Strategy paper: Stories, Numbers & Conversations: Nokia's principles for social media marketing
 

Strategy paper: Stories, Numbers & Conversations: Nokia's principles for social media marketing

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This paper outlines Nokia's global strategy for social media. It was developed with Brilliant Noise, a digital strategy agency. It includes Nokia's six guiding principles for social media marketing, ...

This paper outlines Nokia's global strategy for social media. It was developed with Brilliant Noise, a digital strategy agency. It includes Nokia's six guiding principles for social media marketing, along with supporting case studies.

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Strategy paper: Stories, Numbers & Conversations: Nokia's principles for social media marketing Strategy paper: Stories, Numbers & Conversations: Nokia's principles for social media marketing Document Transcript

  • Stories,Numbers &ConversationsNokia’s principles for social media marketing
  • Contents Foreword 2 Foreword 3 Introduction: Social is the shift 3 shift 5 A world of networked change 4 change 6 Social media and the business of marketing marketing 7 6 Guiding principles for Nokia’s social media marketing marketing 13 12 Principle 1. Consider the social opportunity everything we do Principle 1. Consider the social opportunity in in everything we do 14 14 Principle 2. Engage better conversations with more consumers Principle 2. Engage inin better conversations with more consumers 16 18 Principle 3. Deliver personal experiences (be authentic) and earn trust Principle 3. Deliver personal experiences (be authentic) and earn trust 19 22 Principle 4. Sharing is more important than control Principle 4. Sharingis more important than control 21 26 Principle 5. Define clear objectives from the outset Principle 5. Define clear objectives from the outset 23 33 Principle 6. Invest and commit to social presences Principle 6. Invest and commit to social presences 26 30 Conclusion 36 Conclusion 28@brilliantnoisebrilliantnoise.com©2012 Brilliant Noise - all rights reserved2 3
  • Foreword “I felt it was important for The disruptive wave that is social media has swept through us to share much of what the business world at an incredible rate. It has prompted an the team found across accompanying deluge of commentary and thinking from the wider marketing, business and marketing strategists alike. social media and business community. Sharing is While theory is useful, nothing has the practical usefulness of such a vital part of the watching an organisation working things out for itself. In Nokia, social web – it felt like the we were fortunate to have that opportunity and are even more fortunate to have been given permission to share the results. right thing to do to have our thoughts and lessons Nokia wants to take social media beyond marketing tactics to driving transformational published in this way.” change throughout its whole organisation, becoming a social business. Working closely with Nokia insiders we set about articulating what the company was doing right in social and the challenges it faced. The result is an account of one organisation’s global strategic approach to social media, and the principles it has chosen to guide its efforts. There are elements here, challenges and opportunities, that are specifically about Nokia, but there is also a great deal that any organisation, of any size, in any sector, will identify with. Craig Hepburn We’re grateful to Nokia for allowing us to publish our observations and insights in this way. Craig Hepburn, Nokia’s Director, Digital & Social Media explained why: “I felt it was important for us to share much of what the team found across the wider marketing, social media and business community. Sharing is such a vital part of the social web – it felt like the right thing to do to have our thoughts and lessons published in this way..” It does seem appropriate that an organisation with ambitions to embrace social media so fully is happy to share what it has learned in this way. Nonetheless it is a bold step. We hope you find it useful. Antony Mayfield Founding Partner, Brilliant Noise1 2
  • Introduction: Social is the shift A world of networked changeToday, social media describes a set of deep challenges to the way marketing - and Looking back to the stories that have dominated the recent news agenda around the world,business - operates. It also presents powerful opportunities to reach and engage many have had an explicit social media element, or one that lies just below the surface.customers. It is with this perspective that Nokia has committed itself to adapt its thinking,approach, systems and practices.Social media describes, and is a key part of, a shift in Companies fall to public outrage; news cycles and political establishments are sweptpower and relationships between organisations and individuals, whether we are looking at along at speed by spontaneous movements on Twitter and Facebook; activists forcemedia and audiences, governments and citizens or brands and customers. The whole world transparency on states and organisations on a massive scale.is changing fast. In some political upheavals, social media played a role not just technically but culturally.Adapting to the social media world is an imperative for Nokia, and not least for those It changed people’s expectations of how they could organise, of what was possible. Eveninvolved in its marketing and communications functions. Nokia needs to understand where when authorities, in some cases, “turned off the internet,” the communities of dissent thatit is going, how it changes the game for its business, its brand and its products & services. had sprung up found other ways to communicate, connect and organise.Nokia already “does social” quite well. It is regularly recognised by analysts and industryexperts alike for its social media prowess. Nokia’s products