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3 30 natural selection review 2

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  • Even though it’s very hot to have a large mane the benefit of attracting mates and successfully producing & rearing young since you have that large mane outweighs the costs. Females who chose these males were more “successful” (more, healthier young) and therefore had a greater opportunity to pass on the trait of being attracted to longer darker manes to their daughters and the trait of having longer, darker manes to their sons.
  • Small founder group, less genetic diversity than Africans All white people around the world are descended from a small group of ancestors 100,000 years ago (Chinese are white people!)
  • South & Central American Indians were nearly 100% type O for the ABO blood system. Since nothing in nature seems to strongly select for or against this trait, it is likely that most of these people are descendants of a small band of closely related "founders" who also shared this blood type

Transcript

  • 1. Date: 3/30/2011 Time: 9:00 and 12:00 Essential Questions: What forces cause changes in organisms? Today's Subject Area : Evolutionary Forces Today’s topic : What changes over time? Required Materials: Have paper and pencil/pen ready to work and take notes . The mission of the Georgia Cyber Academy is to provide an exemplary educational experience to students in a unique and individualized setting . WELCOME TO MRS. COPE AND MRS. MEDLEY’S CLASS
  • 2. 2007-2008 Evolutionary Forces What changes populations?
  • 3. STANDARDS S7L5
    • S7L5.a Explain how physical characteristics of organisms have changed over successive generations (e.g., Darwin’s finches and peppered moths of Manchester).
    • S7L5.b Describe ways in which species on earth have evolved due to natural selection .
  • 4. Natural selection
    • is a process by which organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and reproduce at a greater rate than organisms less suited to that environment.
  • 5.
    • A change in gene frequency within a population’s gene pool
      • Can occur via
        • Natural Selection
          • Various types of selection pressures
        • Genetic Drift
          • Random occurrences
    Evolution is…
  • 6. Forces of evolutionary change
    • Natural selection
      • traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population
        • adaptive change
      • Includes predation, physiological, sexual selection & coevolution
    • Genetic drift
      • frequency of traits can change in a population due to chance events
        • random change
        • Includes founder & bottleneck effects
  • 7.
    • Selection acts on any trait that affects survival or reproduction
      • predation selection
      • physiological selection
      • sexual selection
    Natural selection
  • 8. Predation Selection
    • Predation selection
      • Selects for traits that affect
      • survival
      • act on both predator & prey
        • behaviors
        • camouflage & mimicry
        • speed
        • defenses (physical & chemical)
  • 9. Physiological Selection
    • Acting on body functions
      • disease resistance
      • physiology efficiency (using oxygen, food, water)
      • biochemical versatility
      • protection from injury
    HOT STUFF ! Some fish had the variation of producing anti-freeze protein The Antarctic Ocean freezes over
  • 10. Sexual Selection
    • Acting on reproductive success
      • attractiveness to potential mate
      • fertility of gametes
      • successful rearing of offspring
    Survival doesn’t matter if you don’t reproduce ! Organisms want their genes prevail and live on!
  • 11. The lion’s mane…
    • Females are attracted to males with larger, dark manes
    • Correlation with higher testosterone levels
      • better nutrition & health
      • more muscle & aggression
      • better sperm count / fertility
      • longer life
    • But imposes a cost to male
      • HOT! Is it worth it??
  • 12. Coevolution
    • Two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution
      • predator-prey
        • disease & host
      • competitive species
      • mutualism
        • pollinators & flowers
  • 13. Genetic Drift
    • Chance events changing frequency of traits in a population
      • not adaptation to environmental conditions
        • not selection
      • founder effect
        • small group splinters off & starts a new colony
      • bottleneck
        • some factor (disaster) reduces population to small number & then population recovers & expands again but from a limited gene pool
  • 14. Founder effect
    • When a new population is started by only a small group of individuals
      • just by chance some rare alleles may be at high frequency; others may be missing
      • skew the gene pool of new population
