The Context of Engineering Education

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The Context of Engineering Education
Conceiving-Designing-Implementing-Operating
Edward F. Crawley, John Cha, Johan Malmqvist, and Doris R. Brodeur
4th International CDIO Conference
16 - 19 June 2008

Published in: Education, Business

The Context of Engineering Education

  1. 1. The Context of Engineering Education Conceiving- Designing- Implementing - Operating Edward F. Crawley, John Cha, Johan Malmqvist, and Doris R. Brodeur 4th International CDIO Conference 16 - 19 June 2008
  2. 2. THE WORLDWIDE NEED FOR CHANGE • Shortage of engineering graduates and those remaining in engineering careers • Need to educate engineers to be more effective contributors and leaders • Need to educate engineers to work in a more interdisciplinary manner • Preparing students for increasing globalization • Increasing awareness and response to environmental changes • Need for more experiential learning and project-based learning • Need for enhanced university-industry cooperation and knowledge exchange
  3. 3. THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF OUR STUDENTS DESIRED ATTRIBUTES OF AN ENGINEERING GRADUATE UNDERLYING NEED • Understanding of fundamentals Educate students who: • Understanding of design and • Understand how to conceive- manufacturing processes design-implement-operate • Multidisciplinary system • Complex value-added perspective engineering systems • Good communication skills • In a modern team-based engineering environment • High ethical standards, etc. We have adopted CDIO as the engineering context of our education
  4. 4. WHAT IS CONTEXT? 1. The words, phases or passages that come before, or after, a particular word or passage of text that help to explain its full meaning 2. The circumstances or events that form the environment within which something exists or takes place  A chair within a room  A decision influenced by the organization Context is the circumstances and surroundings that aid in understanding meaning
  5. 5. WHAT IS ENGINEERING? • Designing and implementing things that have not previously existed, and that directly or indirectly serve society or some element of society • Von Kármán: Scientists discover the world that exists, while engineers create the world that never was!” • The life cycle of a product, process, project, system, software, material, molecule o Conceiving: understanding needs and technology, and creating the concept o Designing: defining the information needed to implement o Implementing: creating the actually operable system o Operating: using the system to meet the need
  6. 6. ENGINEERING CONTEXT STABLE ELEMENTS • A focus on the problems of the customer and society • The delivery of new products, processes, and systems • The role of invention and new technology in shaping the future • The use of many disciplines to develop the solution • The need for engineers to work together, to communicate effectively, and to provide leadership in technical endeavors • The need to work efficiently, within resources, and /or profitably
  7. 7. ENGINEERING CONTEXT CHANGING ELEMENTS • A change from mastery of the environment to stewardship of the environment • Shortened lifespan of products and technologies • Increase in service orientation • Globalization and international competition • Fragmentation and geographic dispersion of engineering activities • The increasingly human-centered nature of engineering practice
  8. 8. GOALS OF CDIO • To educate students to master a deeper working knowledge of the technical fundamentals • To educate engineers to lead in the creation and operation of new products and systems • To educate all to understand the importance and strategic impact of research and technological development on society And to attract and retain students in engineering
  9. 9. THREE PREMISES 1. The underlying need is best met by setting goals that stress the fundamentals, while at the same time making C-D-I-O the context of engineering 2. Learning outcomes for students should be o set through stakeholder involvement, and o met by constructing a sequence of integrated learning experiences that expose students to situations that engineers encounter in their profession 3. Proper construction of these integrated learning activities will cause the activities to have dual impact o facilitating student learning of critical personal and interpersonal skills, and product, process, and system building skills, and o simultaneously enhancing the learning of the fundamentals