and services are intrinsicallysocial, connecting people to each other and the web. What is social media?It has learned and done a lot, but when we can see change and opportunity coming at thescale and pace of the web and social media, companies like Nokia need to be restless, and What exactly “social media” is can be hard to pin down, but it is important that we beginlook ahead to anticipate where it could be, where it needs to be, in order to succeed in by outlining how Nokia thinks about it and what the organisation’s common definitionsincreasing brand awareness, consideration, preference, and loyalty. are. Some people talk about “social computing”, “social technologies” 1 or the “social web” instead of “social media”. Nokia sticks with the latter, because it is the most commonlyEventually social media will be so much a part of everything Nokia does that its employees used term to describe this change phenomenon.won’t need to think about it, it will run through every conversation and function of thebusiness. For now, however, social media represents a shift - a shift in media, commerce There are three elements, which the term “social media” covers in this booklet:and society - that demands a bold and ambitious response. Tools and platforms: Most commonly accepted definitions - from Wikipedia to dictionaries - characterise social media as a set of online tools and services. The state of the web and computing: The web itself is social - it is designed to be open and to connect. Social media is a way of describing computing as a many-to-many medium. A mindset: Social media brings about a need to think differently. The importance of connectedness, openness, collaboration and being useful to our networks become clear elements of success in a social media world. 1 Nigel Fenwick of Forrester puts a good case for “social technologies” in his blog post The Social Ecosystem (http://goo.gl/gSrJQ), but perhaps this even more appropriate for him as his audience is primarily CIOs3 4
  • Consumer behaviour has fundamentally changed, requiring Nokia to changeas well Social media and the business ofFor all of the uncertainty and noise about social media there are a few of things we can be marketingsure of: –– A new set of consumer behaviours have emerged and are here to stay. –– Social media usage is growing and will likely continue to do so. At its simplest, the challenge everyone faces with social media in marketing is that we need to re-learn our trade. Being expert in one-to-many marketing is not enough. Nokia, like –– Influence is shifting from organisations into networks and crowds. many organisations, needs to re-think its planning, investment, execution and measurement in order to succeed. This is because we are all now operating in a world where many-to-Nokia’s customers use social media in all kinds of ways. It is important to them as a way of many communication is increasingly important.finding information, staying informed, communicating, engaging with brands, communitiesof interest, and with each other, and getting things done. Conversely, social media enables Nokia’s efforts in social media need to be addressed at a systemic level. Nokia needs to re-Nokia to be closer to its customers, expand the reach of its messages, and pick up signals think how it does marketing, centring its focus on the things that have changed.or direct feedback that enable faster product innovation and improvement. Look at the marketing element of Nokia’s business - like so many other major brands - andBeyond the changes in the way Nokia’s customers are using social media, as an you might be convinced that this business was basically “advertising plus support”. Paidorganisation Nokia also needs to consider changes in its own behaviour. In every aspect messages dominate budgets, thinking and strategy for everything from brand building toof the business, social media has a role to play, even if it is just in helping teams to share specific product promotion, and everything in between. information efficiently, and collaborate more effectively. If social media is simply thought of as “ media”, a replacement or an adjunct of existing paid media systems of marketing, Nokia, and others will miss a bigger opportunity: to understand how the world is changing, how its consumers are changing and how the business itself can change too. So far, little has changed in the way Nokia tries to earn the attention of its consumers. Despite some of its effort in social media marketing, it has been relatively modest compared to the might of its broader marketing efforts.5 6
  • The Stakeholder Decision Journey CONSIDER One significant driver of a change in how Nokia thinks about marketing is the spread of the “stakeholder decision journey” as an idea and a useful model for thinking about marketing investment. For the past few decades, a great deal of marketing at Nokia and other major brands has been organised around the notion of a sales funnel. Today, the forces of technology and media change require companies to reassess the consumer’s relationship with brands and their products and services. They have also forced different kinds of communications to reach and affect consumer decisions at different points. BOND In his seminal article for the Harvard Business Review, McKinsey’s David C Edelman describes a new model to replace the funnel, called the Consumer Decision JourneyADVOCATE EVALUATE (which Nokia has adapted this to the “stakeholder decision journey” to include important non-consumer audiences) 2. Edelman describes three ways marketers can support ENJOY consumers in their journey: Edelman says that the “Consider” and “Buy” points in the journey are often over-emphasised by marketers, resulting in BUY over-investment in advertising and retail promotions to raise awareness. However, consumers take many cues from other consumers via social media, especially product reviews. Making it easier and even more desirable to spread positive feedback to other consumers can be more powerful than advertising. Social media has a potential role at every point across the consumer journey, especially during what the model calls the “Advocate” stage. Marketers have under-valued, and therefore under-invested in activity which will encourage, facilitate and spread consumer advocacy. Social media marketing can provide Nokia with tools that can help to redress this imbalance. 2 Branding in the Digital Age: You’re Spending Your Money in All the Wrong Places, Consumer Decision Journey model by David C Edelman - Harvard Business Review, December 2010 - used with the kind permission of McKinsey & Co. 7 8
