cognitive states (e.g. beliefs, judgments) Robert Solomon, Jerome Neu, Martha Nussbaum 40 60 80 E.g. The dog is represented as being dangerous or harmful 12 / 46
  31. 31. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionCognitivism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are cognitive states (e.g. beliefs, judgments) Robert Solomon, Jerome Neu, Martha Nussbaum 40 60 80 E.g. The dog is represented as being dangerous or harmful 12 / 46
  32. 32. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionCognitivism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are cognitive states (e.g. beliefs, judgments) Robert Solomon, Jerome Neu, Martha Nussbaum 40 60 80 E.g. The dog is represented as being dangerous or harmful 12 / 46
  33. 33. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionCognitivism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are cognitive states (e.g. beliefs, judgments) Robert Solomon, Jerome Neu, Martha Nussbaum 40 60 80 E.g. The dog is represented as being dangerous or harmful 12 / 46
  34. 34. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionCognitivism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions are cognitive states (e.g. beliefs, judgments) Robert Solomon, Jerome Neu, Martha Nussbaum 40 60 80 E.g. The dog is represented as being dangerous or harmful 12 / 46
  35. 35. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with cognitivism mm Accounts for 40 intentional aspect of80 the 60 emotions 100 120 Difficulty accounting for the phenomenal aspect of emotions It’s possible to have a cognitive state that the dog is dangerous without the phenomenal character of fear, and it’s 40 possible to have the phenomenal character of fear without judging that the dog is dangerous (Stocker) 60 80 13 / 46
  36. 36. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with cognitivism mm Accounts for 40 intentional aspect of80 the 60 emotions 100 120 Difficulty accounting for the phenomenal aspect of emotions It’s possible to have a cognitive state that the dog is dangerous without the phenomenal character of fear, and it’s 40 possible to have the phenomenal character of fear without judging that the dog is dangerous (Stocker) 60 80 13 / 46
  37. 37. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with cognitivism mm Accounts for 40 intentional aspect of80 the 60 emotions 100 120 Difficulty accounting for the phenomenal aspect of emotions It’s possible to have a cognitive state that the dog is dangerous without the phenomenal character of fear, and it’s 40 possible to have the phenomenal character of fear without judging that the dog is dangerous (Stocker) 60 80 13 / 46
  38. 38. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionHybrid theories Emotions have distinct components accounting for their two 120 mm 40 60 80 100 mental aspects A crude hybrid theory: Combine our best feeling theory (say, bodily feelings view) 40 with our best cognitivist theory (say, judgment view) Emotions are complex states composed of bodily sensations and judgments 60 80 14 / 46
  39. 39. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionHybrid theories Emotions have distinct components accounting for their two 120 mm 40 60 80 100 mental aspects A crude hybrid theory: Combine our best feeling theory (say, bodily feelings view) 40 with our best cognitivist theory (say, judgment view) Emotions are complex states composed of bodily sensations and judgments 60 80 14 / 46
  40. 40. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionHybrid theories Emotions have distinct components accounting for their two 120 mm 40 60 80 100 mental aspects A crude hybrid theory: Combine our best feeling theory (say, bodily feelings view) 40 with our best cognitivist theory (say, judgment view) Emotions are complex states composed of bodily sensations and judgments 60 80 14 / 46
  41. 41. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionHybrid theories Emotions have distinct components accounting for their two 120 mm 40 60 80 100 mental aspects A crude hybrid theory: Combine our best feeling theory (say, bodily feelings view) 40 with our best cognitivist theory (say, judgment view) Emotions are complex states composed of bodily sensations and judgments 60 80 14 / 46
  42. 42. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with the crude hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state 2 Difficulty accounting for the intimate relationship between emotion’s two mental aspects - the intentional aspect seems 80 imbued with phenomenology (Goldie) 15 / 46
  43. 43. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with the crude hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state 2 Difficulty accounting for the intimate relationship between emotion’s two mental aspects - the intentional aspect seems 80 imbued with phenomenology (Goldie) 15 / 46
  44. 44. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with the crude hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state 2 Difficulty accounting for the intimate relationship between emotion’s two mental aspects - the intentional aspect seems 80 imbued with phenomenology (Goldie) 15 / 46
  45. 45. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with the crude hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state 2 Difficulty accounting for the intimate relationship between emotion’s two mental aspects - the intentional aspect seems 80 imbued with phenomenology (Goldie) 15 / 46
  46. 46. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionImbuement mm only do emotions seem to have a 80 Not 40 60 phenomenal aspect and 120 100 an intentional aspect, but the two aspects are related 40 60 The intentional aspect is itself imbued with phenomenal character The phenomenal character of emotions doesn’t just 80 accompany the intentional content of emotions - instead, it seems to attach to the very intentional objects of emotion 16 / 46
