BA High Performance                      Retrofits                            Amber Wood                       Manager, En...
Building America   Private/public R&D    partnership sponsored by    DOE   Energy-efficient solutions    for new and exi...
Greenbelt Homes, Inc.   Privately-owned    co-op   1,600 units   4 units/building   1930’s-40’s   Roosevelt work-    ...
1970’s Energy Upgrade   Insulation              Install 52 gal       Attic                electric water       Crawlsp...
GHI Pilot Program   Community            Goals:    Upgrade in 2015          Health & safety                           ...
Why?Motivations for pilot program: Lower utility bills Comfort   Lower life-cycle costs       Maintenance & replacemen...
Pilot Program   Baseline Monitoring (2010-2011)       Pre-Retrofit baseline       Install Monitoring Equipment       A...
Pilot House Assessment   Walk-Through Evaluation       Visual Inspection       Homeowner Operation       Utility Bills...
Walk-Through Evaluation   Dimensions   Insulation       Walls, ceilings, and foundations,   Baseboard heaters       L...
10
Baseline Short-term              Testing   Blower door test     Multi-point house depressurization     Simultaneous blo...
Pre-Remodel Assessment       Summary
Simulation Parameters   13 of the 28 homes                  Frame w/Brick   Painted block                            E...
Beopt Energy Simulation        Optimizations   All electric       Source savings = electricity savings   Annualized cos...
Energy Simulation         Optimization   Block unit example   Costs & savings comparison                                ...
Installation Costs for Building   Envelope Improvements     Evaluated on a per-building      basis     Do not include re...
17
Durability & IAQ   Mechanical ventilation   Crawlspace moisture management                                     18
GHI Reserve Funds
Cost Analysis                20
Masonry Block Building           Recommendations   Exterior Wall                       Crawlspace Wall    Insulation    ...
Frame w/Brick Building           Recommendations   Attic Sealing &                  Crawlspace Wall    Insulation       ...
Frame w/Vinyl Building           Recommendations   Exterior Wall                Window    Insulation                    ...
Energy & Performance          Monitoring   Indoor air temperature and relative    humidity in multiple locations;   Craw...
25
Long-term Monitoring                       26
Energy Use Analysis                      27
Retrofit Solutions forEnhancing Energy Efficiency         Energy Savings: Household to National         Comfort:        ...
Questions?             29
Thank You!                            Amber Wood                        NAHB Research Center                       Manager...
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2011 09-14 eeba - nahbrc building america high performance retrofits

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  • Oil fired boilers replaced for safety reasons – changed to baseboard heatingIndividually controlled baseboard electric heaters were installed in each room, except in kitchens and bathrooms where ceiling fan-coil heaters with wall-thermostats were installed; Upgraded electrical and installed individual meters for each unitFifty-two (52) gallon electric water heaters were installed for use in every home;Insulation was added in attics, crawl spaces and exterior walls of vinyl-sided frame homes; in attics and crawl spaces of brick homes and in crawl spaces of block homes.Original steel-frame casement windows were replaced with vinyl or aluminum double-glazed window units.
  • BackgroundGoals: Health & safety Comfort Increased IEQ Durability Affordability Lower utility bills Maintenance
  • Collaboration of GHI, NAHBRC, & NREL
  • Recording house and window dimensions (including additions),Determining insulation levels in the walls, ceilings, and foundations,Documenting equipment and appliance models,Noting locations of baseboard heaters,Calculating capacity of heating and cooling equipmentDetermining the hot water system configuration
  • The Research Center performed short-term testing in conjunction with the walk-through evaluations. This testing included performing a blower door test for each unit (hot water temperatures and fixture flow rates were also measured). Multi-point house depressurization measurements provided total air leakage (which would include leakage to adjacent units) and leakage to the outdoors. Leakage to outdoors was determined by simultaneously running blower doors in adjacent units. Significant air leakage was consistently noticed at the attic access panels, around through-wall and through-window air conditioners, doors, mail slots, and windows, particularly the windows that were unlatched due to malfunction. Frame houses all had significant leakage through the floor at electrical and plumbing penetrations, particularly at the water heater closet. A duct blaster test was performed on the one unit with a ducted system. The air flow of the bath exhaust fans was measured using a flow hood. The actual air leakage measurements were used in simulation models for specific units.