  • Nokia can also take this idea and extend it to other important stakeholders - like potential What does social media mean for Nokia as a whole, beyond the marketinghires, developers, retailers - thinking about the way that the people within the business team?build relationships and trust with partners in its product and business ecosystems. Nokia has started to explain social media in terms that make sense to non-marketingNokia’s brand, and its reputation, is an outcome of building trust in the relationship with specialists. When the jargon and technical language of marketing and the web are strippedits consumers. When they look for Nokia and try to communicate with the organisation in away there are three their employees talk about:social media Nokia needs to be there. It is an inexcusable, missed opportunity if it is not. Stories: The elaboration of the large and small ways in which Nokia and its products andIt is across the Stakeholder Decision Journey that Nokia must structure its marketing services are changing people’s lives. Content assets, insights, folklore, the scattered matterefforts, treating every touch-point with the consumer - from the first brand message they that makes up what the brand is both for its employees and its customersStories bring tosee to contacting support staff - as an opportunity to reinforce the Nokia brand, and foster life the essence of Nokia’s brand for customers and employees alike.more attachment to its product and services. Conversations: The connections with customers and other influencers online; thePerhaps most of all, the opportunity lies in the important role that social media can play in dialogue that keeps us open and honest; the conversations between customers that“advocacy” - people who have positive experiences with Nokia products and services and we can learn from.want to share that enjoyment and satisfaction with others. For Nokia to have these kindsof connections with its consumers greatly expands the opportunity for word-of-mouth Numbers: The data and insights that flow from Nokia into the social web and vice versa;messages to spread further and faster. the measures and evaluation methods to understand what is happening and how decisions can be made.Social media in the Stakeholder Decision Journey These three are a loose but useful construct with which to think about social media and theMarketing is where Nokia’s organisation encounters the social web first. So the marketing team value it can deliver. At the planning, execution and evaluation stages, Nokia must look atat Nokia have an important role to play in two ways beyond the normal functions of marketing. its social media marketing activity through each of these lenses. Where are the stories that will be valued and passed onto others? What conversations are taking place, how do theyFirst, Nokia’s marketing teams can practically support other parts of the business with the need to be supported, how can the connections be sustained? Where are the numbers, theinsights they gain from actively listening to consumers in social media. data and insights that help the people within Nokia to understand what is happening, the opportunities to learn and adapt, and the impact on the business?Second, those teams can pass on the lessons they learn about how to work with socialmedia: what’s needed in terms of skills and capabilities, how to build networks and There is an echo from the opening of Guy Kawasaki’s amazing book, The Art of the Start:communities, and how to effectively manage many-to-many communications. How to Start Anything Anywhere 3. Kawasaki, one of the leading lights in the original Apple Macintosh project and subsequently a venture capitalist, applies the Silicon Valley start-upNokia’s marketing teams must focus on the Stakeholder Decision Journey in their planning mind-set to any new endeavour in his book.for social media marketing. At the same time they must remain mindful of the need tosupport the rest of the business, and the product development teams. At the outset, he says that in any successful endeavour you will find meaning and mantra. The meaning is the insight, the imperative for action, and the mantra is the guiding thoughtIn social media marketing, Nokia should be looking for two valuable behaviours as signs that people repeat to themselves to help shape their actions. For those in the marketing(and causes of) success: teams at Nokia, the meaning must be “social is the shift”, while the mantra should be “stories, conversations, numbers...”. –– More interaction between Nokia employees and its consumers –– More consumers talking to each other about NokiaBoth of these behaviours support and enable advocacy and recommendation, ultimately 3 See the website of the book for more http://www.guykawasaki.com/the-art-of-the-start/the most effective kind of marketing. They are both also evidence of a growing ecosystemof conversations and relationships.9 10
