Personality Our characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and acting
Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to: Describe Freud’s view of personality structure in terms of the id, ego, and superego. Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior. Discuss how defense mechanisms serve to protect the individual from anxiety. Describe the humanistic perspective on personality in terms of Maslow’s focus on self-actualization and Rogers’ emphasis on people’s potential for growth. Identify the Big Five trait dimensions. Describe the social-cognitive perspective. Discuss some evidence for self-serving bias.
Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspective Theory rests on only a few objective observations & has produced few hypotheses to accept or reject Supporters Today
Review Freud believed that we block unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories from our consciousness. He called this process of blockinga. free association b. repressionc. anxiety d. reaction formation Freud called the conscience, or the part of the personality that internalizes ideals,a. the ego. b. the superego.c. the reality principle. d. repression.
The Humanistic Perspective More positive view Focus on the ways “healthy” people strive for self-determinism & self-realization From self-reports
Person-Centered Perspective (Rogers) We are primed to reach our potential if we are given a growth promoting environment Genuine Accepting Unconditional positive regard Empathetic Self concept
Review Rogers believed that we can help people reach their full potential by providing an environment of total acceptance, which he calleda. self-esteem.b. unconditional positive regard.c. self actualization.d. the “ideal self.”
The Trait Perspective Personality Trait Trait factors
The Social-Cognitive Perspective Do the personality traits we express change from one situation to another?
Behavior The person The situation The interaction Reciprocal determinism
Review Trait theory often describes personality in terms of clusters of characteristic behaviors, or traits that tend to occur together. These clusters are called:a. lobe areas b. axesc. factors d. dimensions Social-cognitive theory concerns how people’s traits and thoughts affect, and are affected by, theira. genes b. behaviorsc. emotions d. situations
The Self Self image Possible selves Spotlight effect Self esteem Self Serving Bias Self handicapping Self efficacy
Review People tend to accept responsibility for their successes and to blame circumstances or bad luck for their failures. This is an example ofa. defensive self-esteem.b. secure self-esteem.c. self-serving bias.d. possible selves.