THE ANCIENT ORIGINS & BASIC CONCEPTS        OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY  DR. DUKUZUMURENYI
IWHAT DOES GEOGRAPHY MEAN?WHY STUDY WORLD GEOGRAPHY?
WHAT DOES GEOGRAPHY MEAN?GEOGRAPHIA  1. GEO- THE GREEK WORD  FOR EARTH.  2. GRAPHIA- THE GREEK  WORD FOR GRAPH.   GRAPH-...
WHAT IS A GRID SYSTEM?AGRAPH WHICH ALLOWS THELOCATION OF A POINT ON AMAP OR ON THE EARTH’SSURFACE TO BE DESCRIBED INA WAY...
GRID SYSTEM
WHAT IS WORLD GEOGRAPHY?THE SCIENCE THAT STUDIES- THE AREAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE. [AREAL DIFFERENTIATIO...
TYPES OF DIFFERENCES ON THE       EARTH’S SURFACE1.CHARACTER: VARIOUS APPEARANCES. DIFFERENT PLACES LOOK DIFFERENT.  SAHA...
TYPES OF DIFFERENCES ON THE       EARTH’S SURFACE2.ARRANGEMENT: PATTERN. DIFFERENT PLACES ARE ORGANIZED DIFFERENTLY.     ...
TYPES OF DIFFERENCES ON THE        EARTH’S SURFACE3.INTERRELATIONS: CONNECTIONS. DIFFERENT PLACES HAVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF...
ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY1. CLIMATE: WEATHER CONDITIONS OF A REGION.2. ELEVATION: THE ALTITUDE OR HEIGHT OF A PLACE.  ...
ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY3. SOIL: DISINTEGRATED [BROKEN DOWN] ROCK AND HUMUS [ORGANIC MATERIAL- DEAD ANIMALS & PLANTS]....
ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY6.INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: PROTECT THE INTERESTS OF MEMBER NATIONS. EXAMPLES: UNITED NATIO...
ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY7.POLITICAL ASSOCIATIONS: NATIONS OF THE WORLD. EXAMPLE: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA; THE PEOPLES...
IIWHY STUDY WORLD GEOGRAPHY?
PREPARES YOU TO PARTICIPATE IN           SOCIETY. Itallows you to obtain a range of learning  experiences and skills whic...
IT IS A BROAD DIVERSE SUBJECT    THAT ENCOMPASSES A WIDE      ARRAY OF KNOWLEDGE. Geography   is a broad flexible subject...
STUDYING GEOGRAPHY PROMOTES     ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY. Education is the most effective means that society possesses for ...
STUDYING GEOGRAPHY EXPANDSOUR KNOWLEDGE OF OUR PLANET. Studying Geography can take you to distant lands and cultures. You...
IIITHE ANCIENT ORIGINS OF  WORLD GEOGRAPHY
ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE GREEKS WROTE THAT THE WORLD’S OLDEST RACE OF MEN DEVELOPED ALL OF THE SCIENCES, INCLUDING GEOGRAPHY.  ...
ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE DEVELOPERS OF GEOGRAPHY WERE THE BLACK MEN AND WOMEN OF CLASSICAL KEMET [EGYPT] & TA-SETI [NUBIA: THE ...
ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE PRIESTS OF CLASSICAL KEMET USED GEOGRAPHY TO ALIGN THE GREAT PYRAMIDS WITH TRUE NORTH.
ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE PRIESTS OF KEMET SHOWED THE GREEKS HOW TO MEASURE THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE EARTH, USING LATITUDE AND L...
ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE  GREEK LIBRARIAN ERASTOSTHENES [275 BC - 193 BC] WAS THE FIRST GREEK TO LEARN OF THE AFRICAN METHOD FO...
ANCIENT ORIGINS
EARTH CIRCUMFERENCE FORMULA       A/360   = D/CWHERE,  A = SHADOW ANGLE  360 = DEGREES IN CIRCLE  D = DISTANCE FROM     ...
