Ancient Greece Lessons


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Ancient Greece Lessons

  1. 1. World History Chapter 4 The Rise of Ancient Greece 01/02/11 John 3:16
  2. 2. Chapter 4, Section 1, Beginnings <ul><li>The Aegean Area </li></ul><ul><li>Aegean Civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Poets and Heroes </li></ul><ul><li>A Family of Deities </li></ul>Overview 01/02/11 John 3:16
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Understand how being close to the sea made the Greeks seafarers </li></ul><ul><li>Know where and how the early civilizations of Greece developed </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  4. 4. Terms to Know <ul><li>Labyrinth: A maze; e.g. passages or hallways twisting and turning in all directions </li></ul><ul><li>Bard: A singing storyteller. Bards were used in the “dark age’” to keep traditions alive. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  5. 5. People to Meet <ul><li>Sir Arthur Evans </li></ul><ul><li>The Minoans </li></ul><ul><li>The Mycenaeans </li></ul><ul><li>Homer </li></ul><ul><li>Heinrich Schliemann </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  6. 6. Places to Locate <ul><li>Crete </li></ul><ul><li>Mycenae </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  7. 7. Did You Know? <ul><li>One of the adventures in Homer’s “Odyssey” involved a one-eyed giant—called a Cyclops—who shut Odysseus in his cave and blocked the entrance with a huge rock. Odysseus made the Cyclops drunk, blinded him by driving a burning stake into his eye while he slept, and escaped by clinging to the belly of a sheep let out to pasture. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  8. 8. The Aegean Area <ul><li>Greece is made up largely of low-lying rugged mountains and a long, indented coastline; the mountains both protected and isolated Ancient Greeks on the mainland, who never united under one government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks did speak one language and had the same religion </li></ul><ul><li>Many Greeks earned their livings on the sea; the mild climate allowed Greeks to spend much of their time outdoors </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  9. 9. The Aegean Area <ul><li>Greeks turned to become fishers, traders and pirates. </li></ul><ul><li>The climate allowed people to spend time outdoors, assembling for meetings and performing plays. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  10. 10. Aegean Civilizations The Minoans <ul><li>Greek myth referred to the existence of an early civilization on the island of Crete; archaeologists have since unearthed remains of this Minoan civilization, which flourished from about 2500 to 1450 B.C. The Minoans were the first in the Aegean Region. </li></ul><ul><li>British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans who discovered Minoan remains about 1900 A.D. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  11. 11. The Minoans (cont) <ul><li>The Minoan civilization, which earned its living from sea trade, reached its peak around 1600 B.C.; it collapsed about 250 years later. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both men and women curled their hair, bedecked themselves with gold jewelry, set off narrow waists with wide metal belts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minoan woman enjoyed a higher status than many other civilizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minoan ships help keep the seas free from pirates </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  12. 12. The Minoans (cont) <ul><li>Minoan ships dominated the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Ships protected coast—no need for walls </li></ul><ul><li>The destruction or collapse of the Minoan civilization believed by a tidal wave after an earthquake or from attack from Mycenaeans </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  13. 13. Aegean Civilizations The Mycenaeans <ul><li>The Mycenaeans, from Indo-European peoples of central Asia, began moving from their homeland around 2000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>When they entered the Balkan Peninsula, the Mycenaeans intermarried with local people, known as the Hellenes, and set up a group of kingdoms. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  14. 14. The Mycenaeans (con’t) <ul><li>The palaces in the center of Mycenae served as government offices </li></ul><ul><li>The Mycenaeans adopted many Minoan cultural elements: metalworking, shipbuilding, and navagation </li></ul><ul><li>Each kingdom created centered around a hilltop. Stone walls circled the fortress. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  15. 15. The Mycenaeans (cont) <ul><li>Made swords of bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Kept good records and collected taxes based on wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honey </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  16. 16. The Mycenaeans and the Dorians <ul><li>By the mid-1400s B.C.,the Mycenaeans had conquered the Minoans and controlled the Aegean area </li></ul><ul><li>Soon after 1100 B.C., however, the Greek-speaking Dorians conquered Greece from the North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myceneaen walls weakened by civil war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorians had iron weapons </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  17. 17. The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians <ul><li>Historians call the next 300 years of Greek history a “dark age” because overseas trade stopped, people lost skills, and poverty increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of Greeks flee the Dorian influence and go to Aegean islands and across the Aegean Sea to Asian Minor and a place called Ionia. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  18. 18. The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians <ul><li>By 750 B.C. the Ionians reintroduced culture, crafts and skills to Greece…mostly Mycenaean. </li></ul><ul><li>New Greek culture called Hellenic flourished from 700s until 336 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Ionians introduce Phoenician alphabet and other cultural elements in Ionia and their former homeland. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  19. 19. The Mycenaeans, Dorians, and Ionians <ul><li>The Phoenician alphabet limits Greek reading and writing to just 24 letters and made learning simpler. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dorian “Dark Ages” went away and a new Greek civilization formed from mostly Mycenaean elements. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  20. 20. Poets and Heroes <ul><li>During “Dark Ages”, bards—singing story tellers—kept Mycenaean traditions alive </li></ul><ul><li>Now able to write, Greeks began to record bard stories </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  21. 21. The Iliad and the Odyssey <ul><li>According to tradition, an eighth-century B.C. blind poet named Homer composed the two most famous Greek epics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Iliad” and the “Odyssey” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set during and after the legendary Trojan War in the mid-1200s B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycenaeans fought Trojans mid 1200s A.D . </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  22. 22. The Iliad and the Odyssey <ul><li>Iliad begins with Trojan prince falling in love with Helen, wife of Mycenaean king </li></ul><ul><li>He takes her with him to Troy </li></ul><ul><li>Avenging Helen’s kidnapping, Mycenaeans lay siege to Troy for 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to capture the city, Mycenaeans resort to trickery, using a wooden horse to gain entry </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  23. 23. The Iliad and the Odyssey <ul><li>According to Illiad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trojan War lasted 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troy in present day Turkey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks built large wooden horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers hid in belly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gave to Troy as gift and pretended to sail away </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once inside gates, Greek soldiers leapt out and conquered Troy </li></ul></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  24. 24. The Iliad and the Odyssey <ul><li>The Iliad and the Odyssey are epic poems, not reliable historic accounts of the Trojan War </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  25. 25. The Iliad and the Odyssey <ul><li>The Odyssey describes the wonderings of the Mycenaean king, Odysseus, and his return to his faithful wife </li></ul><ul><li>His 10-year journey resulted in people referring to any long, adventure-filled journey as a odyssey </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  26. 26. The Illiad and the Odyssey <ul><li>Schools in ancient Greece used Homer’s epics to teach values. </li></ul><ul><li>His epics talked about values such as courage and honor . </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  27. 27. Teaching Greek Values <ul><li>The Iliad and Odyssey also represented of the things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love of nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Husband and wife relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tender feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty between friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive for excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet life with dignity </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  28. 28. A Family of Deities <ul><li>Explained why people behaved like that </li></ul><ul><li>Why their lives took a certain direction. </li></ul><ul><li>More than other civilizations, the Greeks humanized their deities </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks didn’t fear their gods, they approached their gods with dignity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They humanized their gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their gods took human form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their gods possessed super-human powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to be like them—striving for excellence </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  29. 29. Gods and Goddesses <ul><li>Greeks took features of both Minoan and Mycenaean gods </li></ul><ul><li>Each community took a particular god or goddess as its patron and protector </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks believed 12 most important deities lived on Mount Olympus </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that each controlled a specific part of the natural world, e.g. Zeus, the chief god ruled the sky, weather and thunderstorms </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  30. 30. Gods and Goddesses <ul><li>Apollo, god of light, drove the sun across the sky every day in his chariot </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo considered god of prophecy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought gifts to oracle at Delphi honoring him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asked for hidden knowledge to be revealed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priests and priestesses would interpret Apollo’s answers to questions </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  31. 31. Gods and Goddesses <ul><li>As Hellenic civilization developed, certain religious festivals became part of Greek life—including the Olympic Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held in city of Olympia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ For the greater glory of Zeus” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drama (a celebration of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility). </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  32. 32. Gods and Goddesses <ul><li>Originted the play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrated of Dionysus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience around on hillside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Told stories and danced to the flute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent amphitheaters appeared </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  33. 33. Chapter 4, Section 2, The Polis <ul><li>Greek Colonies and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>The Typical Polis </li></ul><ul><li>Political and Social Change </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  34. 34. Objectives <ul><li>Know how economic prosperity brought significant political and social changes to the Greek city-states </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that the Greeks founded colonies throughout the area of the Mediterranean and Black Seas </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  35. 