1. Classroom Management EDUC 312: Principles and Methods of Teaching Group 4
2. Classroom management• Classroom management has been cited as one of the most serious obstacles in promoting effective teaching.• One of the most common reasons for teacher burnout and attrition of first year teachers.
3. “ Th e n u m b e r o n e p r o b le m in t h e c la s s r o o m is n o t d is c ip lin e ; it is t h e la c k o f proc e dure s a nd r o u t in e s ” . The First Days of School by Harry Wong
4. The presenters aim the following objectives:1.) to clarify the meaning and significance of classroom management2.) to establish the provisions that must be taken care of in providing the proper learning situation3.) to explain how to maintain desirable classroom discipline; and4.) to present some strategies and guidelines in good classroom management and discipline.
5. What is Classroom management?• Administration or direction of activities with special reference to such problems as discipline, democratic techniques, use and care of supplies and reference materials, the physical features of classroom, general house-keeping, and the social relationships of pupils• Good classroom management creates an atmosphere that permits activities to be carried on efficiently and economically maximizing the time, effort and energy of both the teacher and the students.
6. Objectives of a well-organized classrooma.) to have efficiency in the teachers and student’s time, efforts and energies;b.) to efficiently use the physical facilities of school; andc.) to promote an atmosphere which foster imaginative and creative activities
7. Aspects of Classroom Managementa. Managing the Physical Environment 1. Physical Condition of the Classroom 2. Lighting 3. Furniture Arrangement 4. Seating Arrangementb. Establishing Classroom Routinec. Directing and Controlling Learning
8. Principles in Classroom Management 1. Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of the effective classroom management. 2. Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs. 3. Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day. 4. Strike a balance between variety and challenge in the students’ activities. 5. As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in the classroom.
9. Principles in Classroom Management (cont..) 6. Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they become major disruptions. 7. Reinforce positive behavior. 8. Treat minor disturbance calmly. 9. Work out a physical arrangement of the chairs that facilitates an interactive teaching-learning process. 10. Make good use of every instructional moment. Minimize discipline time to maximize instructional time.
10. Principle is effective and constructive Discipline• Students need control and direction but it is unlikely that they can learn self-control and self-direction if they are controlled and directed all the time and at every turn.
11. Principle is effective and constructive Discipline• In general, students should learn to discipline themselves and thus grow up to become adults who are responsible, law-abiding, considerate of the welfare of others and able to carry on the important responsibilities of life in the face of frustration, tempting distractions and other difficulties. Schools should help the students develop self-discipline by teaching them such values and traditions.
12. Principle is effective and constructive Discipline• Effective discipline aims for self-direction and should be based on the tenets of democracy. Discipline, to be effective, should be vital, meaningful, sympathetic, and humane. The key is consistency and persistence. Democracy means freedom with restraint. Constructive discipline is feasible only when a thorough identification and study of the causes is made by the teacher.
13. Important functions of discipline:1.) It is necessary for socialization – for the learning of standards of conduct that are approved and tolerated in any culture2.) It is necessary for normal personality maturation.3.) It is necessary for the internalization of moral standards and obligations.4.) It is necessary for the students’ emotional security.
14. Principles underlying effective discipline, theteacher should:1.) be responsible for his own class discipline;2.) provide a wholesome atmosphere which results from orderly and adequate classroom conditions;3.) stimulate worthy motives and give the pupils every opportunity to direct their own efforts;4.) be aware of the pupils’ rights to be respected;5.) be aware of the individual differences and should give each children equal share of his attention, guidance, and direction.
15. Causes of Disciplinary Problems 1. Teacher factor a. teacher’s personal characteristics b. teacher’s scholastic qualifications 2. Pupil as a factor in discipline 3. School as a factor in discipline
16. Strategies and guidelines in classroommanagement and discipline• All teachers are faced with problems of discipline. It is suggested that the best approach should be positive rather than negative. Aggressive disorder should be dealt with positively such as having a personal conference with the pupils and parents.• Negative measures which should be avoided are sarcasm, threats, forced apology, punishment of the group for the offense of one or a few, ridicule, nagging, embarrassment, name calling, humiliating remarks, and corporal punishments.
17. Teacher should always take note of the following:• Establish good routine habits and keep pupils busy.• Stand at a place in the room where everybody can be within your gaze.• Be alert to detect any signs of boredom, discontent, or misbehavior.• Call on pupils who do not pay attention or who may begin to be disorderly.• Firmness and forcefulness in speaking can make the pupils be attentive.• Remain calm and poised even in an emergency.
18. • Discipline - is about teaching people appropriate behaviour and helping then become stronger or more in control of his or her emotions and being independent and responsible.
19. Ways to avoid serious discipline problems• Know the subject matter and be well-prepared.• Call on class to order as soon as the bell rings.• Follow an established routine everyday until students learn to follow it automatically.• Have all the needed materials and equipment ready for use so you do not waste students’ time getting things arranged.• Walk around the classroom whenever possible to make sure all the students are doing what they are supposed to be doing.• Check on the previous assignment promptly.• Make it clear to students that you expect them to work.