        • human populations that started from small group of colonists
        • example : colonization of New World
    albino deer Seneca Army Depot
  • 15. Distribution of blood types
    • Distribution of the O type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original settlement
  • 16. Bottleneck effect
    • When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster
      • famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat…
      • loss of variation by chance event
        • alleles lost from gene pool
          • not due to fitness
        • narrows the gene pool
  • 17. Cheetahs
    • All cheetahs share a small number of alleles
      • less than 1% diversity
      • as if all cheetahs are identical twins
    • 2 bottlenecks
      • 10,000 years ago
        • Ice Age
      • last 100 years
        • poaching & loss of habitat
  • 18.
    • Which of the following can fossils reveal about an organism? I. how the organism interacted with other organisms II. the appearance of the organism and its structures III. the growth stages of the organism IV. the microscopic features of the organism A. II and IV only
    • B. II and III only
    • C. I, II, III, and IV
    • D. II, III, and IV only
  • 19.
    • Which of the following can fossils reveal about an organism? I. how the organism interacted with other organisms II. the appearance of the organism and its structures III. the growth stages of the organism IV. the microscopic features of the organism A. II and IV only
    • B. II and III only
    • C . I, II, III, and IV
    • D. II, III, and IV only
  • 20.
    • Favorable traits are traits that promote an organism's success in a particular environment. Organisms with favorable traits are more likely to thrive, survive, and reproduce than organisms without favorable traits. So, over time, favorable traits are likely to _______ within a population and unfavorable traits are likely to _______ within a population.
    • A. decrease, increase
    • B. increase, increase
    • C. increase, decrease
    • D. decrease, decrease
                Write your response here:
  • 21.
    • Favorable traits are traits that promote an organism's success in a particular environment. Organisms with favorable traits are more likely to thrive, survive, and reproduce than organisms without favorable traits. So, over time, favorable traits are likely to _______ within a population and unfavorable traits are likely to _______ within a population.
    • A. decrease, increase
    • B. increase, increase
    • C. increase, decrease
    • D. decrease, decrease
                Write your response here:
  • 22.
    • Peppered moths use the adaptation of camouflage as protection from predators. They may have a variety of colors or shades, but before the Industrial Revolution, they were typically white with black speckles. The Industrial Revolution in the 1880s introduced large-scale pollution into the environment. The pollution resulted in widespread, dark-colored staining of buildings and trees. Which of the following was the most likely effect of the Industrial Revolution on peppered moths in cities?
    • A. Over time, the white, speckled moths were outnumbered by plain white moths.
    • B. The population of light-colored moths decreased and the population of dark-colored moths increased.
    • C. The peppered moths adapted an improved sense of sight and smell.
    • D. The peppered moths developed a tolerance to smog and chemical waste.
  • 23.
    • Peppered moths use the adaptation of camouflage as protection from predators. They may have a variety of colors or shades, but before the Industrial Revolution, they were typically white with black speckles. The Industrial Revolution in the 1880s introduced large-scale pollution into the environment. The pollution resulted in widespread, dark-colored staining of buildings and trees. Which of the following was the most likely effect of the Industrial Revolution on peppered moths in cities?
    • A. Over time, the white, speckled moths were outnumbered by plain white moths.
    • B. The population of light-colored moths decreased and the population of dark-colored moths increased.
    • C. The peppered moths adapted an improved sense of sight and smell.
    • D. The peppered moths developed a tolerance to smog and chemical waste.
  • 24. Any Questions??             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here:             Write your response here: 3.   4.   10.  
  • 25. Independent Practice! Study Island Assignment: Subject: Life Science Topic: Evolution Lesson: 3h (review – already completed!) OLS Assignment : Subject: Adaptation and Change Unit: Unit 8: Lesson 1-6 ADVANCE : Unit 3Lesson 1 ,2, 3, 5 and 6 AND
  • 26. Thank you for attending today!
    • You will find the recorded link for this session…..
    • The survey link is: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/89F82VJ