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History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
History beyond the text book
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History beyond the text book

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  • 1.
    •  
    • ’ kh"kZd & bVyh dk ,dhdj.k
  • 2. d{kk ,oa lsD’ku ch-,- izFke o"kZ & f}rh; lsesLVj
    • funZs’kd
    • MkW- vferk flag
    • fo|kFkhZ lewg 1½ jf’e
    • 2½ usgk
    • 3½ jek
    • 4½ Lusgk
    • 5½ vkjk/kuk
    • 6½ ik;y
  • 3. bVyh dk ,dhdj.k   Hkwfedk %& 19oha lnh ds izkjaHk esa bVyh vusd NksVs &NksVs jkT;ksa esa foHkDr ;k ftlesa izFke izFke dkuwu FksA bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa vusd ck/kk,¡ FkhA bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa izeq[k ck/kk,¡ Fkh 1½ bVyh esa ckgjh 'kfDr;ksa dk fu;a=.k 2½ iksi dk vlhfer vf/kdkj 3½ izkarh; ,ao O;kid QwV 4½ jktkvksa esa vkilh bZ";kZ 5½ bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa er oSfHkU;A
  • 4.   1½ bVyh esa ckgjh 'kfDr;ksa dk fu;a=.k %& fons’kh jkT;ksa dk izHkqRo bVyh ds ,dhdj.k ds ekxZ esa lcls vf/kd ck/kd rRo FkkA 2½ iksi dk vlhfer vf/kdkj {ks= %& iksi dh 'kfDr’kkyh jktlÙkk ds dkj.k bVyh ds nks Hkkx gks x, FksA 3½ izkUrh; ,oa O;kid QwV %& bVyh fofHkUu NksVs &NksVs jkT;ksa esa foHkDr FkkA bu lHkh jkT;ksa esa fHkUu &fHkUu izdkj ds dkuwu ,oa fHkUu &fHkUu izdkj dh O;oLFkk,a FkhA 4½ jktkvksa esa bZ";ka %& jktkvksa esa bVyh dh ,drk ds fy, R;kx djus dh Hkkouk u Fkh A bVyh dh jk"Vªh; ,drk ds fy, vius LokFkksZ dks cfynku djus dks dksbZ jktk rS;kj u FkkA 5½ bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa er oSfHkU; %& bVyh ds ,dhdj.k ds lEcU/k esa fofHkUu er FksA dqN yksx bVyh ds iw.kZr% x.krU=kRed Lo:I ds leFkZd FksA
  • 5. eSftuh dk mn;
    • eSftuh & ,d fo[;kr ys[kd FkkA 1850 bZ-esa tsusok ds ,d izfl) MkWDVj ds ?kj esa bldk tUe gqvk Fkk
  • 6. tkstsQ eSftuh dk mnsn~’; & eSftuh dk mn~ns’; vkYil ioZr Js.kh ls ysdj nf{k.k ds leqnz i;ZUr ,d fo’kky rFkklqlaxfBr bVkfy;u jk&quot;Vª dk fuekZ.k djuk FkA r:.k bVyh & ;|fi eSftuh dkcksZujh dk lnL; Fkk] ysfdu og mlls lUrq&quot;V ugha FkkA dkcksZujh ds fo&quot;k; esa og ;g dgk djrk Fkk muds ikl dksbZ dk;ZØe /keZ rFkk Å¡ps vkn’kZ ugha gSA1831 bZ-esa eklkZbZ es fuokZflr thou O;rhr djrs gq, mlus ;ax bVyh uked laLFkk dk fuekZ.k fd;k A mudk ekeuk Fkk fd 'kghnksa ds jDr ls flafpr gksdj gh fopkj :ih ikS/ks c<+rs vkSj iuirs gSA eSftuh x.krU= dk i{kikrh FkkA og jktkvksa dh lÙkk dk ?kksj fojks/kh FkkA NksVs &NksVs jkT;ksa dks feykdj og ,d 'kfDr’kkyh bVkfy;u la?k dh LFkkiuk djuk pkgrk FkkA
