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Fundamentals
 

Fundamentals

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It is a basic IT fundamental power point presentation

It is a basic IT fundamental power point presentation

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    Fundamentals Fundamentals Presentation Transcript

    • IT Fundamentals 1. INPUT Much conversion of language occurs in a computer system (English) DATA INPUT DEVICE (binary) CPU (binary) OUTPUT DEVICE INFO (English) Input/ Output
    • IT Fundamentals Two types of input : Data and Instructions
    • IT Fundamentals Input Devices
      • Provides:
        • entry of data
        • Conversion into data format
      • Most obvious = human + KEYBOARD
      Human data entry is called non-direct input. Machines make better input devices. DIRECT ENTRY , or SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION . Need to be: Accurate, reliable and easy to use, fast Human and keyboard is the most used input device
    • IT Fundamentals Examples of Direct Entry Input Devices - flat bed or hand-held - Similar to a photocopier - Reads page as a grid of dots - stores data as a "picture" MICR : Used with cheques Scanners
    • IT Fundamentals Examples of Direct Entry Input Devices Barcode Readers: Sit-in-the-Counter type - Reads standard or customised barcodes - Can also purchase software to print barcodes.
    • IT Fundamentals Input Types a. Data Collection Devices: Stocktake devices Automatic counters Web Cams Video camera whose output displays on a web page Digital Camera
    • IT Fundamentals Other Input Devices a.
      • Sensors
      • Encode a physical event into data
      Pointing Devices Mouse
    • IT Fundamentals Other Input Devices TouchPad Pointing Stick Light Pen
      • Trackball
      • Similar to mouse
      • Joystick
      • games
      • Touch screens
      • screen 'divided' into areas
      • area selected by touch
      • easy to use
      • cannot have areas too small
      • screens get dirty (many uses)
    • IT Fundamentals Voice Input
      • Voice Input
      • hands free
      • trained for each voice
    • IT Fundamentals Output Four common type of output are text, graphics, audio and video.
    • IT Fundamentals Output Output Devices Digital signals from computer are converted into human readable form. Hard Copy - printer - plotter Soft Copy - screen - voice Printers
      • Impact printers
      • Impact a solid image of a character onto an inked ribbon up against the paper.
      • Non-impact printers
      • no physical contact between paper and printing device
      • dot matrix concept used to form characters
    • IT Fundamentals Output
      • Ink jet
      • quiet
      • Thermal
      • special paper
      • expensive to run
    • IT Fundamentals Output
      • Laser
      • high speed, high quality
      • page printers
      • need enough memory to hold an entire page
      • 600 to 2400 dpi
    • IT Fundamentals Output
      • CRT Monitors
      • Raster scan technology
      • An electron beam moves back and forward across the back of the screen
      • This causes dots on the front of the screen to glow, producing an image
      • Available in various sizes 15 – 22 inches
      • Flat and curved screens
      • Resolution
      • Increase pixels/screen
      • Increase resolution (better image)
      • CRT monitors ( 1280 X 1024 pixels)
    • IT Fundamentals Output LCD Monitors
      • Contains liquid crystals between 2 sheets of material
      • An electric current passes through the crystals causing them to twist, block light waves and create an image.
      • Uses less than one third the power of a CRT monitor
      • Lightweight and compact (mobile users)
      • Gas Plasma Monitors
      • A layer of gas instead of liquid crystals
    • IT Fundamentals Other Output Devices Data Projectors
      • Fax Machine
      • Transmits and receives documents over the telephone line
      • Multifunction devices
      • Printer, scanner, copy machine and fax machine all in one
    • IT Fundamentals SECONDARY STORAGE Control Unit works on programs/data in RAM POWER OFF ... RAM OFF Bye Bye Assignment However blocks of memory can be saved/read on secondary storage.
    • IT Fundamentals Secondary Storage Media and Devices Floppy Disks Hard Disks Tape and Tape drive Cartridge tape CD-ROM DVD ROM Magnetic-Optical drive PC Cards Smart Cards SECONDARY STORAGE
    • IT Fundamentals FLOPPY DISKS:
      • Circular piece of plastic
      • Made up of tracks & sectors
      • 512 bytes in each sector
    • IT Fundamentals Maintaining data stored on a disk
      • Made up of platters, cylinders and sectors
      • head 'floats' on surface
      • capacities range up to 200+ GB
      HARD DISKS
    • IT Fundamentals
      • OPTICAL STORAGE TECHNOLOGY
      • high capacity is ideal for storage of the very large sound, graphics and video files
      • when recording data, laser light burns pits on CD
      • when reading data, pits will not reflect light (binary bit 0) but lands will reflect light (binary bit 1)
      • CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory)- 650 MB of information
      • DVD (digital video disk) - 4.7 GB – 17 GB
      Hard Disk Vs Floppy Disk
    • IT Fundamentals Optical Storage
    • IT Fundamentals Optical Storage
    • IT Fundamentals TAPE
      • Thin ribbon of plastic
      • Sequential storage – mainly for backup
    • IT Fundamentals OTHER TYPES OF STORAGE DEVICES
      • PC cards
        • Small, credit card-sized cards that fit into PC Card expansion slots
        • Used for storage, communications and additional memory.
        • Most often used with portable computers
        • Can store more than 300 MB of data
      • Smart Cards
      • Credit card-sized devices that contain a microprocessor
      • Microprocessor can store up to 8,000 bytes of information.
      • Examples of uses - prepaid telephone card, employee time card
      • USB Drive
      • Flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port
      • Small and lightweight