Cellular Respiration with audio


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Cellular Respiration with audio

  1. 1. By Eric Savoie, Christian Bonzheim, Nick Aguayo, and Michael Arkwright
  2. 2. Cell Respiration <ul><li>Cell Respiration is the controlled release of energy within the cell of organic compounds to form ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>All living cells must carry out cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells use this energy for 3 main types of activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizing Large Molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping ions or molecules across membranes by active transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving things, such as chromosomes and vesicles, around in the cell. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Glycolysis <ul><li>In cell respiration, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down by glycolysis into pyruvate with a small yield of ATP. This process of converting glucose into pyruvate is known as glycolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The most significant product of glycolysis is the small amount of ATP produced without the use of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis can take place in two forms, aerobic and anaerobic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Anaerobic Respiration- This type of respiration takes place without the presence of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>If no oxygen is available after glycolysis, than the small amount of ATP that it produces without oxygen in this process is all that it will produce. No more ATP from this will be produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the pyruvate that is produced needs to go somehwere. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In humans and some bacteria- pyruvate is converted into lactate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In yeast- Pyruvate is converted to ethanol and CO2. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Aerobic Respiration- This type of respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate produced by glycolysis can use the oxygen to be oxidised to release more energy. </li></ul><ul><li>This process of oxidization takes place inside the mitochondria, and yields more than 10 times more energy output than that of glycolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The waste product of aerobic respiration is water and carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oxidation and Reduction <ul><li>Oxidation involves the loss of electrons from an element. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction involves a gain of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation frequently involves gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction frequently involves losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Steps of Glycolysis <ul><li>Glycolysis begins with the use of ATP to phosphorylate the sugar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose is to reduce activation energy for the following reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The fructose biphosphate produced is now split to form two molecules of triose phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the triose is then oxidized to glycerate-3-phosphate in a reaction that yields the energy to make ATP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen atoms are removed. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Steps of Glycolysis <ul><li>The hydrogen is now accepted by NAD+ to become NADH + H+. </li></ul><ul><li>The phosphate group is now transferred to ADP to produce more ATP and pyruvate. </li></ul><ul><li>This process occurs twice per glucose. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Structure of Mitochondria <ul><li>Many parts of aerobic cellular respiration occur in different areas of the mitochondria. These are the parts of a mitochondria: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Aerobic Respiration- Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Two molecules of pyruvate are produced in glycolysis per glucose molecule, and are absorbed into the mitochondrion where they can become fully oxidized. </li></ul><ul><li>The oxidation of pyruvate is done by the removal of pairs of hydrogen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen carriers NAD+ and FAD accept these hydrogen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Decarboxylations occur to remove carbon and oxygen to form carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aerobic Respiration- Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Link reaction- when pyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidized to form the acetyl group. </li></ul><ul><li>The link reaction involves one decarboxylation and one oxidation. </li></ul><ul><li>To complete the Krebs cycle, there are two more decarboxylations and four more oxidations. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy produced is chemical energy that can now be passed to the final part of aerobic respiration called oxidative phosphorylation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Krebs Cycle
  13. 13. Aerobic Respiration- Oxidative Phosphorylation <ul><li>ADP is phosphorylated to produce ATP using energy released by oxidation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADH + H+ is the main substance oxidized. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The energy is released in small steps so more energy can be trapped in ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanism used to couple the release of energy by oxidation is known as chemiosmosis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H+ moves across a membrane, down the concentration gradient. This releases the energy needed for ATP synthase to make ATP. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Aerobic Respiration- Chemiosmosis <ul><li>NADH + H+ supplies pairs of hydrogen atoms to the first carrier in the chain, with the NAD+ returning to the matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen atoms split to release two electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is released as the electons pass from carrier to carrier, and three of these use this energy to transfer protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space. </li></ul><ul><li>As electrons continue to flow, a concentration gradient of protons builds up. This proton gradient is a store of potential energy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Aerobic Respiration- Chemiosmosis
  16. 16. Chemiosmosis
  17. 17. Mitochondria Functions <ul><li>The structures of mitochondria are adapted to best help in the process of cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Cristae- Form a large surface area for the electron transport chain. </li></ul><ul><li>The inner-membrane space- accumulation of protons. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid matrix- Contains enzymes of the Krebs cycle. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Overview
  19. 19. Work Cited <ul><li>Photos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.abe.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/OnLineBiology/OLBB/www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/redox.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://library.thinkquest.org/27819/media/glycolysis.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://giantshoulders.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/mitochondria.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://uwstudentweb.uwyo.edu/a/ateeter/krebs_cycle.gif </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://archive.biosci.uga.edu/1996/spring_96/bio_104/images/7_3.jpg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://scienceblogs.com/worldsfair/Mitochondria.jpg </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Work Cited <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allot, A. & Mindorff, D. (2007). IB Diploma Programme Biology Course Companion. New York: Oxford University Programme. </li></ul></ul>