ANCIENT ORIGINSPIRI REIS MAP - MADE IN CONSTANTINOPLE IN 1513 BY ADMIRAL PIRI IBN HAJI MEHMED. SHOWS ANTARTICA FREE OF I...
ADMIRAL PIRI REIS MAPTHE   MAP GIVES EXACT INFORMATION ABOUT THE WESTERN COAST OF AFRICA, EASTERN COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA ...
ADMIRAL PIRI REIS MAP
IVBASIC CONCEPTS OFWORLD GEOGRAPHY
1.FIVE THEMES OF WORLD      GEOGRAPHY
LOCATIONRELATIVELOCATIONABSOLUTE LOCATION
PLACEHUMAN CHARACTERISTICSPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL      INTERACTIONSHUMANS ADAPT TO THE ENVIORNMENT.HUMANS MODIFY THE ENVIRONMENT.HUMANS DEPEND ON THE...
MOVEMENTPEOPLEGOODSIDEAS
REGIONSFORMAL REGION: ONEESSENTIAL UNIFORMITY INONE OR A LIMITED NUMBEROF RELATED PHYSICAL ORCULTURAL FEATURES.
REGIONS         [CONTINUED]FUNCTIONAL  REGIONS: A SPATIAL SYSTEM, WHOSE PARTS ARE INTERCONNECTED. HAS A CORE AREA SURROUN...
REGIONS          [CONTINUED]REALM: THE LARGEST LOGICAL REGIONS INTO WHICH GEOGRPAHERS DIVIDE THE WORLD. DEFINED IN TERMS ...
GEOGRAPHY REALMSNORTH  AFRICASOUTHWEST ASIASUB-SAHARAN AFRICASOUTHEAST ASIAPACIFIC REALMNORTH AMERICA
GEOGRAPHY REALMS           [CONTINUED]CENTRAL  AMERICASOUTH AMERICAEUROPERUSSIAEAST ASIASOUTH ASIAAUSTRAILIA
2.GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVES
SPATIALWHERE THINGS ARE.THINGS EXIST IN SPACE. THINGS CREATE SPATIAL PATTERNS, WHICH ARE PATTERNS IN THE SPACES INHABIT...
ECOLOGYRELATIONSHIPSAMONGLIFE FORMS ANDPHYSICAL ELEMENTS.
HISTORICALWHEN AND WHYSOMETHING HAPPENEDAT A PARTICULAR TIME.
ECONOMICHOW SOCIETIESPRODUCE ANDEXCHANGE RESOURCESTO MEET THE NEEDS OFITS PEOPLE.
CULTURALHOWA PARTICULARETHNIC GROUP/RACEVIEWS REALITY.
3.BRANCHES OF WORLD   GEOGRAPHY
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHYTHESTUDY OF THE EARTH’SENVIRONMENT: PROPERTIESOF LAND, WATER, AIR,PLANTS AND ANIMALS, THEIRDISTRIBUTION...
CULTURAL GEOGRAPHYTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEEN PEOPLE ANDTHEIR ENVIRONMENT.ANALYZES THE SPATIALVARIATIONS OF MATERIALTRAITS, SU...
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHYPOLITICALLY ORGANIZED AREAS [NATIONS OR STATES], THEIR RESOURCES AN EXTENT, AND THE REASONS FOR THE GE...
HUMAN GEOGRAPHYAKA ANTHROPOGEOGRAPHY.  ANTHROPO: MAN  [ANTHROPOLOGY: THE STUDY  OF MAN]  DEALS WITH MAN IN HIS  GEOGRAPHI...
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHYUSES THE FIVE THEMESTO STUDY THEGEOGRAPHY OF THEPAST.
URBAN GEOGRAPHYSTUDY OF THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CITIES, AND TOWNS AND THE GROWTH ASSOCIATED WITH URBANIZATION, WHICH...