  47. 47. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionImbuement mm only do emotions seem to have a 80 Not 40 60 phenomenal aspect and 120 100 an intentional aspect, but the two aspects are related 40 60 The intentional aspect is itself imbued with phenomenal character The phenomenal character of emotions doesn’t just 80 accompany the intentional content of emotions - instead, it seems to attach to the very intentional objects of emotion 16 / 46
  48. 48. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionImbuement mm only do emotions seem to have a 80 Not 40 60 phenomenal aspect and 120 100 an intentional aspect, but the two aspects are related 40 60 The intentional aspect is itself imbued with phenomenal character The phenomenal character of emotions doesn’t just 80 accompany the intentional content of emotions - instead, it seems to attach to the very intentional objects of emotion 16 / 46
  49. 49. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionImbuement mm 40 60 80 100 120 Another example: Love The phenomenal character of love is itself directed at the intentional object of love 40 60 80 17 / 46
  50. 50. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionImbuement mm 40 60 80 100 120 Another example: Love The phenomenal character of love is itself directed at the intentional object of love 40 60 80 17 / 46
  51. 51. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotion’s revised mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 2 Intentional aspect 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 3 Imbuement: Emotion’s intentional content is imbued with 60 phenomenal character 80 18 / 46
  52. 52. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionEmotion’s revised mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 2 Intentional aspect 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 3 Imbuement: Emotion’s intentional content is imbued with 60 phenomenal character 80 18 / 46
  53. 53. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionBack to the crude hybrid theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state 2 Difficulty accounting for the intimate relationship between emotion’s two mental aspects - the intentional aspect seems 80 imbued with phenomenology (Goldie) 19 / 46
  54. 54. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionBack to the crude hybrid theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state 2 Difficulty accounting for the intimate relationship between emotion’s two mental aspects - the intentional aspect seems 80 imbued with phenomenology (Goldie) 19 / 46
  55. 55. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionBack to the crude hybrid theories mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state 2 Difficulty accounting for the intimate relationship between emotion’s two mental aspects - the intentional aspect seems 80 imbued with phenomenology (Goldie) 19 / 46
  56. 56. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionJesse Prinz’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 An emotion is a mental state E such that 401 E is a perceptual representation of bodily states 2 E indirectly represent the typical causes of these bodily states (e.g. danger, loss, threat) The phenomenal aspect of emotion is explained by the perception of bodily states 60 The intentional aspect of emotion is explained by the indirect representation of typical causes of these bodily states 80 20 / 46
  57. 57. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionJesse Prinz’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 An emotion is a mental state E such that 401 E is a perceptual representation of bodily states 2 E indirectly represent the typical causes of these bodily states (e.g. danger, loss, threat) The phenomenal aspect of emotion is explained by the perception of bodily states 60 The intentional aspect of emotion is explained by the indirect representation of typical causes of these bodily states 80 20 / 46
  58. 58. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionJesse Prinz’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 An emotion is a mental state E such that 401 E is a perceptual representation of bodily states 2 E indirectly represent the typical causes of these bodily states (e.g. danger, loss, threat) The phenomenal aspect of emotion is explained by the perception of bodily states 60 The intentional aspect of emotion is explained by the indirect representation of typical causes of these bodily states 80 20 / 46
  59. 59. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionJesse Prinz’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 An emotion is a mental state E such that 401 E is a perceptual representation of bodily states 2 E indirectly represent the typical causes of these bodily states (e.g. danger, loss, threat) The phenomenal aspect of emotion is explained by the perception of bodily states 60 The intentional aspect of emotion is explained by the indirect representation of typical causes of these bodily states 80 20 / 46
  60. 60. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionJesse Prinz’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 An emotion is a mental state E such that 401 E is a perceptual representation of bodily states 2 E indirectly represent the typical causes of these bodily states (e.g. danger, loss, threat) The phenomenal aspect of emotion is explained by the perception of bodily states 60 The intentional aspect of emotion is explained by the indirect representation of typical causes of these bodily states 80 20 / 46