  • Guiding principles for Nokia’s social media marketing In this section we cover Nokia’s six guiding principles for its current and future activity in social media. For each principle we will describe the organisation’s ambition, the way it should play out in its behaviour and marketing approach, some best-practice guidance for Nokia’s marketing teams, and some illustrative examples of the ways in which Nokia is already using each principle. Nokia’s guiding principles 1. Consider the social opportunity in everything we do 2. Engage in better conversations with more consumers 3. Deliver personal experiences, be authentic, and earn trust 4. Sharing is more important than control 5. Define clear objectives from the outset 6. Invest and commit to social presences Nokia’s employees use the principles to help in the following ways: A starting point for strategy: These principles can be used as a starting point for thinking about how social media can be used within the organisation’s marketing campaigns, and it’s “always-on” consumer engagement activities. Nudges for planning: Almost all of Nokia’s marketing efforts will, in some way, involve social media. These principles can act as a memory-aid during planning. They will support people within the business to consider the social dimension, to reveal opportunities to harvest and use more stories, to gather more numbers, and to create more conversations through marketing. Challenge existing tools: Nokia’s employees should throw these phrases into discussions to allow time to stop and think about the decisions that are being made. They may not resolve every argument, but they will help focus on what is most important (if in doubt, that’s the customer).11 12
  • Principle 1. Consider the social opportunity in everything we do Social media should never be an afterthought in any marketing activity - it needs to be a consideration from the outset. Right at the start of the planning phase, marketers need to ask what they can learn about their consumers from social media, what role the social web will play at each stage of their experience of the brand and what are they out to achieve by way of brand or product or service awareness, consideration, or preference. Consumer experience involves bringing social media into what Nokia produces, markets, and sells: from handsets to services; listening to consumers; providing information and support when and where the consumer is most receptive to being engaged. But also taking this principle beyond the marketing team; embedding it throughout the organisation. Every time the organisation has contact with the consumer, every product it produces, in the way it recruits, social media will have a role to play. This means that: –– Nokia’s employees need to understand how to initiate relevant conversations with consumers rather than broadcast, or speak at them. –– Nokia’s products and services can often be inherently social, enabling people, through its technology, to have conversations, share stories among their networks of friends, colleagues and families. –– Nokia’s employees need to understand social as a mind set - authentic, useful conversations with consumers - not simply as platforms. What this means for Nokia’s marketing Nokia’s marketing function plays a critical role within the company, from informing product concepts driven by consumer research and insight, to generating product awareness, consideration, and demand, to actively engaging customers throughout their Nokia experience in order that they feel more connected to Nokia and its products and services. In many cases, social has been an important product and service design consideration for Nokia. For example, Nokia Life Tools, a collection of information services about agriculture, health, education and entertainment delivered by SMS to customers in developing markets, was developed with an understanding of how it would be used socially to connect individuals to information and to each other. The service has grown at an exponential rate, driven largely by word of mouth recommendation.13 14
  • After a purchase, Nokia is committed to help its customer’s get the most out of their experience, including effectively resolving customer issues, taking advantage of the myriad mobile and web-based services that complement their mobile device, and support their ability and desire to talk about and share their Nokia experience, and possibly recommend Nokia to others. The use of social media is at the core of these endeavours for Nokia There are other ways that Nokia has developed a social perspective in its interaction with its consumers, and other stakeholder communities, as well as within the organisation itself: –– Online professional and peer reviews (expanding the reach of user-generated content) –– Online customer assistance and support (live chat in customer care) –– Enabling easy online purchasing of Nokia products (social commerce in Facebook) –– Talent acquisition (dedicated recruitment staff who are expert in social media) –– Crowd-sourcing (soliciting ideas for mobile innovations from internal and external communities) –– Developer engagement (programs that crowd-source innovations to assist in key challenges faced by developing markets and support to commercialise them) Case study: Nokia’s Tron sponsorship In 2010 Nokia sponsored the Disney box-office smash Tron with Nokia devices featured in the movie (a sequel to the cult 80’s classic). Nokia made the very most of its sponsorship through point-of-sale, digital and ATL (above the line) promotions but also put social right at the heart of the project. For example, Nokia’s access to exclusive content, such as a Nokia version of the trailer, was used to inspire a “takeover” of key Nokia social presences (Facebook, twitter and blog) by the fictional Encom business that features in the movie. Users from the target gaming audience were challenged to solve clues left in binary and Konami Code (appealing to the movie’s fans) to unlock the exclusive content. The activity not only drove over 150% increase in daily activity on Nokia’s Facebook page, it attracted a new audience: 70% of those engaged in the Tron campaign on Facebook had never spoken about Nokia before. There were over 80,000 participants in this conversation during a single day at the height of activity.15 16