CARTOGRAPHYTHESCIENCE OF THECONSTRUCTION (MAKING) OFMAPS USING MATHEMATICS,STATISTICS ANDCOMPUTERS.
4.RELATED FIELDS OF STUDY
GEOMETRYGEOMETRIA:  LAND MEASURERDEALS WITH THE DEDUCTION OF THE PROPERTIES, MEASURMENT AND RELATIONSHIP OF POINTS, LINE...
GEODESYGEODAISIA: EARTH DIVISION.DEALS WITH MEASUREMENT OF THE SHAPE OF AN AREA AND DISTANCES BETWEEN LARGE TRACTS OF LA...
5.CONCEPTS
SCALETELLS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF AN AREA ON A MAP AND THE ACTUAL SIZE OF THE MAPPED AREA ON THE EARTH’S SU...
SPATIAL INTERACTIONCOLLABORATIONBETWEENPLACES OCCURING INSTRUCTURED ANDCOMPREHENSIBLE WAYS.
SPATIAL INTERACTION        [CONTINUED]AFFECTED  BY:  DISTANCE:  LINEAR DISTANCE  PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTANCE  TIME DISTANCE.
SPATIAL INTERACTION        [CONTINUED]DISTANCEDECAY:DECREASE IN INTERACTIONAS DISTANCE INCREASES.
SPATIAL INTERACTION         [CONTINUED]ACCESSIBILITY: HOW DIFFICULT OR EASY IS IT TO OVERCOME TIME OR SPACE SEPARATION.
SPATIAL INTERACTION       [CONTINUED]CONNECTIVITY:   ALL THE TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE WAYS PLACES ARE CONNECTED.
SPATIAL DIFFUSIONTHEPROCESS OFDISPERSION OF A THINGOR IDEA.
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONSTHE BASIS OF REGIONS. THEY ARE THE TERRITORIAL OCCURRENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL, HUMAN, OR ORGANIZATIONAL...
Ancient Origins & Basic Concepts of World Geography
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Ancient Origins & Basic Concepts of World Geography

  1. 1. THE ANCIENT ORIGINS & BASIC CONCEPTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY DR. DUKUZUMURENYI
  2. 2. IWHAT DOES GEOGRAPHY MEAN?WHY STUDY WORLD GEOGRAPHY?
  3. 3. WHAT DOES GEOGRAPHY MEAN?GEOGRAPHIA 1. GEO- THE GREEK WORD FOR EARTH. 2. GRAPHIA- THE GREEK WORD FOR GRAPH. GRAPH- A NETWORK OF LINES CONNECTING POINTS. A GRID SYSTEM.
  4. 4. WHAT IS A GRID SYSTEM?AGRAPH WHICH ALLOWS THELOCATION OF A POINT ON AMAP OR ON THE EARTH’SSURFACE TO BE DESCRIBED INA WAY THAT IS MEANINGFULAND UNIVERSALYUNDERSTOOD.
  5. 5. GRID SYSTEM
  6. 6. WHAT IS WORLD GEOGRAPHY?THE SCIENCE THAT STUDIES- THE AREAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE. [AREAL DIFFERENTIATION- DIFFERENCES ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE.]
  7. 7. TYPES OF DIFFERENCES ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE1.CHARACTER: VARIOUS APPEARANCES. DIFFERENT PLACES LOOK DIFFERENT. SAHARA DESERT AMAZON RAIN FOREST
  8. 8. TYPES OF DIFFERENCES ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE2.ARRANGEMENT: PATTERN. DIFFERENT PLACES ARE ORGANIZED DIFFERENTLY. NICARAGUAN VILLAGE MALI VILLAGE
  9. 9. TYPES OF DIFFERENCES ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE3.INTERRELATIONS: CONNECTIONS. DIFFERENT PLACES HAVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTERACTION. FALLUJAH, IRAQ GHANA MARKET
  10. 10. ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY1. CLIMATE: WEATHER CONDITIONS OF A REGION.2. ELEVATION: THE ALTITUDE OR HEIGHT OF A PLACE. TORNADO MT. KILIMANJARO
  11. 11. ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY3. SOIL: DISINTEGRATED [BROKEN DOWN] ROCK AND HUMUS [ORGANIC MATERIAL- DEAD ANIMALS & PLANTS].4. VEGETATION: PLANT LIFE.5. POPULATION: NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN A PLACE.
