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Personality student



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  • 1. Personality Our characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and acting
  • 2. Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to: Describe Freud’s view of personality structure in terms of the id, ego, and superego. Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior. Discuss how defense mechanisms serve to protect the individual from anxiety. Describe the humanistic perspective on personality in terms of Maslow’s focus on self-actualization and Rogers’ emphasis on people’s potential for growth. Identify the Big Five trait dimensions. Describe the social-cognitive perspective. Discuss some evidence for self-serving bias.
  • 3. Overview Psychoanalytic theory Humanistic perspective Trait perspective Social-cognitive perspective The self
  • 4. The Psychoanalytic Perspective “Nothing is ever accidental” Unconscious Free association
  • 5. Personality Structure
  • 6. Personality Development
  • 7. Defense Mechanisms Repression Regression Reaction formation Projection Rationalization Displacement Sublimation
  • 8. Neo-Freudians Supported New concepts
  • 9. Assessing Unconscious Processes
  • 10. Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspective Theory rests on only a few objective observations & has produced few hypotheses to accept or reject Supporters Today
  • 11. Review Freud believed that we block unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories from our consciousness. He called this process of blockinga. free association b. repressionc. anxiety d. reaction formation Freud called the conscience, or the part of the personality that internalizes ideals,a. the ego. b. the superego.c. the reality principle. d. repression.
  • 12. The Humanistic Perspective More positive view Focus on the ways “healthy” people strive for self-determinism & self-realization From self-reports
  • 13. Self-Actualization (Maslow)
  • 14. Person-Centered Perspective (Rogers) We are primed to reach our potential if we are given a growth promoting environment  Genuine  Accepting  Unconditional positive regard  Empathetic Self concept
  • 15. Review Rogers believed that we can help people reach their full potential by providing an environment of total acceptance, which he calleda. self-esteem.b. unconditional positive regard.c. self actualization.d. the “ideal self.”
  • 16. The Trait Perspective Personality Trait Trait factors
  • 17. OCEAN
  • 18. The Social-Cognitive Perspective Do the personality traits we express change from one situation to another?
  • 19. Behavior The person The situation The interaction  Reciprocal determinism
  • 20. Review Trait theory often describes personality in terms of clusters of characteristic behaviors, or traits that tend to occur together. These clusters are called:a. lobe areas b. axesc. factors d. dimensions Social-cognitive theory concerns how people’s traits and thoughts affect, and are affected by, theira. genes b. behaviorsc. emotions d. situations
  • 21. The Self Self image Possible selves Spotlight effect Self esteem Self Serving Bias Self handicapping Self efficacy
  • 22. Culture & The Self
  • 23. Review People tend to accept responsibility for their successes and to blame circumstances or bad luck for their failures. This is an example ofa. defensive self-esteem.b. secure self-esteem.c. self-serving bias.d. possible selves.