  • Principle 2. Engage in better conversations with more consumers Important elements of the consumer’s experience with Nokia take place within social media. These are the places where consumers review Nokia’s products for the benefit of others, where they share their experiences of the product and the brand, both positive and negative. Everyone in the business should listen to and be involved in this conversation. Nokia is starting to empower its employees to participate in conversations in social media in order to maximise the value of those direct interactions for both the communities of Nokia users and the business itself. Nokia acknowledges that the conversation must begin with actively listening to what is being said in social places. Marketing and communications are the natural places to begin with social media, but this is not the only area within Nokia that needs to engage in social. The social media teams within Nokia are providing value across the business by sharing their learnings with other teams and helping Nokia employees across the organisation connect with consumer communities.. Whether it is a support representative helping a frustrated customer or an engineer listening to the heartfelt plea for a new feature from a fan of their service, engaging in dialogue with consumers as a common operating principle is something Nokia is moving towards quickly. What this means for Nokia’s marketing The challenge is to empower employees to engage in direct conversations with consumers, without confusing them with conflicting information. Similarly, Nokia needs to avoid bewildering people within the organisation by asking them to use social media when they aren’t comfortable with representing Nokia in the social web. Education and support is the key This has started with the roll-out of Socializer, a system using listening tools to provide a real-time action framework for marketing, Agora (a 6 plasma-screen installation showing visualisations of real-time conversations on the social web), and powerful reporting and analytics tools. (See box out below for more detail.) It is also a system to help Nokia to listen and respond quickly to consumers. It focuses on the most significant conversations about a variety of hot topics – for example battery life – and brings it to the attention of the right people within the organisation, in real-time, to respond and react. Initially launching in a few countries, the aim is to get the most appropriate person to respond17 18
  • directly to Nokia’s consumers on any given topic. Who that person is will depend on the The Engagement layer serves a dual purpose: 1) it gives Nokia’s employees information in subject – it could be anyone from an expert in a specific technology area to a customer real time, so they can take action in a timely manner with a human voice. Invariably, when care representative. talking to customers, Nokia’s marketing and communications teams require information and input from other teams across the organisation: design, product development, By putting Agora in open spaces around the company, such as in the cafeteria area at the product marketing, developer support, customer service, etc. This layer of the Socializer headquarters in Espoo, Finland, Nokia is giving a public demonstration of its willingness tool provides the infrastructure to do this in a transparent way, encouraging collaboration to listen, and signalling to its employees that this is something that is encouraged within between different departments. the business’s culture. The Socializer process is transparent, so everyone within Nokia can see who is responding to consumer queries. This acknowledges the people who are most 3. Analyser – this layer of the system provides employees with access to listening and active in social media and encourages employees to “wear their achievements on their reporting tools (powered by Radian6 and other monitoring tools). It does the “heavy- sleeve”, by earning badges on their Socializer profiles. lifting” work of data analysis so that Nokia’s marketing and communications teams can understand trends, issues, opportunities and patterns in conversation and behaviour in the social web. Nokia’s Socializer system – what is it? Nokia’s Socializer system is designed to give employees the right social media information, Case study: Nokia’s participation in Social Media Week in the right format, at the right time, so that they can take ownership of and action a direct-to-consumer response. It is how Nokia seeks to support employees to make human Nokia is the global sponsor of Social Media Week, which takes place in 12 cities around the connections with customers in social spaces on the web. world. In 2011 Nokia had employees on the ground in 6 of these cities. The organisation used the event as an opportunity to develop its “random acts of kindness” approach to Socializer has three layers: creating advocacy. This is a strand of activity where the marketing team listens to what customers and influencers are saying on personal level – things like missing an flight or a 1. Visualisation – powered by the Agora tool, displayed on plasma screens in three key toothache – and looking for relevant opportunities to respond in a human way. locations in Finland, UK and US. The screens display visual data to help employees see and understand the conversation between Nokia and its consumers. They show data about So for example, a blogger with a nasty toothache was sent a dental health kit and a Nokia’s own content (blogs, Twitter, Facebook and so on); data about customer responses friendly “get well soon” message from Nokia. Meanwhile Tweeters were asked to use the and their own content (images, videos and so on created on Nokia phones); data about #NokiaConnects hashtag and random consumers were given small gifts such as pizza conversation about Nokia’s products; data on Nokia’s overall share of conversation in deliveries or even new mobile phones, depending on their situation. relation to key competitors. Developing this theme, attendees at various events were invited to check in to the Nokia The visualisation layer serves a dual purpose: to keep everyone in the core communications vending machine, using Foursquare. The machine gave anyone checking in treats – ranging areas up-to-speed on current conversations, but also to educate and inspire Nokia’s wider from sweets to the latest Nokia phones. group of employees to the increasing volume of commentary happening across the social web. The Agora screens say: “this is how we are engaging in smarter and more responsive 500 people checked in to the vending machine and the reach of the #NokiaConnects tag conversations with our customers”. was estimated at 2.1 million Twitter users. 