  10. 10. ENGINEERING EDUCATION CONTEXT What should be the context of engineering education? • A focus on the needs of the customer • Delivery of products and systems • Incorporation of new inventions and technologies • A focus on the solution, not disciplines • Working with others • Effective communication • Working within resources
  11. 11. DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION Personal, Interpersonal Pre-1950s: and System Practice Building Skills 1960s: 2000: Science CDIO and Practice 1980s: Science Disciplinary Knowledge Engineers need both dimensions, and we need to develop education that delivers both
  12. 12. CDIO AS THE CONTEXT • Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate as a model (not the only model!) of the product, process, and system development and deployment process in engineering • Other models • Measure-Model-Manipulate-Make in biological engineering at MIT • Engineering-Enterprising-Educating- Environmenting-Ensembling in Leuven, Belgium
  13. 13. BEST PRACTICE STANDARD ONE Adoption of the principle that product, process, and system lifecycle development and deployment -- Conceiving, Designing, Implementing and Operating - - are the context for engineering education  It is what engineers do!  It is the underlying need and basis for the skills lists that industry proposes to university educators  It is the natural context in which to teach these skills to engineering students  It better supports the learning of the technical fundamentals
  14. 14. BENEFITS OF LEARNING IN CONTEXT Setting the education of engineers in the context of engineering practice realizes the benefits of Contextual Learning • Increases retention of new knowledge and skills • Interconnects concepts and knowledge that build on each other • Communicates the rationale for, meaning of, and relevance of, what students are learning
  15. 15. VISION We envision an education that stresses the fundamentals, set in the context of Conceiving – Designing – Implementing – Operating products, processes, and systems: • A curriculum organized around mutually supporting disciplines, with CDIO activities highly interwoven • Rich with student design-implement projects • Featuring active and experiential learning • Set in both classrooms and modern learning laboratories and workspaces • Constantly improved through robust assessment and evaluation processes
  16. 16. CENTRAL QUESTIONS FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION What knowledge, skills and attitudes should students possess as they graduate from university? How can we do better at ensuring that students learn these skills? How can we work together on these questions?
  17. 17. FROM UNDERLYING NEED TO GOALS Educate students who: • Understand how to conceive- Process design-implement-operate • Complex value-added Product 4. CDIO engineering systems 3. Inter- • In a modern team-based 1. Technical 2. Personal personal engineering environment • And are mature and thoughtful Team individuals Self The CDIO Syllabus - a comprehensive statement of detailed Goals for an Engineering Education
  18. 18. THE CDIO SYLLABUS 1.0 Technical Knowledge & Reasoning: Knowledge of underlying sciences Core engineering fundamental knowledge Advanced engineering fundamental knowledge 2.0 Personal and Professional Skills & Attributes Engineering reasoning and problem solving Experimentation and knowledge discovery System thinking Personal skills and attributes Professional skills and attributes 3.0 Interpersonal Skills: Teamwork & Communication Multi-disciplinary teamwork Communications Communication in a foreign language 4.0 Conceiving, Designing, Implementing & Operating Systems in the Enterprise & Societal Context External and societal context Enterprise and business context Conceiving and engineering systems Designing Implementing Operating
  19. 19. 1 TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND REASONING 3.3. COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN 1.1. KNOWLEDGE OF UNDERLYING LANGUAGES SCIENCES 3.3.1. English CDIO SYLLABUS 1.2. CORE ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE 1.3. ADVANCED ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE 3.3.2. Languages within the European Union 3.3.3. Languages outside the European Union 4 CONCEIVING, DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTING 2 PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND OPERATING SYSTEMS IN THE AND ATTRIBUTES ENTERPRISE AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT 2.1. ENGINEERING REASONING AND 4.1. EXTERNAL AND SOCIETAL CONTEXT PROBLEM SOLVING 4.1.1. Roles and Responsibility of