35. Terms to Know <ul><li>Polis: a city-state; the basic political unit of the Hellenic civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen: those who take part in government </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocrat: nobles; members of the upper class </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanx: rows of soldiers using their shields to form a wall </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrant: a person seizing power of a city-state and controlling it </li></ul><ul><li>Oligarchy: where a few wealthy people hold power </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy: a government by the people where power lies in the hands of the people </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  36. 36. Places to Locate <ul><li>Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  37. 37. The Typical Polis <ul><li>A typical polis included a city and the surrounding villages, fields, and orchards; on the top of the acropolis in the center of the city stood the temple of the local deity, and at the foot of the acropolis citizens gathered to carry out public affairs—the agora. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  38. 38. The Typical Polis <ul><li>The citizens of a polis had both rights and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The could vote, hold public office, speak for themselves, and own property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were expected to serve in government and defend the polis in war. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizens, however, made up only a minority of the residents of the polis; slaves, foreign-born residents, and women had no political or legal rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Before 500 B.C., men not owning land were excluded </li></ul><ul><li>The “agora” served as the polis political center </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  39. 39. Greek Colonies and Trade <ul><li>By 700 B.C. Greek farmers no longer grew enough grain to feed everyone, so each polis sent out groups of people to establish colonies in coastal areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Each colony kept close ties with its mainland metropolis, supplying grain and exporting the mainland’s excess wine, olive oil, and other cash crops. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  40. 40. Greek Colonies and Trade <ul><li>Soon, the Greeks replaced their barter system with a money economy, and expanded overseas trade. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants started issuing coins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities soon over this responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cities of Ionia in Asia Minor assumed leadership in a growing textile industry; pottery made in Ionia was the earliest Greek pottery to be exported. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  41. 41. Political and Social Change <ul><li>Economic growth changed Greek political life; where once kings had ruled, landholding aristocrats took power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocrats would supply military forces for king’s ventures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farmers became indebted to landowners and had difficulty repaying loans, often selling themselves into slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes arose between the aristocrats and farmers, who demanded political reforms. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  42. 42. Political and Social Change <ul><li>As Greek armies came to rely on foot soldiers (generally farmers) more than cavalry (generally aristocrats), aristocrats began to lose influence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers provide the core of the phalanx —closely arrayed rows of soldiers with solid row of shields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merchants and artisans began demanding change—wanted polis to advance business interests </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  43. 43. Political and Social Change <ul><li>As a result of the unrest, tyrannies arose, in which one man seized power and ruled the polis single-handedly. </li></ul><ul><li>Most tyrants ruled fairly, but a few gave the term “tyrant” a bad name </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrants ruled until 500 B.C. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  44. 44. Political and Social Change <ul><li>After the reign of tyrants, most city-states become either oligarchies or democracies </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous democracy in Greece was Athens, and the most famous oligarchy was Sparta </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  45. 45. Chapter 4, Section 3, Rivals <ul><li>Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian Democracy </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  46. 46. Objectives <ul><li>Know the difference between the values, cultures, and achievements represented by Sparta and those represented by Athens </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  47. 47. Terms to Define <ul><li>Constitution: The plan of government </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric: The art of public speaking </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  48. 48. People to Know <ul><li>Draco </li></ul><ul><li>Solon </li></ul><ul><li>Peisistratus </li></ul><ul><li>Cleisthenes </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  49. 49. Places to Locate <ul><li>Peloponnesus </li></ul><ul><li>Attica </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  50. 50. Sparta <ul><li>The descendents of the Dorian invaders of the dark age founded Sparta, located in Peloponnesus, a peninsula of southern Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of founding overseas colonies, the Spartans invaded neighboring city-states and enslaved the local people. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  51. 51. Sparta <ul><li>The Spartans owned many slaves known as helots. They farmed Spartan estates. </li></ul><ul><li>A group of Free individuals called “perioeci” were artisans and merchants from conquered territories who worked for the Spartans. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, these two groups outnumbered the Spartans 200,000 to 10,000. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  52. 52. Sparta <ul><li>Around 650 B.C. the slaves revolted against their Spartan masters; </li></ul><ul><li>Took 30 years to quell the revolt </li></ul><ul><li>The Spartans decided to maintain power by establishing a military society </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  53. 