  12. 12. ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY6.INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: PROTECT THE INTERESTS OF MEMBER NATIONS. EXAMPLES: UNITED NATIONS [UN]; AFRICAN UNION [AU]; ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES [OPEC].
  13. 13. ELEMENTS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY7.POLITICAL ASSOCIATIONS: NATIONS OF THE WORLD. EXAMPLE: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA; THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA; FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA; GREAT SOCIALIST PEOPLES LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA.
  14. 14. IIWHY STUDY WORLD GEOGRAPHY?
  15. 15. PREPARES YOU TO PARTICIPATE IN SOCIETY. Itallows you to obtain a range of learning experiences and skills which make you highly attractive to a wide range of future employers. The skills practiced in geography are used by many professionals: urban and regional planners, resource managers, attorneys, legislators, business and political leaders, architects, marketing consultants and engineers. It is an ideal stepping stone to a wide range of careers.
  16. 16. IT IS A BROAD DIVERSE SUBJECT THAT ENCOMPASSES A WIDE ARRAY OF KNOWLEDGE. Geography is a broad flexible subject, which may be classified as an art, science or social science. Geography, as a discipline, is as diverse as the problems facing our planet. From saving a forest to planning a downtown development project, geographers are there.
  17. 17. STUDYING GEOGRAPHY PROMOTES ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY. Education is the most effective means that society possesses for confronting the challenges of the future. In order to address the environmental challenges society is currently faced with, people are needed who can think broadly and understand the systems, connections, and patterns of the physical and cultural world. We desperately need people equipped with the analytical skills necessary to rebuild neighborhoods, towns, and communities.
  18. 18. STUDYING GEOGRAPHY EXPANDSOUR KNOWLEDGE OF OUR PLANET. Studying Geography can take you to distant lands and cultures. You can develop the skills that will help you recognize and make sense of the patterns, distributions, and interactions between living things and their environment. Geographers often study places by experiencing them first-hand. They use cutting edge technology to study the landscapes and patterns that define who we are and what we do.
  19. 19. IIITHE ANCIENT ORIGINS OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY
  20. 20. ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE GREEKS WROTE THAT THE WORLD’S OLDEST RACE OF MEN DEVELOPED ALL OF THE SCIENCES, INCLUDING GEOGRAPHY. HERODOTUS 484 B.C. - 432 B.C.
  21. 21. ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE DEVELOPERS OF GEOGRAPHY WERE THE BLACK MEN AND WOMEN OF CLASSICAL KEMET [EGYPT] & TA-SETI [NUBIA: THE SUDAN]
  22. 22. ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE PRIESTS OF CLASSICAL KEMET USED GEOGRAPHY TO ALIGN THE GREAT PYRAMIDS WITH TRUE NORTH.
  23. 23. ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE PRIESTS OF KEMET SHOWED THE GREEKS HOW TO MEASURE THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE EARTH, USING LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.
  24. 24. ANCIENT ORIGINSTHE GREEK LIBRARIAN ERASTOSTHENES [275 BC - 193 BC] WAS THE FIRST GREEK TO LEARN OF THE AFRICAN METHOD FOR MEASURING THE EARTH’S CIRCUMFERENCE.