Engineers • Syllabus at 3rd 2.1.1. Problem Identification and Formulation 2.1.2. Modeling 2.1.3. Estimation and Qualitative Analysis 4.1.2. The Impact of Engineering on Society 4.1.3. Society’s Regulation of Engineering 4.1.4. The Historical and Cultural Context level 2.1.4. Analysis With Uncertainty 2.1.5. Solution and Recommendation 2.2. EXPERIMENTATION AND KNOWLEDGE 4.1.5. Contemporary Issues and Values 4.1.6. Developing a Global Perspective 4.2. ENTERPRISE AND BUSINESS CONTEXT DISCOVERY 4.2.1. Appreciating Different Enterprise • One or two more 2.2.1. Hypothesis Formulation 2.2.2. Survey of Print and Electronic Literature Cultures 4.2.2. Enterprise Strategy, Goals and Planning levels are detailed 2.2.3. Experimental Inquiry 4.2.3. Technical Entrepreneurship 2.2.4. Hypothesis Test, and Defense 4.2.4. Working Successfully in Organizations 2.3. SYSTEM THINKING 4.3. CONCEIVING AND ENGINEERING 2.3.1. Thinking Holistically SYSTEMS • Rational 2.3.2. Emergence and Interactions in 4.3.1. Setting System Goals and Systems Requirements 2.3.3. Prioritization and Focus 4.3.2. Defining Function, Concept and 2.3.4. Tradeoffs, Judgment and Balance in Architecture • Comprehensive Resolution 4.3.3. Modeling of System and Ensuring 2.4. PERSONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES Goals Can Be Met 2.4.1. Initiative and Willingness to Take 4.3.4. Development Project Management Risks 4.4. DESIGNING • Peer reviewed 2.4.2. Perseverance and Flexibility 4.4.1. The Design Process 2.4.3. Creative Thinking 4.4.2. The Design Process Phasing and 2.4.4. Critical Thinking Approaches 2.4.5. Awareness of One’s Personal 4.4.3. Utilization of Knowledge in Design • Basis for design Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes 4.4.4. Disciplinary Design 2.4.6. Curiosity and Lifelong Learning 4.4.5. Multidisciplinary Design 2.4.7. Time and Resource Management 4.4.6. Multi-objective Design 2.5. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS AND 4.5. IMPLEMENTING and assessment ATTITUDES 2.5.1. Professional Ethics, Integrity, Responsibility and Accountability 4.5.1. Designing the Implementation Process 4.5.2. Hardware Manufacturing Process 4.5.3. Software Implementing Process 2.5.2. Professional Behavior 4.5.4. Hardware Software Integration 2.5.3. Proactively Planning for One’s Career 4.5.5. Test, Verification, Validation and 2.5.4. Staying Current on World of Engineer Certification 4.5.6. Implementation Management 3 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: TEAMWORK AND 4.6. OPERATING COMMUNICATION 4.6.1. Designing and Optimizing Operations 3.1. TEAMWORK 4.6.2. Training and Operations 3.1.1. Forming Effective Teams 4.6.3. Supporting the System Lifecycle 3.1.2. Team Operation 4.6.4. System Improvement and Evolution 3.1.3. Team Growth and Evolution 4.6.5. Disposal and Life-End Issues 3.1.4. Leadership 4.6.6. Operations Management 3.1.5. Technical Teaming 3.2. COMMUNICATION 3.2.1. Communication Strategy 3.2.2. Communication Structure 3.2.3. Written Communication 3.2.4. Electronic/Multimedia Communication 3.2.5. Graphical Communication 3.2.6. Oral Presentation and Interpersonal Communication
  20. 20. SYLLABUS LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY • 6 groups surveyed: 1st and 4th year students, alumni 25 years old, alumni 35 years old, faculty, leaders of industry • Question: For each attribute, please indicate which of the five levels of proficiency you desire in a graduating engineering student: – 1 To have experienced or been exposed to – 2 To be able to participate in and contribute to – 3 To be able to understand and explain – 4 To be skilled in the practice or implementation of – 5 To be able to lead or innovate in
  21. 21. 2. Skilled 1 Practice En Innovate g in Exposure ee Participate rin Understand 2. g 2 R 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Ex ea p so 2. er im n 3 en Sy st ta em tio 2. 4 n s Pe Th 2. rs in 5 on ki ng Pr al of At es tri si bu on te al s At tri bu 3. 1 te Te s 3. 2 am C w om or m k 4. un 1 ic So at ci io 4. et n 2 al Bu C on si ne te xt ss C on 4. 3 te C xt PROFICIENCY EXPECTATIONS 4. on 4 ce D iv es in ig g n 4. Pr 5 oc es Im pl s em en 4. tin 6 g O REMARKABLE AGREEMENT! pe ra tin g Proficiency Expectations at MIT Aero/Astro Faculty Y. Alum Industry O. Alum
  22. 22. BEST PRACTICE STANDARD TWO Specific, detailed learning outcomes for personal and interpersonal skills, and product, process, and system building skills, as well as disciplinary knowledge, consistent with program goals and validated by program stakeholders  “Resolves” tensions among stakeholders  Allows for the design of curriculum  Basis of student evaluation