2. Engagement – this layer is a real time action framework to enable employee A connected content strategy meant that the real world interactions – sending small gifts engagement across Nokia. Keyword driven alerts are created by the Socializer system randomly – became digital content assets that could be used across all of Nokia’s social when there is a change in the average volume of conversation around a given topic. The media platforms, greatly amplifying the message and the conversation. Nokia employee who receives the alert can then: analyse the data – to understand what’s happening and how urgent the situation is, choose to “claim” the action to resolve the situation or capitalise on the opportunity, and invite colleagues to join the conversation and contribute to the action plan.19 20
  • Principle 3. Deliver personal experiences (be authentic) and earn trust Trust is the lifeblood of any brand. Each step the consumer takes in a deepening relationship with a brand is made as a consequence of trust. This reaches its extreme at the moment a consumer advocates a brand. For Nokia, trust comes through building one to one relationships, but also by using networks and technology to scale personal experiences for its consumers. Connections can come with an individual consumer via a “random act of kindness” that will surprise and delight them (see the case study for Principle 2 for further details). It might create a story that may spread through their network of friends and colleagues. Similarly, when Becky Gloyne, Nokia’s Global Talent Manager connects with people in LinkedIn Groups and on Twitter who are interested in Nokia as an employer, she shares news and information about what working for the company is like. She is able to create a personal experience with a multitude of people using the network effects of social media. Both of these examples start with a personal interaction, but have wider impact and influence, because they are personal in tone and intent and therefore suited to social media. The nature of social media is that these interactions can be shared with a much wider group of people. On the social web you ‘give love to get love’. By engaging in authentic, relevant conversations with individuals you can generate a sense of “kudos” or goodwill that will spread via the network effect intrinsic to the social web. In one-to-many (traditional) media and marketing, messages were designed for reach. In the one-to-one and many-to-many modes of communication, these kinds of messages sound hollow, inauthentic and are frequently ignored. Social media marketing is not designed for a notional individual or group, but for people you can connect with. In fact, you may already be connected with them. So Nokia will be focusing its energies on helping its employees use a conversational tone that is humble and authentic.21 22
  • What this means for Nokia’s marketing The tone and mode of communication that comes from being personal, from acting with a genuine desire to earn the trust of consumers online one by one, is very different. It is much more subtle. It’s not about “big splashes” and peaks of activity. In this new, personalised world of communication, the ideal approach is made in small consistent moves, adding up to a greater shift overall. Returning to the Stakeholder Decision Journey (see section entitled Social Media and the Business of Marketing), the role that social plays in earning and encouraging advocacy is perhaps its most significant contribution to marketing and the business as a whole. Making it personal for Nokia is essentially about flipping priorities. Nokia is moving from being focused on the potential of a message to the potential of every single consumer experience with the brand. In this way, Nokia can create a personal story, and potentially an advocate for its brand. Nokia’s work here has already begun. Within Nokia’s marketing community, the organisation regularly connects with around 5,000 influencers in its online network already. On an individual consumer and product level, Nokia has begun to deliver personalised experiences too. Nokia has a community management team who are focused on engaging directly with consumers. It also has the Nokia Connect team who are working to engage in conversations with influencers around the world. Case study: Nokia Follow Friday Follow Friday is a tradition among Twitter users where (each Friday) people recommend people to follow, attaching the #FF tag to their Tweets. The first special Nokia Follow Friday (#FF) stemmed from a social media team day out in Espoo in Finland. The planned activity was to spend a day learning to become graffiti artists. There was an opportunity to share this experience with a larger group than the social media team itself. The team created a huge, visually engaging graffiti art mural and included the Twitter names of a few dedicated and engaged Nokia advocates on Twitter. A photo of the mural was posted on Twitter to mark the first official Nokia Follow Friday. The response from those who were tagged in this way was extremely positive. It is estimated that the reach of the conversation around this activity on Twitter was 1 million interactions. The cost of this activity was zero – since it was content generated as part of a team day that had already been organised. Since then, similar Follow Friday stunts in the real world – FF word games, FF sticky note art – have been used to generate digital content and conversations with much success. This is a simple and authentic way for Nokia to show its appreciation to fans, build stronger relationships and show them that there is more to Nokia than a global corporation.23 24
