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4.1 4.1 Presentation Transcript

  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The Father of Genetics copyright cmassengale© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade 1
  • Gregor Johann Mendel Austrian monk Studied the inheritance of traits in pea plants Developed the laws of inheritance Mendels work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century 2© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Gregor Johann Mendel Between 1856 and 1863, Mendel cultivated and tested thousands of pea plants He found that the plants offspring retained traits of the parents copyright cmassengale 3© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Particulate Inheritance Mendel stated that physical traits are inherited as “particles” Mendel did not know that the “particles” were actually Chromosomes & DNA copyright cmassengale© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade 4
  • Why peas, Pisum sativum? Can be grown in a small area Produce lots of offspring Produce pure plants when allowed to self- pollinate several generations Can be artificially cross-pollinated copyright cmassengale 5© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas• Mendel tested 7 traits: 1. Flower color 2. Flower position 3. Seed color 4. Seed shape 5. Pod shape 6. Pod color 7. Plant height http://www.fieldmuseum.org/exhibits/traveling_mendel.htm© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas • Mendel crossed flowers that were true- breeding for each characteristic. • He crossed a purple (PP) flowered plant with a white (pp) flowered plant. (Parent Generation) http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/KH_lecture_images/Mendel/Mendel.html© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas Purple Parent (PP) • The first generation (F1) of (pp) plants all had purple flowers. (Pp) (Pp) White Parent • Where did the white color go?? (Pp) (Pp)© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas• Mendel took two of his Purple Parent (Pp) first generation (F1 x F1) purple flowered plants and crossed them Purple Parent (Pp) together.• In the second (PP) (Pp) generation (F2) he had 3 purple flowered plants, and 1 white flowered plant. (Pp) (pp) © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas • Mendel noticed in the first generation, all of the white flowers seemed to disappear. • He called this a recessive allele. • The white color faded into the background at first. • It showed up in the next generation when he pollinated the flowers.© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas • The color (purple) that seemed to mask over the recessive color was named the dominant allele.© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas • Mendel was responsible for figuring out that each plant carried two sets of instructions for each characteristic (one from the “mom” and one from the “dad”). • Like many scientists, his work was not accepted until after his death.© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Let’s Review 1. If you crossed a true-breeding black rabbit with a true-breeding white rabbit, all of the offspring would be black. Which trait is dominant in rabbits: black fur or white fur? 2. Which trait is recessive?© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Answer Black Rabbit (BB) • The trait for black fur is dominant over the trait for White Rabbit (bb) white fur. The white fur trait is (Bb) (Bb) recessive. (Bb) (Bb) http://www.buckeyevalleyfarms.freeservers.com/photo.html© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Google’s tribute to Mendel July 2011© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Science Humor© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas Vocabulary 1. Heredity- the passing of traits from parent to offspring. 2. Trait- Each different form of a characteristic such as stem height or seed color.© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas 3. Genetics- The science of heredity. 4. Fertilization- A new organism begins to form when egg and sperm join together. 5. Purebred- An organism that is the offspring of many generations that have the same trait.© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas 7. Genes- a segment of DNA that carries hereditary instructions and is passed from parent to offspring; the factors that control a trait. 8. Alleles- multiple forms of the same gene. 9. Dominant Allele- one whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade
  • Mendel and His Peas 10. Recessive Allele- A trait that is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present. 11. Hybrid- An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade