Presentation for Rio Candelaria Integrated Watershed Management Plan


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Presentation for local Universities and representatives for ecosystem management in southern Mexico, for the investigation into the Rio Candelaria watershed and plan that assesses resource allocation and recommends potential interventions.

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Presentation for Rio Candelaria Integrated Watershed Management Plan

  1. 1. Integrated Watershed Management Plan Rio Candelaria Denika Piggott Amber Brant Wabel Irshaidat Reesha Patel
  2. 2. Objective of Integrated Watershed Plan Ø  To investigate the Rio Candelaria watershed and create a plan that assesses resource allocation and recommends potential interventions
  3. 3. The Rio Candelaria Watershed l  l  l  The river discharges into the Terminos Lagoon in the state of Campeche, Mexico, located at the southern end of the Gulf of Mexico approximate land area of 5,670 km2 (56,700 ha) covering three municipalities (Carmen, Escarcega and Candelaria) Geographic location: 670000-790000m E and 1950000206000m N UTM State of Campeche Gulf of Mexico 5 Champoton Carmen Escarcega Candelaria State of Tabasco GUATEMALA 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 Meters
  4. 4. Integrated Ecosystems Management (IEM): -follows an experimental and adaptive approach to resource management
  5. 5. Procedure for Integrated Watershed Plan 1)  The Rio Candelaria watershed was characterized and delineated 2)  Watershed morphological features were imported into an ArcGIS map database 3)  Scale-dependent land units (systems, facets and ecozones) were identified 4)  Meteorological information was gathered to characterize the watershed’s climate characteristics 5)  Climate information was assessed to determine length-of-growing-period (LGP) for the area and to estimate surface runoff 6)  Elevation points were retrieved and a digital elevation model (DEM) was created 7)  Land capability was assessed and compared with current land use for each ecozone to identify land degradation “hotspots” in the watershed area 8)  Land suitability was assessed for the ecozones to make recommendations for land use type based on LGP, annual rainfall, mean temperature during the LGP and soil depth
  6. 6. Ø 364 elevation points taken from INEGI software, Google Earth (2010) Ø Elevation points were imported into the ArcGIS software Ø DEM was created by performing geostatistical analysis using a semivariogram Kriging method and interpolating elevation points into a predictive model
  7. 7. Candelaria Watershed Stream Orders & Sub-watersheds Sub-watershed 2 Sub-watershed 1 5 Legend Stream Order 1 Sub-watershed 3 Stream Order 2 Stream Order 3 Sub-watersheds 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters Ø The Yucatan peninsula is a highly karstic region with high infiltration and features such as swallets and cenotes (sinkholes)
  8. 8. Stream Morphology
  9. 9. Horton’s Laws of Drainage Composition 45000 R2  =  0.9496 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Fig. 3 Law of average basin areas Stream  Order Stream  order 35 Number  of  segments Stream  L engths  (km) 40000 R2  =  0.9977 30 25 20 15 10 5 Fig. 4 Law of stream lengths 0 0 1 2 Stream  order 3 4
  10. 10. Physical Features of the Rio Candelaria Watershed Candelaria Watershed Ø The Candelaria watershed is one of the few rivers flowing through the highly karstic region of the Yucatan Peninsula Geology 5 Legend Caliche Recent Limestone Quaternary Limestone Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters Ø Recent and quaternary limestone dominate the Candelaria watershed region with a few scattered Caliche outcrops Ø There are a few Caliche horizons indicating the intensive chemical weathering that occurs during the rainy season followed by rapid evaporation in the dry season
  11. 11. Candelaria Watershed Soil Types Ø Three main soil types: rendzina, gleysols and vertisols 5 Legend Gleysol Gleysol, Gleysol, Ø The vertisols and gleysols are also very clayey soils, however they are much deeper than rendzina Gleysol, Vertisol, Rendzina, Vertisol, Litosol Solonchak, Gleysol, Rendzina Vertisol, Rendzina, Vertisol, Rendzina, Litosol Guatemala Ø Rendzina is thin clayey soils rich in organics (humus) and calcium carbonate, reflecting the limestone parent material 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters
  12. 12. Candelaria Watershed Soil Moisture 5 Legend 8 months 9 months Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters Ø The majority of precipitation falls between June and October due to the beginning of the summer trade winds and tropical cyclones
  13. 13. Candelaria Watershed Climatic Regions 5 Ø The Rio Candelaria basin contains a warm sub-humid climatic regime called tropical monsoon Ø Characterized by distinctive wet and dry seasons Legend Warm Humid Warm Subhumid Waterbody Guatemala 0 15,000 30,000 45,000 Meters
  14. 14. Land Units
  15. 15. Ecozones Ø  Ecological zones (“ecozones”) are land facets that have a unique combination of: -climate (temperature and moisture availability) -rock cover (geology) -soil type -land cover Ø  Ecozones are the smallest unit on which land management can be based
  16. 16. Identification of Ecozones Candelaria Watershed Ecological Zones & Land Systems Northeast Land System Northwest Land System North Land System 5 Central Land System Southeast Land System Legend EcoZones Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters
  17. 17. Climate Assessment CAMPECHE Candelaria Watershed Meteorological Stations Ø 16 meteorological stations identified within the watershed and surrounding area CHAMPOTON 5 PUSTUNICH ulf G c exi of M o SABANCUY Ø The following information was provided from the National Weather Service Unit (Mexico City) for each station from 1961-1990: PIXOYAL ISLA DE AGUADA CIUDAD DEL CARMEN 2 CIUDAD DEL CARMEN 1 ESCARCEGA 1ESCARCEGA 2 SAN ISIDRO CANDELARIA 1CANDELARIA 2 Legend Meteorological Stations LA ESPERANZA •  Maximum, minimum and average total monthly precipitation MONCLOVA •  Average monthly temperature MIGUEL HIDALGO Candelaria Watershed GUATEMALA 0 15,000 30,000 45,000 Meters •  Total monthly
  18. 18. Evapotranspiration Estimates Ø  ETo estimates were made using CropWat Version 4.3 (FAO software) Ø  Air humidity %, wind speed (km/day) at 2m from sea level, and daily sunshine hours were retrieved from two stations located in Campeche, Campeche and Flores, Guatemala, given by ClimWat Version 2.0 (FAO software) Ø  These variables were averaged and used, along with average monthly temperature and evaporation at each weather station, in estimates for evapotranspiration (ETo) for all 16 meteorological stations used, using the automated Penman-Monteith equation:
  19. 19. Length-of-growing-period (LGP) Ø  Ø  LGP describes the time period for which climatic conditions provide optimal plant growth in an area The growing period is determined for a given weather station based on the following: Ø  LGP begins when precipitation > ½ ETo Ø  LGP ends ~5 days after rainy period ends, when precipitation < ½ ETo Ø  Ø  Climographs provide comprehensive visual demonstrations of LGP and the water balance between precipitation and evapotranspiration
  20. 20. Climograph of Candelaria River Watershed Average LGP for all 16 meteorological stations = 250 days (using CropWat’s Penman-Monteith equation)
  21. 21. Climographs of Rio Candelaria Watershed l  Two examples of climograph data created using information from meteorological stations: Station I.D. Latitude Longitude Location 4028 2123049 m N 766408 m E PUSTUNICH 4020 1976726 m N 726051 m E MIGUEL HIDALGO
  22. 22. Fig. 1 Climograph for Station #4028, LGP = 158 days Fig. 2 Climograph for Station #4020, LGP = 281 days
  23. 23. Length of Growing Period (LGP) Assessment Candelaria Watershed Length of Growing Period (LGP) 5 Legend 235 - 253 days 254 - 266 days 267 - 280 days 281 - 293 days Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters Ø  Length-of-growing-period (LGP) was assessed for the entire watershed area using climatic interpolation of LGP values given by all 16 meteorological stations within and around the watershed Ø  Geostatistical analysis was done using semivariogram Kriging method on the ArcGIS software to create a predictive model for LGP values in the watershed
  24. 24. Maximum Runoff in the Watershed Ø  Used to determine anticipated volumes of flow through the stream network system. This helps to prepare for such events as floods and droughts.
  25. 25. Calculating Surface Runoff: IDF curves
  26. 26. Concentration Time: Ø  Tc=0.02 x (L1.15/H0.385) Ø  Rainfall Intensity Ø  Runoff Coefficient Ø  Maximum Runoff: Ø  Qmax = 0.028CiA Ø  Average Runoff: Vm= A.C.Pm Ø 
  27. 27. Land Utilization in Campeche Ø  Land utilization types (LUTs): Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  rice vegetables livestock backyard poultry livestock fisheries backyard agro-forestry plantation agro-forestry beans corn sugar cane sorghum Criteria used to determine the LUTs: § the products market orientation § capital intensity § labour intensity § power source § level of mechanization § size of the farm enterprise § land tenure § infrastructure requirements § inputs § current management practices
  28. 28. Current Land Use in Watershed Candelaria Watershed Current Land Use Ø Forest clearing has also occurred for the creation of cattle grazing land 5 Legend Cultivated Grassland Forested Area Seasonal Agriculture Urban Areas 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters Ø Land-use changes are likely causing increased runoff and storm flow into the Rio Candelaria stream network
  29. 29. Capability Classification Class identified for each ecozone based on: 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)  7)  8)  slope flood risk drainage surface texture surface coarse fragments surface stoniness rockiness soil depth Maximum limitation considered for capability class in each ecozone (the limitation with the highest class value)
  30. 30. Land Capability Candelaria Watershed Land Capability 5 Legend Cultivation (Limited) Ø The Rio Candelaria Watershed is generally suboptimal for agricultural land use because of its karstic characteristics and high flood risk, which is a key limitation for many crops Cultivation (Moderate) Cultivation (Rice only) Forestry Grazing (Moderate) Wildlife Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters
  31. 31. Candelaria Watershed HOTSPOTS “Hotspots” are: 5 Legend Hotspot Potential Hotspot Sustainable Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters Ø areas where current land use exceeds its capability Ø units for management and land use intervention
  32. 32. Land Suitability Classification Class identified for each ecozone based on: 1)  2)  3)  4)  Length-of-growingperiod (LGP) annual rainfall mean temperature during the LGP soil depth Maximum limitation considered for suitability class in each ecozone (highest class value)
  33. 33. Land Suitability for Livestock Grazing Candelaria Watershed Land Suitability LIVESTOCK GRAZING 5 Legend Suitable (S1) Not Suitable (N2) Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters Ø Livestock grazing suitability determined for each ecozone based on land suitability for African star grass growth
  34. 34. Land Suitability for Agricultural Crops Ø  Crops assessed: Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Rice Banana Sorghum Maize Coconut Dry beans Squash Sugarcane • The upper portions of the watershed basin are limited to small-scale traditional sustenance farming, with maize being the most important crop
  35. 35. Candelaria Watershed Candelaria Watershed Land Suitability RICE Land Suitability SORGHUM 5 5 Legend Legend Suitable (S1) Moderately Suitable (S2) Moderately Suitable (S2) Marginally Suitable (S3) Not Suitable (N2) Not Suitable (N2) Guatemala Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters 0 10,000 30,000 Meters Candelaria Watershed Candelaria Watershed Land Suitability DRY BEANS Land Suitability MAIZE 5 5 Legend 20,000 Legend Moderately Suitable (S2) Marginally Suitable (S3) Marginally Suitable (S3) Not Suitable (N2) Not Suitable (N2) Guatemala Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters
  36. 36. Candelaria Watershed Land Suitability OPTIMAL AGRICULTURAL CROP 5 Legend Rice Rice or Sorghum Sorghum Not Suitable Guatemala 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 Meters
  37. 37. Landsat Satellite Photographs of Land Use Change Colour Composite April, 1990
  38. 38. Colour Composite Jan, 2000
  39. 39. Colour Composite Jan 2005
  40. 40. Land Use Change: 15 Years 1990 2000 2005
  41. 41. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 1990 2000 Ø Reflected 2005 light from vegetation reflects higher infrared radiation than visible light radiation, allowing satellite imagery to estimate land cover
  42. 42. Conclusions and Recommendations Ø  The Nature Conservancy, in its 2003 proposal to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) stated that, for the state of Campeche: “Urbanization, poor wastewater management, industrialization, alteration of the hydrologic regime, agricultural and cattle production, petroleum extraction and fishing are likely to be the most important issues, all related to economic drivers in the protected area and the basins surrounding it.”
  43. 43. Decision-making and Conflict Resolution Ø  Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Resolution for competing land use demands Stakeholder participation integral part of conflict resolution and decision making Qualitative and quantitative factors are considered in decision-making process Alternatives for land use operation are meaningfully weighed according to their influences on a given tract of land
  44. 44. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) 1.  Identifying Alternatives (Brainstorming) 2. Determine Pros and Cons of Alternatives 3. Generate and Structure Objectives 4. Generate Expert Choice Model 5. Evaluate Expert Choice Model
  45. 45. Recommendations for Rio Candelaria Watershed Ø  Ø  Using capability and suitability of the land located inside the watershed, it is recommended that livestock grazing, rice cultivation and sorghum cultivation take primary roles in land utilization It is recommended that land utilization in the watershed operate for the purpose of sustenance