  61. 61. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with Prinz’s hybrid theory 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are mm 40 60 80 100 120 unified in one state? Prinz has no problem here - the two components are features of one and the same mental state 2 Difficulty accounting for imbuement? 40 All phenomenal character arises from the awareness of bodily states There is no phenomenal character corresponding to the intentional aspect of emotions 60 80 21 / 46
  62. 62. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with Prinz’s hybrid theory 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are mm 40 60 80 100 120 unified in one state? Prinz has no problem here - the two components are features of one and the same mental state 2 Difficulty accounting for imbuement? 40 All phenomenal character arises from the awareness of bodily states There is no phenomenal character corresponding to the intentional aspect of emotions 60 80 21 / 46
  63. 63. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with Prinz’s hybrid theory 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are mm 40 60 80 100 120 unified in one state? Prinz has no problem here - the two components are features of one and the same mental state 2 Difficulty accounting for imbuement? 40 All phenomenal character arises from the awareness of bodily states There is no phenomenal character corresponding to the intentional aspect of emotions 60 80 21 / 46
  64. 64. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with Prinz’s hybrid theory 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are mm 40 60 80 100 120 unified in one state? Prinz has no problem here - the two components are features of one and the same mental state 2 Difficulty accounting for imbuement? 40 All phenomenal character arises from the awareness of bodily states There is no phenomenal character corresponding to the intentional aspect of emotions 60 80 21 / 46
  65. 65. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionProblem with Prinz’s hybrid theory 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are mm 40 60 80 100 120 unified in one state? Prinz has no problem here - the two components are features of one and the same mental state 2 Difficulty accounting for imbuement? 40 All phenomenal character arises from the awareness of bodily states There is no phenomenal character corresponding to the intentional aspect of emotions 60 80 21 / 46
  66. 66. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions consist in 401 An awareness of bodily states 2 A “feeling towards” an intentional object A kind of intentional state imbued with phenomenal character The intentional aspect of emotions is explained by the “feeling 60 towards” The phenomenal aspect is explained by both components 80 22 / 46
  67. 67. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions consist in 401 An awareness of bodily states 2 A “feeling towards” an intentional object A kind of intentional state imbued with phenomenal character The intentional aspect of emotions is explained by the “feeling 60 towards” The phenomenal aspect is explained by both components 80 22 / 46
  68. 68. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions consist in 401 An awareness of bodily states 2 A “feeling towards” an intentional object A kind of intentional state imbued with phenomenal character The intentional aspect of emotions is explained by the “feeling 60 towards” The phenomenal aspect is explained by both components 80 22 / 46
  69. 69. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions consist in 401 An awareness of bodily states 2 A “feeling towards” an intentional object A kind of intentional state imbued with phenomenal character The intentional aspect of emotions is explained by the “feeling 60 towards” The phenomenal aspect is explained by both components 80 22 / 46
  70. 70. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions consist in 401 An awareness of bodily states 2 A “feeling towards” an intentional object A kind of intentional state imbued with phenomenal character The intentional aspect of emotions is explained by the “feeling 60 towards” The phenomenal aspect is explained by both components 80 22 / 46
  71. 71. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotions consist in 401 An awareness of bodily states 2 A “feeling towards” an intentional object A kind of intentional state imbued with phenomenal character The intentional aspect of emotions is explained by the “feeling 60 towards” The phenomenal aspect is explained by both components 80 22 / 46
  72. 72. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 2 Difficulty accounting for imbuement? No difficulty, since imbued intentional states are one of the 80 components of emotion 23 / 46
  73. 73. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 60 2 Difficulty accounting for imbuement? No difficulty, since imbued intentional states are one of the 80 components of emotion 23 / 46
  74. 74. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state? The two components are features of two distinct states 40 Goldie: The two states are unified in one “substantial event”, where “a substantial event is an event which has a certain kind of unity, partly explained by its nature.” (Goldie, 2002, “Emotions, feelings and intentionality”, p. 252, n. 26) 60 But this is obscure Relatedly, if the two components aren’t unified in some interesting way, we might wonder why we should include the awareness of bodily states as part of emotion in the first place -80 “feeling towards” seems to be sufficient for explaining the emotion’s mental profile 24 / 46
  75. 75. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state? The two components are features of two distinct states 40 Goldie: The two states are unified in one “substantial event”, where “a substantial event is an event which has a certain kind of unity, partly explained by its nature.” (Goldie, 2002, “Emotions, feelings and intentionality”, p. 252, n. 26) 60 But this is obscure Relatedly, if the two components aren’t unified in some interesting way, we might wonder why we should include the awareness of bodily states as part of emotion in the first place -80 “feeling towards” seems to be sufficient for explaining the emotion’s mental profile 24 / 46
  76. 76. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state? The two components are features of two distinct states 40 Goldie: The two states are unified in one “substantial event”, where “a substantial event is an event which has a certain kind of unity, partly explained by its nature.” (Goldie, 2002, “Emotions, feelings and intentionality”, p. 252, n. 26) 60 But this is obscure Relatedly, if the two components aren’t unified in some interesting way, we might wonder why we should include the awareness of bodily states as part of emotion in the first place -80 “feeling towards” seems to be sufficient for explaining the emotion’s mental profile 24 / 46
  77. 77. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state? The two components are features of two distinct states 40 Goldie: The two states are unified in one “substantial event”, where “a substantial event is an event which has a certain kind of unity, partly explained by its nature.” (Goldie, 2002, “Emotions, feelings and intentionality”, p. 252, n. 26) 60 But this is obscure Relatedly, if the two components aren’t unified in some interesting way, we might wonder why we should include the awareness of bodily states as part of emotion in the first place -80 “feeling towards” seems to be sufficient for explaining the emotion’s mental profile 24 / 46
  78. 78. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionGoldie’s hybrid theory mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Difficulty in accounting for how the two components are unified in one state? The two components are features of two distinct states 40 Goldie: The two states are unified in one “substantial event”, where “a substantial event is an event which has a certain kind of unity, partly explained by its nature.” (Goldie, 2002, “Emotions, feelings and intentionality”, p. 252, n. 26) 60 But this is obscure Relatedly, if the two components aren’t unified in some interesting way, we might wonder why we should include the awareness of bodily states as part of emotion in the first place -80 “feeling towards” seems to be sufficient for explaining the emotion’s mental profile 24 / 46
  79. 79. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism Phenomenal character is determined by/identical to/supervenient 40 on intentional content Intentionalists generally take intentionalism to apply to all phenomenal states 60 But it’s also possible to hold restricted versions of the view Relatively little attention has been given to how intentionalism might apply to emotions 80 25 / 46
  80. 80. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism Phenomenal character is determined by/identical to/supervenient 40 on intentional content Intentionalists generally take intentionalism to apply to all phenomenal states 60 But it’s also possible to hold restricted versions of the view Relatively little attention has been given to how intentionalism might apply to emotions 80 25 / 46
  81. 81. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism Phenomenal character is determined by/identical to/supervenient 40 on intentional content Intentionalists generally take intentionalism to apply to all phenomenal states 60 But it’s also possible to hold restricted versions of the view Relatively little attention has been given to how intentionalism might apply to emotions 80 25 / 46
  82. 82. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism Phenomenal character is determined by/identical to/supervenient 40 on intentional content Intentionalists generally take intentionalism to apply to all phenomenal states 60 But it’s also possible to hold restricted versions of the view Relatively little attention has been given to how intentionalism might apply to emotions 80 25 / 46
  83. 83. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism Phenomenal character is determined by/identical to/supervenient 40 on intentional content Intentionalists generally take intentionalism to apply to all phenomenal states 60 But it’s also possible to hold restricted versions of the view Relatively little attention has been given to how intentionalism might apply to emotions 80 25 / 46
  84. 84. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionComparison to perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism is generally motivated by consideration of 40 perceptual experiences To motivate an intentionalist account of the mental profile of emotions, I will first consider the motivations for intentionalism about perception 60 80 26 / 46
  85. 85. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionComparison to perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Intentionalism is generally motivated by consideration of 40 perceptual experiences To motivate an intentionalist account of the mental profile of emotions, I will first consider the motivations for intentionalism about perception 60 80 26 / 46
  86. 86. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionPerception’s mental profile mm Perception exhibits a mental profile similar to that100 emotions120 40 60 80 of 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something it is like to have a perceptual experience 2 40 Intentional aspect: Perceptual experiences exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 3 Transparency: The intentional and phenomenal aspects are not wholly distinct, but rather intimately related 80 27 / 46