53. A Military Society <ul><li>All life in Sparta revolved around the army. </li></ul><ul><li>Men strove to be first-rate soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Women worked to be good mothers of soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Spartans didn’t like other Greeks who chose to live behind walls for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan men provided the best protection. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  54. 54. A Military Society <ul><li>Spartan women given more freedom than other Greek women and were brought up to be healthy like Spartan men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women could not take part in government. </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn infants were examined by the government to determine health. </li></ul><ul><li>Unhealthy babies were placed on a hillside at night to die. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  55. 55. A Military Society <ul><li>At age 7, Boys placed in military training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken from home and placed in barracks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading, writing, and use of weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At 20, they were soldiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent to frontier areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At 30, they were expected to marry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But did not maintain households of their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in barracks until 60, then retired </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  56. 56. Role of Women <ul><li>Raised to be healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Given as much food as men, unlike rest of Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Girls trained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrestling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnastics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boxing </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  57. 57. Role of Women <ul><li>Married at age 19, not 14 (Greece) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased likelihood of healthy baby </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More rights accorded Spartan women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could shop marketplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend dinners with non-family members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own property in their names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express opinions in public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could not participate in polis government </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  58. 58. Sparta’s Government <ul><li>There were two Spartan kings—an oligarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t have much power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily religious and military leadership </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  59. 59. Sparta’s Government <ul><li>The Assembly was made up of all males over 20 and passed laws and made decisions on war and peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, the Assembly elected five ephors who could veto laws and performed certain administration functions. </li></ul><ul><li>A Council of Elders, 28 men over 60, proposed laws to Assembly and served as a supreme court . </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  60. 60. Result of Militarism <ul><li>Succeeded in holding power over perioeci and helots for 250 years </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicious of new ideas and lagged behind other cities in business </li></ul><ul><li>Much poorer </li></ul><ul><li>Lagged in intellectual development </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional athletes and best protector of Greece </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  61. 61. Athens <ul><li>On a peninsula of central Greece named Attica, Mycenaean descendants established the city-state of Athens. The polis was named after the goddess, Athena </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  62. 62. Athens <ul><li>Initially, non-landowning citizens could not participate in Athens’s Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Sparta, Athens gradually expanded its definition of citizenship to include more people </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, all free men could be members of the Assembly regardless of what class they belonged to, even the metics —foreign-born citizens </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  63. 63. Athens <ul><li>The political change that permitted more people to participate in government reduced much of the friction between social classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Four successive leaders brought changes </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  64. 64. Draco’s Law Code <ul><li>Draco issued an improved code of written laws </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocrats could no longer dictate what was legal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of his laws were harsh: e.g.,death for stealing cabbage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over time, the term “draconian” has come to mean something cruel and severe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive side—the laws were written down and aristocrats could no langer take advantage </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  65. 65. Solon’s Reforms <ul><li>Leader of Athens 594 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancelled all debts and freed debtors from slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Solon improved economic conditions, promoted trade, fostered industry, and introduced political reforms that moved Athens toward democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered fathers to teach sons a trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established 2-house government for political equality </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  66. 66. Radical Reformers <ul><li>Peistratus (pih*SIHS*truh*tuhs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divided large estates among landless farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extended citizenship to men who did not own land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offered the poor loans and jobs . </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  67. 