  • Principle 4. Sharing is more important than control To succeed in social media Nokia understands that control is less important than sharing, being open, and creating connections and value in its ecosystem. This principle of sharing, and therefore letting go of control, also applies across wider social networks with consumers, partners and peers. Nokia’s culture is one of openness, transparency and where interaction and conversation in social spaces on behalf of the brand are encouraged. Nokia believes there are commercial benefits to letting go, opening up, being open to consumer feedback, listening, and responding in a human way. Consumers want this kind of interaction. In return, Nokia enjoys the benefits: greater customer insight and more profound and long lasting relationships. A culture of sharing allows Nokia to do a better job. For Nokia, “marketing” is no longer about controlling the customer journey on its own terms. In the era of one-to-many, broadcast dominated marketing, the emphasis was on controlling the consumer experience of the brand. Now Nokia must put the emphasis on being useful in its networks, amplifying or linking-out to content that adds value to its ecosystem when and where appropriate. Making sharing a part of its culture, in marketing and more broadly within the company, means developing it as a skill, an instinct, a kind of digital literacy. Nokia’s employees must develop an approach to sharing which makes them say “what are we not going to share?”, rather than “what can we share?”. This is about a shift in mindset, from the old way of working to a new way of working. Not everyone in Nokia understands this yet. Those leading the culture shift at Nokia require the support of the leadership team to help make change pervasive. When Stephen Elop became CEO of Nokia, he used the organisation’s internal micro- blogging platform, Socialcast, to begin a conversation with employees. The platform had not been widely used up until this point. His public endorsement of the tool – and his open and honest conversation within it– sent a clear signal to everyone in the business. Usage doubled in the month following his first post. What this means for Nokia’s marketing Sharing must be the default. In the age of the social web, it is humble - and intensely pragmatic - for an organisation like Nokia to acknowledge that it cannot control everything that happens to its data, content, or even its brand, once they are released into the25 26
  • networks of the web. On the web, everything is open and the risks of being inauthentic and dishonest are disastrous for a brand. There are infamous examples from other organisations where fakery has been exposed. The damage to these brands continue to this day... For example, Nokia can’t afford to overstate the performance of a new device or service, a trap that many companies easily fall into: critics (and fans) will call the business out online. Over-promising, evasion and groundless boasting are behaviours that might have been tacitly celebrated in the ‘Mad Men’ era of advertising, and are still exhibited by companies even within Nokia’s industry. In the age of social networks these are toxic, corrosive and self-defeating behaviours. Nokia is embracing these changes by encouraging a culture of sharing and openness in its marketing. For example, during the launch of Nokia’s Lumia portfolio, fans on Facebook were invited to upload pictures that they felt illustrated the campaign theme: “the Amazing Every Day”. By uploading their own pictures they granted Nokia the rights to use them as part of the ongoing campaign. And in return, Nokia gave away prizes and the “kudos” of exposure to a global audience. Here the “give love to get love” principle is clear. Nokia’s consumers get recognition and response for their contribution, and Nokia gets high quality, authentic campaign material at very low cost. It’s liberating, in a sense, to leave behind the broadcast media illusions and pretences of control and insist that we have no option other than to be completely open, clear and authentic. Case study: Nokia Shorts 2011 Nokia sponsored a short film competition in partnership with Edinburgh Film Festival and Vimeo, and online social community focused on video creation and sharing. Participants were asked to submit short films created exclusively on Nokia’s N8 devices. Eight finalists were selected and each were given $5000 to make a short film. The winner, Splitscreen: A Love Story, has to date received millions of views online at the time of writing. More than this, the level of conversation about the N8 has significantly and permanently increased since the competition. The rules about content were few, and Nokia had no idea what kind of short films would end up winning. By taking the risk of opening up the competition instead of simply commissioning films to showcase the N8, the results were more authentic and creative. The people who entered the competition spread buzz about all of the films – and by association the N8 – through their own networks.27 28