  87. 87. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionPerception’s mental profile mm Perception exhibits a mental profile similar to that100 emotions120 40 60 80 of 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something it is like to have a perceptual experience 2 40 Intentional aspect: Perceptual experiences exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 3 Transparency: The intentional and phenomenal aspects are not wholly distinct, but rather intimately related 80 27 / 46
  88. 88. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionPerception’s mental profile mm Perception exhibits a mental profile similar to that100 emotions120 40 60 80 of 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something it is like to have a perceptual experience 2 40 Intentional aspect: Perceptual experiences exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 3 Transparency: The intentional and phenomenal aspects are not wholly distinct, but rather intimately related 80 27 / 46
  89. 89. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionPerception’s mental profile mm Perception exhibits a mental profile similar to that100 emotions120 40 60 80 of 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something it is like to have a perceptual experience 2 40 Intentional aspect: Perceptual experiences exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 3 Transparency: The intentional and phenomenal aspects are not wholly distinct, but rather intimately related 80 27 / 46
  90. 90. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionPerception’s mental profile mm Perception exhibits a mental profile similar to that100 emotions120 40 60 80 of 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something it is like to have a perceptual experience 2 40 Intentional aspect: Perceptual experiences exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 3 Transparency: The intentional and phenomenal aspects are not wholly distinct, but rather intimately related 80 27 / 46
  91. 91. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionPerception’s mental profile mm Perception exhibits a mental profile similar to that100 emotions120 40 60 80 of 1 Phenomenal aspect: There is something it is like to have a perceptual experience 2 40 Intentional aspect: Perceptual experiences exhibit intentionality 1 Intentional object 2 Qualification of intentional object 60 3 Transparency: The intentional and phenomenal aspects are not wholly distinct, but rather intimately related 80 27 / 46
  92. 92. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTransparency mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 When we introspect on a visual experience of a bunch of 60 bananas, we notice represented contents But we don’t also represent distinct phenomenal characters Rather, whatever phenomenal character we do notice is tied to the represented bananas 80 Transparency is analogous to imbuement (actually, transparency is stronger than imbuement) 28 / 46
  93. 93. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTransparency mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 When we introspect on a visual experience of a bunch of 60 bananas, we notice represented contents But we don’t also represent distinct phenomenal characters Rather, whatever phenomenal character we do notice is tied to the represented bananas 80 Transparency is analogous to imbuement (actually, transparency is stronger than imbuement) 28 / 46
  94. 94. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTransparency mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 When we introspect on a visual experience of a bunch of 60 bananas, we notice represented contents But we don’t also represent distinct phenomenal characters Rather, whatever phenomenal character we do notice is tied to the represented bananas 80 Transparency is analogous to imbuement (actually, transparency is stronger than imbuement) 28 / 46
  95. 95. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTransparency mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 When we introspect on a visual experience of a bunch of 60 bananas, we notice represented contents But we don’t also represent distinct phenomenal characters Rather, whatever phenomenal character we do notice is tied to the represented bananas 80 Transparency is analogous to imbuement (actually, transparency is stronger than imbuement) 28 / 46
  96. 96. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion Perception Feeling theory Sense-data theory 40 Cognitivism Belief/judgment theory Hybrid theory Hybrid theory Intentionalism Intentionalism 60 An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (or supervenient on, determined by) (some part of) its intentional content 80 29 / 46
  97. 97. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion Perception Feeling theory Sense-data theory 40 Cognitivism Belief/judgment theory Hybrid theory Hybrid theory Intentionalism Intentionalism 60 E.g. Frank Jackson Precisely fit the bill for capturing phenomenal character of perceptual experience 80 Problem: Doesn’t capture intentional aspect An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (or supervenient on, determined by) (some 29 / 46
  98. 98. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion Perception Feeling theory Sense-data theory 40 Cognitivism Belief/judgment theory Hybrid theory Hybrid theory Intentionalism Intentionalism 60 E.g. David Armstrong, George Pitcher Captures intentional aspect Problem: Neglects phenomenal aspect 80 An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (or supervenient on, determined by) (some part of) its intentional content 29 / 46
  99. 99. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion Perception Feeling theory Sense-data theory 40 Cognitivism Belief/judgment theory Hybrid theory Hybrid theory Intentionalism Intentionalism 60 E.g. Thomas Reid: Perceptual experiences are combinations of sensations and conceptions E.g. Mental paint view (Block): Perceptual experiences consist of narrow functional roles/material constitution and 80 causal/informational relations Problem: Transparency 29 / 46