  • Plus visual inspection & utility bills
  • Energy Simulation Optimization
  • Energy Simulation Optimization
  • Features that are not directly responsible for increased energy efficiency were added to the estimated cost analysis to enhance building durability and/or indoor air quality. These are: Mechanical ventilation and controls to provide point source and whole house air exchange; andRemediate crawlspaces to improve insulation performance and indoor air quality through minimizing moisture entrance to the home through the crawlspace
  •  While it is admittedly tidy and perhaps overly-simplistic, the majority of the building envelope improvements recommended have been assigned useful life spans of 30 years. The life span coincides with the estimated life of the assumed mortgage (if used to purchase the upgrades). GHI reserve estimates have placed various life spans from 35 to 40 years (vinyl siding on smaller frame homes and windows) to 85 years (exterior doors) on these building elements. Because they are each integral components of the building system, replacement should be planned to occur at the same time to protect the integrity of the buildings. For internal reporting and reserve calculations, the useful lives can be adapted to reflect the experience of GHI and warranty periods offered by the manufacturers whose products are selected for the pilot study.
  • Exterior Wall Insulation2” thickness (extruded polystyrene, XPS, or polyisocyanurate) or 3” expanded polystyrene or polyisocyanurate materialThe masonry block and masonry brick frame crawlspace foundations extend continuously around the buildings encompassing the front and rear porch slabs, as well as the conditioned spaces. Where these do not have an addition (conditioned space) above, two inches of closed cell SPF, R-12, should be applied to the bottom of the slab, accessible from the crawlspace. Unconditioned porch slabs average roughly 400 square feet per building.
  • Attic insulation currently is about R-16
  • For this building type, it is recommended that the existing siding be removed and a weather resistant barrier (WRB) is installed over the wood sheathing and sealed. One inch thickness of rigid foam, R-5 to R-7, installed beneath the horizontal vinyl siding that is scheduled for replacement between 2015 and 2023, is also recommended to compensate for the blown-in cavity insulation which may have settled in the wall. The WRB or the foam should be installed and taped to provide an air barrier over the exterior sheathing which consists of 1”x6”/1”x8” boards.
  • Integrating needs & values
  • 2011 09-14 eeba - nahbrc building america high performance retrofits

    1. 1. BA High Performance Retrofits Amber Wood Manager, Energy Programs EEBA Conference 2011 September 14, 2011Driving Innovation in Housing Technology
    2. 2. Building America Private/public R&D partnership sponsored by DOE Energy-efficient solutions for new and existing housing  Technologies/Systems  Whole-House Test Homes  Quality Processes
    3. 3. Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Privately-owned co-op 1,600 units 4 units/building 1930’s-40’s Roosevelt work- force housing
    4. 4. 1970’s Energy Upgrade Insulation  Install 52 gal  Attic electric water  Crawlspaces heaters  Exterior walls  Upgrade electrical Replace steel frame windows Remove oil-fired boilers Install electric baseboard 4
    5. 5. GHI Pilot Program Community  Goals: Upgrade in 2015  Health & safety  Comfort 7 buildings, 28  Increased IEQ units  Durability  3 block  2 frame  Affordability  2 brick
    6. 6. Why?Motivations for pilot program: Lower utility bills Comfort Lower life-cycle costs  Maintenance & replacement Photo by Doriann Asch courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
    7. 7. Pilot Program Baseline Monitoring (2010-2011)  Pre-Retrofit baseline  Install Monitoring Equipment  Air infiltration  Temperature/Humidity/Energy Use  Humidity Building Envelope Upgrades (2011-2012)  Retrofit building envelopes  Monitor envelope upgrade HVAC Upgrades (2012-2013)  Retrofit HVAC  Monitor upgrade package