67. Radical Reformers <ul><li>Cleisthenes came to power in 508 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced laws that established democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End local rivalries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break power of aristocracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extend guarantees to more citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganize central government </li></ul></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  68. 68. Athenian Democracy <ul><li>Cleisthenes, the fourth leader to help reform Athens, established democracy for Athens; under Cleisthenes’ constitution, the Assembly won increased powers and fully emerged as the major political body. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  69. 69. Athenian Democracy <ul><li>All citizens could become a member of the Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assembly served as a supreme court and appointed generals to run the military. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  70. 70. Athenian Democracy <ul><li>Each year in a lottery, Athenian citizens chose members of the Council of 500, who carried out daily government business. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens favored a lottery believing all citizens were capable of holding office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elections, in their view, would unfavorably favor the rich who had the advantage fame and training in public speaking. </li></ul></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  71. 71. Athenian Democracy <ul><li>Although only 20 percent of Athenians were citizens, ancient Athens laid the foundation for the Western concept of democratic government. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Athens expected every citizen to hold public office at some time in his life, it required Athenian citizens to educate their sons; girls rarely received a formal education. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  72. 72. Athenian Democracy <ul><li>Jury system decided court cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 201 to 1001 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more jurors, the less likelihood that they would be bribed, threatened, or show prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleisthenes reforms lasted 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation for Western concept of democracy </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  73. 73. Athenian Education <ul><li>Athenian men educated because they were expected to hold public office </li></ul><ul><li>Women rarely educated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Household duties—baking, weaving, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private tutors educated wealthy boys </li></ul><ul><li>Agora was location for much education </li></ul><ul><li>Boys entered school at 7, graduate at 18 </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  74. 74. Athenian Education <ul><li>Main textbooks were Iliad and Odyssey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knew them by heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic, drawing, geometry, art, music </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  75. 75. Discussion: Sparta vs Athens <ul><li>Sparta represented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe, simple style of living </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Athens represented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which values do you appreciate most? Given the times, which values would provide for more security, foreign and domestic, for the given city-states. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  76. 76. Chapter 4, section 4 War, Glory, and Decline <ul><li>The Persian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>The Golden Age of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>The Peloponnesian Wars </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  77. 77. Objectives and Vocabulary <ul><li>How did the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars effect democracy in the Greek City States </li></ul><ul><li>Terms: </li></ul><ul><li>- Symposium: A meeting and social session about politics and other affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>- Mercenary: Hired soldiers </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  78. 78. People to Meet <ul><li>Darius I </li></ul><ul><li>Xerxes </li></ul><ul><li>Themistocles </li></ul><ul><li>Leonidas </li></ul><ul><li>Pericles </li></ul><ul><li>Aspasia </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  79. 79. Places to Locate <ul><li>Ionia </li></ul><ul><li>Marathon </li></ul><ul><li>Thermopylae </li></ul><ul><li>Salamis </li></ul><ul><li>Delos </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  80. 80. The Persian Wars <ul><li>In 546 B.C., Persia, led by Cyrus II, conquered the Greek city-states in Ionia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionians disliked them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered them to be barbarians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ionians revolted against the Persians </li></ul><ul><li>Athens and others helped, but Darius and his Persians defeated them </li></ul><ul><li>Darius decided to punish the Greeks </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  81. 81. Marathon <ul><li>Darius sent his fleet directly across the Aegean Sea north of Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>The Athenians were outnumbered 20,000 to 10,000. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persians decided to pack up and attack Athens directly, but at the moment of loading their ships back up, the Athenians attacked. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Persian army was standing in knee deep water waiting to board the ships, the Athenians attacked downhill and it was a rout—Persians lost 6,400 men; Athenians lost 192 men. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  82. 82. Salamis <ul><li>The Persians returned 10 years later and leading the army was Xerxes, son of Darius with 200,000 soldiers. Off shore supply ships accompanied them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks faced the Persians again, this time under Spartan leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The Oracle at Delphi, a few years earlier, had said Greece would be shielded by a wooden wall </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian general Themistocles believed that meant ships </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  83. 83. Salamis <ul><li>To challenge the Persians at sea, a delaying action had to be established </li></ul><ul><li>The Greek army set up a delaying action on land, led by King Leonidas of Sparta; knowing that a traitor had showed the Persians a way to attack the Greeks and realizing that he would soon be surrounded, Leonidas neverthelsss stayed to face his death. </li></ul><ul><li>The Athenians, led by Leonidas, held off the Persians for three days with his 7,000 Athenian soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Leonidas sent most of the soldiers to escape to fight another day but put in a delaying action using 300 Spartans </li></ul>
  84. 84. Thermopylae—The Mountain Pass <ul><li>The site where King Leonidas chose to make his stand. </li></ul><ul><li>The pass was narrow allowing the Greeks to have the advantage against the large force of the Persians. </li></ul><ul><li>King Leonidas chose to fight to the death—as their polis law called for </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  85. 85. Themistocles—The Battle Near the Island of Salamis <ul><li>The delaying action by King Leonidas allowed another spartan general, Themistocles, to defeat the Persians in the Salamis Strait. </li></ul><ul><li>He destroyed almost the entire Persian fleet near the island of Salamis. </li></ul><ul><li>Themistocles judged his faster, smaller ships could defeat the Persians in the narrow Strait of Salamis </li></ul><ul><li>After the battle of the Island of Salamis, the Persians returned to Asia Minor for good, and Athens emerged a powerful and self-confident city-state. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  86. 86. The Golden Age of Athens <ul><li>The period 461 B.C. to 429 B.C. was the period most of the Greek achievements in the arts and sciences took place in Athens during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>The Athenian general Pericles rebuilt Athens into the most beautiful city in Greece; its most famous structure, the Parthenon, still stands. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  87. 87. Athenian Daily Life <ul><li>Athenian men usually worked in the morning as farmers, artisans, and merchants, before attending the Assembly or exercising in the gymnasium; slaves generally did the heavy work in craft production and mining, while women worked at home or in the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Athenians kept their homes simple but their public buildings were very lavish. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  88. 88. Athenian Daily Life <ul><li>Athenian house contained two main rooms with several smaller ones around a central courtyard. </li></ul><ul><li>The dining room for entertaining and frequently had couches. Athenian wives would not join their husbands unless there were no guests. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Work for the Men and Women <ul><li>Usually worked in the morning then went to the gymnasium in the afternoon. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves did the heavy work—one third of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Women spent making time at home, cooking and making wool cloth. </li></ul><ul><li>Upper class Athenian men spent time in the symposium—basically a drinking session followed by a banquet. Women were not allowed. The discussed literature, philosophy, and public issues. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  90. 90. Aspasia <ul><li>As some freedom became allowed for some classes of women, she invited women into her home and gave them advice on home, education, and how to gain more freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Her recommendations to women for more responsibility in society led to charges against her </li></ul><ul><li>She was charged with “impiety” (disloyalty to the gods) but was acquitted. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  91. 91. The Peloponnesian War <ul><li>With the ongoing threat of the Persians, Athens formed the Delian league of city-states for protection…Sparta would not participate. </li></ul><ul><li>The treasury was kept on the sacred island of Delos. </li></ul><ul><li>The League freed the Ionians from Persian rule, cleared the seas of pirates, and fostered (promoted and helped) trade. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  92. 92. The Athenian Empire <ul><li>Athens transformed the Delian League into an Athenian empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Athens began to dominate other city-states </li></ul><ul><li>The empire required the use of the same coins and made other changes that were for all city-states to adopt </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  93. 93. The Conflict <ul><li>The Peloponnesian War lasted from 431 B.C. to 404 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta formed an alliance against Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>They didn’t have a navy but used money the Persians gave them for giving Ionia back to the Persians to buy ships and prep for war. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spartan-led alliance eventually destroyed the Athenian fleet and laid siege to Athens itself. The Athenians surrendered in 404 B.C. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  94. 94. The Conflict <ul><li>Athens developed many problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disease—probably typhus--killed a third of its population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericles died from the disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athens couldn’t come to a decision about making peace with Sparta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athenian allies switched sides and joined the Spartans </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Effects of the War <ul><li>The Peloponnesian War brought disaster to the Greek city-states, both victors and vanquished </li></ul><ul><li>Populations declined, much land was destroyed, and unemployment caused many men to become hired soldiers in the Persian army </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks also lost faith in democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>The length of the war caused people to think only of making money. </li></ul>01/02/11 John 3:16
  96. 96. Effects of the War <ul><li>Feelings between aristocrats and commoners became more strained. People began to look down on free political discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers came and went. City-states were unable to join together for ultimate power. Then came the Macedonians—and someone called Alexander the Great </li></ul>