  100. 100. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion Perception Feeling theory Sense-data theory 40 Cognitivism Belief/judgment theory Hybrid theory Hybrid theory Intentionalism Intentionalism 60 E.g. Gilbert Harman, Fred Dretske, Michael Tye Perceptual experience have intentional contents which automatically determine or are identical to their phenomenal characters 80 An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (or supervenient on, determined by) (some 29 / 46
  101. 101. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTheories of perception mm 40 60 80 100 120 Emotion Perception Feeling theory Sense-data theory 40 Cognitivism Belief/judgment theory Hybrid theory Hybrid theory Intentionalism Intentionalism 60 An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (or supervenient on, determined by) (some part of) its intentional content 80 29 / 46
  102. 102. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains perception’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Perceptual experience has intentional content 3 Transparency 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 30 / 46
  103. 103. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains perception’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Perceptual experience has intentional content 3 Transparency 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 30 / 46
  104. 104. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains perception’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Perceptual experience has intentional content 3 Transparency 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 30 / 46
  105. 105. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains perception’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Perceptual experience has intentional content 3 Transparency 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 30 / 46
  106. 106. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism about emotion mm Intentionalism about emotion 60 40 80 100 120 An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (some part of) its intentional content. 40 Emotions have intentional content Some part of this content is identical to the phenomenal character of emotions 60 80 31 / 46
  107. 107. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism about emotion mm Intentionalism about emotion 60 40 80 100 120 An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (some part of) its intentional content. 40 Emotions have intentional content Some part of this content is identical to the phenomenal character of emotions 60 80 31 / 46
  108. 108. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism about emotion mm Intentionalism about emotion 60 40 80 100 120 An emotion’s distinctive phenomenal character is (type or token) identical to (some part of) its intentional content. 40 Emotions have intentional content Some part of this content is identical to the phenomenal character of emotions 60 80 31 / 46
  109. 109. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains emotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Emotions have intentional content 3 Imbuement 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 32 / 46
  110. 110. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains emotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Emotions have intentional content 3 Imbuement 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 32 / 46
  111. 111. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains emotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Emotions have intentional content 3 Imbuement 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 32 / 46
  112. 112. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentionalism explains emotion’s mental profile mm 40 60 80 100 120 1 Phenomenal aspect 40 Phenomenal features are identical to intentional features 2 Intentional aspect Emotions have intentional content 3 Imbuement 60 The intentional and phenomenal features are identical 80 32 / 46
  113. 113. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTwo main issues dividing intentionalists about emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 1 What are the contents of emotions that determine their phenomenal characters? 2 What should we say about undirected emotions? 60 80 33 / 46
  114. 114. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionTwo main issues dividing intentionalists about emotion mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 1 What are the contents of emotions that determine their phenomenal characters? 2 What should we say about undirected emotions? 60 80 33 / 46
  115. 115. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionThe contents of emotions that determine their phenomenalcharacters mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 The options: Intentional objects Qualification of intentional objects 60 80 34 / 46
  116. 116. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentional objects mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 Intentional objects are unlikely candidates The same intentional objects can be represented by mental states that lack the phenomenal character of emotions E.g. one can perceive a dog without experiencing fear 60 80 35 / 46
  117. 117. The project Existing theories of emotion Intentionalism Versions of intentionalism about emotion ConclusionIntentional objects mm 40 60 80 100 120 40 Intentional objects are unlikely candidates The same intentional objects can be represented by mental states that lack the phenomenal character of emotions E.g. one can perceive a dog without experiencing fear 60 80 35 / 46
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