  25. 25. ANCIENT ORIGINS
  26. 26. EARTH CIRCUMFERENCE FORMULA A/360 = D/CWHERE, A = SHADOW ANGLE 360 = DEGREES IN CIRCLE D = DISTANCE FROM EQUATOR. C = CIRCUMFERENCE
  27. 27. ANCIENT ORIGINSPIRI REIS MAP - MADE IN CONSTANTINOPLE IN 1513 BY ADMIRAL PIRI IBN HAJI MEHMED. SHOWS ANTARTICA FREE OF ICE. EUROPEANS DID KNOW ABOUT ANTARTICA UNTIL 1818 AND THE INTERIOR OF ANTARTICA UNTIL 1958.
  28. 28. ADMIRAL PIRI REIS MAPTHE MAP GIVES EXACT INFORMATION ABOUT THE WESTERN COAST OF AFRICA, EASTERN COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA AND NORTHERN COAST OF ANTARTICA.IT IS BASED ON MUCH OLDER MAPS.
  29. 29. ADMIRAL PIRI REIS MAP
  30. 30. IVBASIC CONCEPTS OFWORLD GEOGRAPHY
  31. 31. 1.FIVE THEMES OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY
  32. 32. LOCATIONRELATIVELOCATIONABSOLUTE LOCATION
  33. 33. PLACEHUMAN CHARACTERISTICSPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  34. 34. HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONSHUMANS ADAPT TO THE ENVIORNMENT.HUMANS MODIFY THE ENVIRONMENT.HUMANS DEPEND ON THE ENVIRONMENT.
  35. 35. MOVEMENTPEOPLEGOODSIDEAS
  36. 36. REGIONSFORMAL REGION: ONEESSENTIAL UNIFORMITY INONE OR A LIMITED NUMBEROF RELATED PHYSICAL ORCULTURAL FEATURES.
  37. 37. REGIONS [CONTINUED]FUNCTIONAL REGIONS: A SPATIAL SYSTEM, WHOSE PARTS ARE INTERCONNECTED. HAS A CORE AREA SURROUNDED BY TOTAL SUBORDINATE AREAS.VERNACULAR [PERCEPTUAL]
  38. 38. REGIONS [CONTINUED]REALM: THE LARGEST LOGICAL REGIONS INTO WHICH GEOGRPAHERS DIVIDE THE WORLD. DEFINED IN TERMS OF A COMPOSITE OF ITS LEADING CULTURAL, ECONOMIC, HISTORICAL, POLITICAL AND APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES.
  39. 39. GEOGRAPHY REALMSNORTH AFRICASOUTHWEST ASIASUB-SAHARAN AFRICASOUTHEAST ASIAPACIFIC REALMNORTH AMERICA
  40. 40. GEOGRAPHY REALMS [CONTINUED]CENTRAL AMERICASOUTH AMERICAEUROPERUSSIAEAST ASIASOUTH ASIAAUSTRAILIA
  41. 41. 2.GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVES
  42. 42. SPATIALWHERE THINGS ARE.THINGS EXIST IN SPACE. THINGS CREATE SPATIAL PATTERNS, WHICH ARE PATTERNS IN THE SPACES INHABITED BY HUMANS, OR A SPATIAL SYSTEM.
  43. 43. ECOLOGYRELATIONSHIPSAMONGLIFE FORMS ANDPHYSICAL ELEMENTS.
  44. 44. HISTORICALWHEN AND WHYSOMETHING HAPPENEDAT A PARTICULAR TIME.
  45. 45. ECONOMICHOW SOCIETIESPRODUCE ANDEXCHANGE RESOURCESTO MEET THE NEEDS OFITS PEOPLE.
  46. 46. CULTURALHOWA PARTICULARETHNIC GROUP/RACEVIEWS REALITY.
  47. 47. 3.BRANCHES OF WORLD GEOGRAPHY
  48. 48. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHYTHESTUDY OF THE EARTH’SENVIRONMENT: PROPERTIESOF LAND, WATER, AIR,PLANTS AND ANIMALS, THEIRDISTRIBUTION ANDINTERRELATIONS.