  23. 23. HOW CAN WE DO BETTER? Re-task current assets and resources in: • Curriculum • Laboratories and workspaces • Teaching and learning • Assessment and evaluation • Faculty competence Evolve to a model in which these resources are better employed to promote student learning
  24. 24. BEST PRACTICE: THE CDIO STANDARDS 1. The Context 7. Integrated Learning Experiences Adoption of the principle that product. Process, and Integrated learning experiences that lead to the system lifecycle development and deployment are the acquisition of disciplinary knowledge, as well as context for engineering education personal, interpersonal, and produc, process,t and 2. Learning Outcomes system building skills Specific, detailed learning outcomes for personal, 8. Active Learning interpersonal, and product,.process and system Teaching and learning based on active experiential building skills, consistent with program goals and learning methods validated by program stakeholders 9. Enhancement of Faculty Skills Competence 3. Integrated Curriculum Actions that enhance faculty competence in personal, A curriculum designed with mutually supporting interpersonal, and product and system building skills disciplinary subjects, with an explicit plan to integrate 10. Enhancement of Faculty Teaching Competence personal, interpersonal, and product, process, and Actions that enhance faculty competence in providing system building skills integrated learning experiences, in using active 4. Introduction to Engineering experiential learning methods, and in assessing An introductory course that provides the framework for student learning engineering practice in product. Process, and system 11. Learning Assessment building, and introduces essential personal and Assessment of student learning in personal, interpersonal skills interpersonal, and product, process, and system 5. Design-Implement Experiences building skills, as well as in disciplinary knowledge A curriculum that includes two or more design- 12. Program Evaluation implement experiences, including one at a basic level A system that evaluates programs against these 12 and one at an advanced level standards, and provides feedback to students, faculty, 6. Engineering Workspaces and other stakeholders for the purposes of continuous Workspaces and laboratories that support and improvement encourage hands-on learning of product, process, and system building, disciplinary knowledge, and social learning
  25. 25. INTRODUCTORY COURSE • To motivate students to study engineering • To provide early exposure to system building • To teach some early and essential skills (e.g., teamwork) Capstone • To provide a set of personal Disciplines experiences which will allow early fundamentals to be more deeply understood Intro Sciences
  26. 26. WORLD-CLASS WORKSPACES
  27. 27. ARE WE DOING BETTER? • The CDIO approach has deepened, not diminished, students’ understanding of engineering disciplinary knowledge • Annual surveys of graduating students indicate that they have developed intended CDIO program knowledge and skills outcomes, especially are those that are important to program stakeholders • Student self-report data indicate high student satisfaction with design-implement experiences, and with workspaces that promote a sense of community among learners • Longitudinal studies of students in CDIO programs are showing increases in program enrollment, decreasing failing rates, particularly among female students, and increased student satisfaction with their learning experiences • Employers are beginning to report increased capabilities improvements in student adaptation to the workplace • Results are being used for continuous program improvement
  28. 28. THE WORLDWIDE NEED FOR CHANGE • Shortage of engineering graduates and those remaining in engineering careers • Need to educate engineers to be more effective contributors and leaders • Need to educate engineers to work in a more interdisciplinary manner • Preparing students for increasing globalization • Increasing awareness and response to environmental changes • Need for more experiential learning and project-based learning • Need for enhanced university-industry cooperation and knowledge exchange
  29. 29. QUESTIONS 1. How can teaching and learning in the context of engineering practice help to address the need for qualified engineers? 2. How could the goals and vision of the CDIO approach to engineering education be implemented in your programs? 3. What are your questions?

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