Modal verbs-
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Modal verbs- Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MODAL VERBS
  • 2. Can/ Be able to / Can’t
    • CAN
      • Different uses:
        • Abilities or capacities (to know or to be able to).
          • Mary can swim very fast.
        • Request, ask or give permission
          • Can you call me tonight?
          • Can I go to the toilet?
        • It can also be used for suggestions.
          • You can eat ravioli if you like pasta.
  • 3.
    • Be able to
      • It expresses abilities like can and it is used in all the verbal tenses where can is not used.
        • I was able to finish my homework on time
    • Can’t
      • Different uses:
        • Impossibility in the present
          • Mary can’t swim very fast
        • Lack of ability (not to know) or capacity (not to be able to):
        • I can’t eat a whole cake by myself
        • Prohibition
          • You can’t drive without a licence
        • Disbelief / Impossibility
          • That can’t be the price – it’s much too cheap.
  • 4. Could
    • It is the past of can and it is used to express:
      • Ability or capacity in the past
        • She could run fast when she was a child
      • Polite request
        • Could you help me with these suitcases?
      • Polite suggestion
        • You could exercise and eat healthier food
      • Possibility – Probability
        • Mark could join us the cinema.
  • 5. May/ might
    • Both of them express possibility, but might is more remote.
      • It may/ might rain tomorrow
    • In questions, may is the polite way of asking for things.
      • May I have a coffee, please?
    • Permission:
      • You may leave now.
  • 6. Would
    • In questions, it is a formal way of asking for things.
      • Would you open the window, please?
    • With the verb “like” is used to make offers and invitations.
      • Would you like something to drink?
  • 7. Must / Have to
    • Both express obligation, but must is only used in the present and have to in the other tenses. Authority people use must , while have to is used by everybody.
      • You must bring your books to class
      • I have to buy the tickets today.
    • Must is also used to express a logical deduction about present fact.
      • She’s got a great job. She must be very happy.
  • 8. Need to / Needn’t
    • Need to is not a modal, but it is used in affirmative sentences, like have to , to express obligation and necessity.
      • I need to cook dinner tonight.
    • Needn’t, on the contrary, is a modal and indicates lack of oblication and necessity, like don’t have to
      • You needn’t bring anything to the party.
  • 9. Mustn’t / Don’t have to
    • Mustn’t shows prohibition.
      • You mustn’t exceed the speed limit
    • Don’t have to means not have to , i.e., lack of obligation and necessity, like needn’t
      • I don’t have to get up early tomorrow
  • 10. Should /Ought to
    • Both of them express advise or opinion, but should is used more frequently, since ought to is quite strange in negative and interrogative.
      • You should/ought to improve your pronunciation
  • 11. Shall
    • It is used in the interrogative to offer oneself to do something and to make a suggestion.
      • Shall I help you with your luggage?
  • 12.   ABILITY REQUEST POSSIBILITY INABILITY CAN Mary can swim very fast Can you call me tonight?   BE ABLE TO I was able to finish my homework on time       CAN'T       I can't eat a whole cake by myself COULD She could run fast when she was a child (past) Could you help me with the suitcases? (polite) Mark could join us at the cinema   MAY/MIGHT     It may/might rain tomorrow   MAY   May I join this team? (polite)     WOULD   Would you open the window, please? (formal)     MUST         HAVE TO         NEED TO         NEEDN'T         DON'T HAVE TO         MUSTN'T         SHOULD /OUGHT TO         SHALL        
  • 13.   CAN BE ABLE TO CAN'T COULD MAY/MIGHT MAY WOULD MUST HAVE TO NEED TO NEEDN'T DON'T HAVE TO MUSTN'T SHOULD /OUGHT TO SHALL PROHIBITION DISBELIEF SUGGESTION/ OFFER OBLIGATION/ NECESSITY                 You can't drive without a licence That can't be the price - it's much too cheap         You could exercise and eat healthier food (plite)                       Would you like something to drink?         You must bring your books to class (strong)       I have to buy the tickets today       I need to cook dinner tonight.                 You mustn't exceed the speed limit                   Shall I help you with your luggage?  
  • 14. CERTAINTY OF TRUE LACK OBLIGATION/ NECESSITY ADVICE/ OPINION                                           She's got a great job. She must be very happy.                   You needn't bring anything to the party     I don't have to get up early tomorrow             You should/ ought to improve your pronunciation         CAN BE ABLE TO CAN'T COULD MAY/MIGHT MAY WOULD MUST HAVE TO NEED TO NEEDN'T DON'T HAVE TO MUSTN'T SHOULD /OUGHT TO SHALL
  • 15. MODAL PERFECTS
    • Must have + participle
      • It expresses a logical conclusion about a past fact.
        • Rob has arrived late. He must have been in a traffic jam.
    • May/might have + participle
      • We use it to make a supposition about something in the past.
        • She may/might have taken the wrong bus.
  • 16.
    • Could have + participle
      • Ability to do something in the past which in the end was not done
        • You could have asked the doctor before taking the medicine.
    • Couldn’t / Can’t have + participle
      • Certainty that something did not happen
        • He couldn’t have gone to the concert because he was doing the test.
  • 17.
    • Would have + participle
      • Desire to do something in the past which in fact could not be done.
        • I would have gone to the party, but I was too busy.
    • Should/ought to + participle
      • Criticism or regret after an event
        • You should/ought to have warned me earlier
    • Shouldn’t have + participle
      • Criticism or regret after an event, showing that it shouldn’t have happened
        • He shouldn’t have forgotten about her birthday
  • 18.
    • Needn’t have + participle
      • An unnecessary past action
        • You needn’t have brought anything to my party.
  • 19. Should /Had better
    • Should/ had better
      • Had better is used in a more colloquial way of expressing what someone has to do, to give advise or opinions.
        • You’d better go to the doctor.
      • It also it is used to express a warning
        • You’d better tidy your room now