  • 7. 1815 ls 1850 bZ rd ,dhdj.k dh vlQyrk ds dkj.k 1½ fuf’pr ;kstuk dk vHkko & bl dky esa bVyh ds ns’kHkDr fHkUu fHkUu mns’;ksa dks ysdj vyx&vyx <ax ls dk;Z dj jgs FksA 2½ dwVuhfr usrk dk vHkko & vlQyrk dk ,d dkj.k ;g Hkh Fkk fdbl nkSj esa bVyh esa ;ksX; dwVuhfrK usrk dk mn; u gks ldkA 3½ l’kDr ny dk vHkko & bVyh esa dksbZ ,slk ny u Fkk tks lEiw.kZ ns’k dks viuh vkSj vkd`&quot;V djds lEiw.kZ turk dks ,d >.Ms ds uhps ,d= dj ldrkA 4½ bVyh dh leL;k LFkkuh; u gksdj vUrjkZ&quot;Vªh; Fkh & 1850 bZ- rd bVyh ds ns’kHkDrksa dk og fo’okl Fkk fd os ek= vius gh lk/kuksa ds cy ij bVyh dks LorU= dj ldrs gSA
  • 8. xSjhckYMh dk ;ksxnku
    • bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa xSjhckYMh dk egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku jgkA bldk tUe 1807 bZ esa bVyh ds uhl uked uxj esa gqvk Fkk
  • 9. izkjEHk esa og r:.k bVyh dk lnL; cu x;kA mls e`R;qn.M fn;k x;kA 14 o&quot;kZ rd og izoklh thou O;rhr djrk jgkA 1854 bZ esa og iqu% bVyh vkdj dSiksjk Vkiw esa jgus yxkA xSjhckYMh dk okLrfod dky 1860 bZ ls izkjEHk gksrk gSa blds ckn viuk 'ks&quot;k thou dsijsjk Vkiw es aO;rhr fd;k tgka 1882 bZ esa mldh e`R;q gks x;h
  • 10. dSowj dk mn;
    • dSoj og O;fDr Fkk ftlus bVyh ds lfn;ksa iqukus LoIu dks iwjk fd;k Fkk eSftuh vkSj xSjhckYMh ls de yksdfiz; fdUrq bVyh ds ,dhdj.k esa lcls vf/kd 'kfDr’kkyh O;fDr dSowj gh FkkA
  • 11. dwVuhfrd ekeyksa esa foLekdZ ls de u Fkk 1848 bZ esa igyh ckj ihMek.V dh fo/kku ifj&quot;kn dk lnL; cu x;k 1850 bZ essa og d`f&quot;k ,oa okf.kT; ea=h fu;qDr gqvkA mlus jktuSfrd] lkekftd] vkfFkZd] ,oa ckSf)d lHkh n`f&quot;Vdks.kksa ls ,d vkn’kZ jkT; cukus dk iz;kl fd;k A
  • 12. dSowj dh x`g uhfr dSowj bVyh dh vko’;drkvksa dks Hkyh izdkj vuqHko djrk Fkk viuh ;kstukuqlkj mlus viuh x`g uhfr ds vUrxZr fuEufyf[kr dk;Z fd, 1½ vkfFkZd {ks= esa dk;Z & ihMek.V dh mUufr ds fy, O;kikj ,oa okf.kT; dh vkSj fo’ks&quot;k /;ku fn;kA O;kikj ds {ks= esa og LorU= O;kikj dk leFkZd FkkA 2½ lsuk esa lq/kkj & dSowj us lkMhfu;k ihMek.V ds lSfud laxBu dks Å¡ph izkFkfedrk nh
  • 13. 3½ /kkfeZd {ks= esa ifjorZr & dSowj jktuhfrd {ks= esa ppZ ds gLr{ksi dks ilUn ugha djrk FkkA 4½ jktuhfrd lw/kkj & dSowj us lkMhfu;k ihMek.V dks iw.kZr;k laoS/kkfud jkT; cukus dk iz;Ru  

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