  49. 49. CULTURAL GEOGRAPHYTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEEN PEOPLE ANDTHEIR ENVIRONMENT.ANALYZES THE SPATIALVARIATIONS OF MATERIALTRAITS, SUCH AS HOUSETYPES AND SPIRITUALSYSTEMS.
  50. 50. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHYPOLITICALLY ORGANIZED AREAS [NATIONS OR STATES], THEIR RESOURCES AN EXTENT, AND THE REASONS FOR THE GEOGRAPHICAL FORMS WHICH THEY ASSUME.
  51. 51. HUMAN GEOGRAPHYAKA ANTHROPOGEOGRAPHY. ANTHROPO: MAN [ANTHROPOLOGY: THE STUDY OF MAN] DEALS WITH MAN IN HIS GEOGRAPHIC ASPECTS, SUCH AS HIS LOCATION, REGION, ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION, MOVEMENT, SOCIETY.
  52. 52. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHYUSES THE FIVE THEMESTO STUDY THEGEOGRAPHY OF THEPAST.
  53. 53. URBAN GEOGRAPHYSTUDY OF THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CITIES, AND TOWNS AND THE GROWTH ASSOCIATED WITH URBANIZATION, WHICH IS THE GROWTH OF CITIES AS A RESULT OF RURAL MIGRATIONS TO CITIES.
  54. 54. CARTOGRAPHYTHESCIENCE OF THECONSTRUCTION (MAKING) OFMAPS USING MATHEMATICS,STATISTICS ANDCOMPUTERS.
  55. 55. 4.RELATED FIELDS OF STUDY
  56. 56. GEOMETRYGEOMETRIA: LAND MEASURERDEALS WITH THE DEDUCTION OF THE PROPERTIES, MEASURMENT AND RELATIONSHIP OF POINTS, LINES, ANGLES AND FIGURES IN SPACE FROM THEIR DEFINING CONDITIONALS BY MEANS OF CERTAIN ASSUMED PROPERTIES OF SPACE.
  57. 57. GEODESYGEODAISIA: EARTH DIVISION.DEALS WITH MEASUREMENT OF THE SHAPE OF AN AREA AND DISTANCES BETWEEN LARGE TRACTS OF LAND, THE EXACT POSITION OF GEOGRAPHICAL POINTS, AND THE CURVATURE, SHAPE AND DIMENSION OF THE EARTH.
  58. 58. 5.CONCEPTS
  59. 59. SCALETELLS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SIZE OF AN AREA ON A MAP AND THE ACTUAL SIZE OF THE MAPPED AREA ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE.
  60. 60. SPATIAL INTERACTIONCOLLABORATIONBETWEENPLACES OCCURING INSTRUCTURED ANDCOMPREHENSIBLE WAYS.
  61. 61. SPATIAL INTERACTION [CONTINUED]AFFECTED BY: DISTANCE: LINEAR DISTANCE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTANCE TIME DISTANCE.
  62. 62. SPATIAL INTERACTION [CONTINUED]DISTANCEDECAY:DECREASE IN INTERACTIONAS DISTANCE INCREASES.
  63. 63. SPATIAL INTERACTION [CONTINUED]ACCESSIBILITY: HOW DIFFICULT OR EASY IS IT TO OVERCOME TIME OR SPACE SEPARATION.
  64. 64. SPATIAL INTERACTION [CONTINUED]CONNECTIVITY: ALL THE TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE WAYS PLACES ARE CONNECTED.
  65. 65. SPATIAL DIFFUSIONTHEPROCESS OFDISPERSION OF A THINGOR IDEA.
  66. 66. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONSTHE BASIS OF REGIONS. THEY ARE THE TERRITORIAL OCCURRENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL, HUMAN, OR ORGANIZATIONAL FEATURES SELECTED FOR STUDY.
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