    8. 8. Pilot House Assessment Walk-Through Evaluation  Visual Inspection  Homeowner Operation  Utility Bills Short-term Testing 8 Photo by Celestine Ranney-Howes courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
    9. 9. Walk-Through Evaluation Dimensions Insulation  Walls, ceilings, and foundations, Baseboard heaters  Locations , calculating capacity Hot water system Appliances 9
    10. 10. 10
    11. 11. Baseline Short-term Testing Blower door test  Multi-point house depressurization  Simultaneous blower doors in adjacent units Significant air leakage  Attic access panels  Air conditioners  Penetrations 11
    12. 12. Pre-Remodel Assessment Summary
    13. 13. Simulation Parameters 13 of the 28 homes  Frame w/Brick Painted block  End & inside units  End & inside units  Frame w/Vinyl Block w/ Vinyl  End & inside units  End & inside units  End, front addition  End & inside units w/  End, side addition w/ large basement glass area  End, full rear addition  Inside, full rear addition 13 Artwork by Isabelle Gournay courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
    14. 14. Beopt Energy Simulation Optimizations All electric  Source savings = electricity savings Annualized cost of the upgrades + utility costs  30 years at 7% Block unit example: 14
    15. 15. Energy Simulation Optimization Block unit example Costs & savings comparison 15
    16. 16. Installation Costs for Building Envelope Improvements  Evaluated on a per-building basis  Do not include remediation associated with environmental hazards (such as lead paint, radon, or asbestos)  Costs are exclusive of management fees 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. Durability & IAQ Mechanical ventilation Crawlspace moisture management 18
    19. 19. GHI Reserve Funds
    20. 20. Cost Analysis 20
    21. 21. Masonry Block Building Recommendations Exterior Wall  Crawlspace Wall Insulation Insulation Repair  R-12 (2”-3”)  Continuous R-10  Finishing  Porch Slab  Siding Insulation  Ext insulation finish system (EIFS) Installation  R-12 (2” closed cell Window spray foam)  U=0.30 &SHGC=0.30 Exterior Door  U-value ≤ 0.23 21
    22. 22. Frame w/Brick Building Recommendations Attic Sealing &  Crawlspace Wall Insulation Insulation Repair  R-38  Continuous R-10  Storage?  Porch Slab  Create space using Insulation 2” rigid foam and OSB Installation Window  R-12 (2” closed cell spray foam)  U=0.30 &SHGC=0.30 Exterior Door  U-value ≤ 0.23 22 Photo courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
    23. 23. Frame w/Vinyl Building Recommendations Exterior Wall  Window Insulation  U=0.30  Taped WRB &SHGC=0.30  R-5 (1” rigid foam)  Exterior Door  Replace siding  U-value ≤ 0.23 Attic Sealing &  Crawlspace Wall Insulation Insulation Repair  R-38  R-19 (3” closed cell  Storage? spray foam) 23
    24. 24. Energy & Performance Monitoring Indoor air temperature and relative humidity in multiple locations; Crawlspace and outdoor temperature and relative humidity; Heating energy use (where feasible); Hot water energy use; Dryer energy use (if applicable); and Total electric energy use. 24 Photo courtesy of www.greenbelthomes.net
    25. 25. 25
    26. 26. Long-term Monitoring 26
    27. 27. Energy Use Analysis 27
    28. 28. Retrofit Solutions forEnhancing Energy Efficiency  Energy Savings: Household to National  Comfort: Temperature swings to consistency  Moisture: Reduce potential problems  Indoor Air: Controlled ventilation  Technology: Options and performance  Installation: Contractor training/QA  Cost: Installation/operation/savings  Value: Demonstrate values at sale
    29. 29. Questions? 29
    30. 30. Thank You! Amber Wood NAHB Research Center Manager, Energy Programs 400 Prince George’s Blvd  Upper Marlboro, MD 20774 (direct) 301.430.6309  (fax) 301.430.6180 www.nahbrc.comDriving Innovation in Housing Technology

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