20. Ways to avoid serious discipline problems (cont..)• Allow reasonable amount of time for special activities.• Avoid the use of threats.• Keep your sense of humor.• Compliment students on worthy contributions.• Handle calmly all undesirable attempts to attract attention.• Try to involve all students in class activities.• Always have planned alternate activities ready for emergency situations.• Never be sarcastic.• Implement group-oriented methodologies such as cooperative learning approach, peer tutoring and team learning.
21. Modes for Establishing Discipline• Discipline is the students’ responsibility.• Discipline is the teachers’ way of establishing a desirable student-oriented environment for learning.• Discipline is coupled with effective teaching strategies and techniques• Discipline is achieved through the effects of group dynamics on behavior.• Discipline is believed to be the exclusive responsibility of the teachers.
22. Strategies for Handling Discipline Problems1. Deliberately ignore the misbehavior – to a point.2 . Intervene with nonverbal signals.3. Reduce the distance between the offender and you.4. Make an effort to rekindle lost interest.5. Use humor to defuse tension.
23. Strategies for Handling Discipline Problems6. Give functional assistance to- perplexed students.7. Do things differently now and then.8. Give support through routine-some students need it more than other.9. Use nonpunitive exile.10. Physical restraint is sometimes necessary
24. Democratic TechniqueThere is a minimal degree of external control necessary for socialization, personal maturity, conscience development, and emotional security of the child. It provides explanations, permits discussion, and invites the participation of pupils in the setting of standards whenever they are qualified to do so. It implies respect for the dignity of the individual and avoids exaggerated emphasis on status differences and barriers between free communications.
25. How to Handle BehavioralProblem ChildrenAccording to research, the common characteristics of Filipino children with behavioral problems are: dishonesty as shown in lying and cheating in examinations, timidity and shyness even among peers and family, sensitiveness followed by crying, disobedience and lack of respect for authority, tardiness and absenteeism for no valid reason, unnecessary giggling, talking, swearing, and using vulgar words often, low voice in the classroom but loud voices in the halls, and isolating himself or herself from the rest of the class and being uncooperative and unfriendly.
26. Behavior Modification: It is the new approach to classroom discipline which can be used effectively to help students and to prevent problems arising from the first place. There are three objectives for changing children’s behavior which are 1) strengthen existing behavior, 2) develop new behavior, and 3) stop inappropriate behavior.
27. Principles behind behavior modifications1. Principle of positive reinforcement.2. Method of successive approximation principle.3. Modeling principle.4. Cueing Principle.5. Discrimination Principle.
29. Positive Reinforcement TechniqueConditions:1. The child whose behavior is to be reinforced or modified should be in agreement as to what should be done. The tact and diplomacy as well as the genuine concern of the teacher, which can be felt by the child, will be very helpful in this phase.2. The child should know what is expected of him; he should know and clearly understand the rules.3. If step 1 and2 are met and the child still misbehaves, it is possible that he does not possess the skills and abilities he is asked to accomplish. It would be necessary then to determine these skills deficits and to teach them first before the actual problem is handled.4. If the first 3 conditions are met and misbehavior continues, the possibility is that the student is not motivated to do what is expected of him.
30. Technique1. Rewards a. reward the students every time the given behavior occurs b. giving of rewards every now and then should be given once the behavior is securely acquired c. vary the types of reward given
31. Technique2. Punishment 1. Learn what types of punishment the school authorities permit. 2. Learn what punishment can be given. 3. Never assign extra homework as punishment. 4. As punishment, never prohibit students from attending a favorite class. 5. Do not assign a punishment which is actually a reward. 6. Never strike a student. 7. A punishment should come early in a sequence of misbehavior and should be systematically applied.
32. Technique2. Punishment(cont..) 8. Be consistent with punishment. 9. Before accusing or punishing any student, get the facts. 10. Be prepared to document any serious incidences of misbehavior. 11. Never punish a whole class for the offense of one individual. 12. be sure that the child understands why he is being punished. 13. Punishment is more effective if the teacher already has appositive relationship with the pupil. 14. It is generally better if reprimands can be delivered privately, rather than publicly, to the pupil concerned.
33. Last Thought : “Being an effective Class Manageris not a talent which some people just have and others do not – it is a set of skills and an attitude learned throught patience and practice”
34. References:• Aquino, Gaudencio V. Principles and Methods of Effective Teaching. San Juan. National BookStore, Inc. 1988. pp 363 – 384.• Casinto, Carlo Domingo C. Hand book on Principles of Teaching. Quezon City. Rex Bookstore Inc. 2010. pp 128 – 153.• Kelly, William A.,Ph.D. Educational Psychology. Milwaukee.The Bruce Publishing Company. 1965. pp 497 – 507.• Lupdag, Anselmo D. Educational Psychology. Mandaluyong City. National Bookstore.1984. pp 210 – 214.• Lardizabal, Amparo S., Alicia S. Bustos, Luz C. Bucu, and Maura G. Tangco. Principles and Methods of Teaching. Quezon City. Phoenix Publishing House Inc. 1999. pp 267 – 282.