  • 29 5. Principle 5. Define clear objectives from the outset Nokia’s success in social media is underpinned by two things: setting clear objectives and understanding how to measure results. Nokia believes that there are two key benefits to its social activity: –– Benefits to brand and product perception: These can be measured by looking at increases in brand perception, product consideration, product preference, quality of customer support and responsiveness, and advocacy. –– Commercial value-add: This can be measured by looking at increased online traffic generation that culminates in a commercial transaction, both online and offline. In this way the business can put an immediate and tangible financial value on social activity. Starting with these clear objectives for social media is critically important. An organisation like Nokia must always know exactly why it is taking one action over another. It must understand the outcomes it is working towards. This allows it to see when things are working and when they aren’t, through the use of clear measurement. Since programmes are designed with this measurement in mind from the outset, there’s an in-built flexibility and expectation that they can and will change as a result of this feedback. We can get caught up in the minutiae of metrics and measurement very easily, especially when, with social media, there is (a) so much data available, and (b) so much uncertainty and controversy in the marketing industry about how to measure effectiveness. A useful way to shake out the cobwebs and preconceptions about measurement is to take a look at how academics think about the whole subject of measurement. 30
  • Margaret A Miller of the University of Virginia offers the following insight 4 : What this means for Nokia’s marketing “ Every time we quote a statistic we are validating the choices made by those As author and commentator Brian Solis of Altimeter has eloquently stated, there is no one that created them, choices that reflect values and beliefs that we may or may single measure of social media ROI. The idea of the ROI of social media marketing is one not share. that is pursued, grail-like. The absence of a single metric that can tell you the value of your marketing dollar (or Pound, or Yuan, or Rupee or Euro) is held up as a reason to doubt the Measurement systems are undisputedly useful. ” value of social media as a marketing activity at all. First: they permit us to compare… performance Nokia’s social media marketing must align to the business’s strategic programmes and initiatives. This means that traditional business performance measures - recruiting more Second: they help us identify good practice and progress effectively, sustaining customer lifetime value, innovating new products and services - are what social media serves to support. Nokia avoids tactical thinking, such as Facebook Third: quantification results in a common currency... within a system ‘Likes’ as an end-goal, or measures which in reality signify nothing other than shallow reach at a campaign level, by tracking measurement via its “Three As” framework.. Fourth: numbers are a way to tell a complicated story succinctly Focusing on the benefits of social activity to brand, to product, to customer relationships In setting up and using measurement systems in social media for any type of activity, it is and advocacy and, of course, to sales, has allowed Nokia to create the right metrics which useful to return to these purposes. reflect the business’s real objectives. Nokia can usefully apply its “stories, conversations, numbers,” to the subject of developing goals and measurement. It should consider how its metrics are helping it to gain insight, throughout specific pieces of activity, about each of these elements. Case study: Nokia’s success with social commerce Thinking like this can help the business to avoid falling into the trap of focusing on the Nokia has always been dissatisfied with the idea that ROI for social media activity is hard biggest, simplest metric. In the days of broadcast media, the reach of a TV show (ratings) to measure. For example, its work to generate referral traffic to commercial domains or a publication (circulation) was useful short hand for how many people paid messages directly from Facebook has proved that ROI is tangible and measurable. The next step in might reach. In social media, the complexity of the medium means Nokia needs to pay connecting the value of its social activity directly to the generation of revenue. attention to a much wider set of metrics. For example, Nokia’s Facebook has specific objectives: For instance, many marketers have become entranced with the number of Facebook ‘Likes’ their brand or product page has. In fact, unless there is interaction with consumers on the –– Building awareness – measured by traffic page, a high number of Likes can be next to meaningless. The value is with the quality of conversations and engagement with consumers above the reach. –– Engagement – measured, for example, by the number of downloads of an app On the web, everything is connected. There are two billion users of the web. The potential –– Sales – measured, for example, by the number of pre-orders for a new phone reach of anything you post anywhere on the web – be it on a social network or a common website - is two billion. Results are encouraging: the promotions tab is the most popular after the Wall (the main page) itself. The average click through rate for a promotion on the Nokia global Facebook Potential reach is, therefore, meaningless. Engagement, conversation, connections, and page is 13% and the Lumia’s The X Factor / One Direction promotion generated a 37% click actual reach, these are the things that Nokia needs to value and measure. This is reflected through rate. In comparison, a typical banner ad click through rate is 0.1%. in Nokia’s measurement framework, which tracks metrics through three key stages of behaviour: Awareness, Appreciation and Action (the “Three As” framework). 4 Mastering Measurement - Margaret A Miller, University of Virginia, Change magazine, July/August 200531 32
  • Principle 6. Invest and commit to social presences Social media is far from free. It requires different models of investment and measurement of return than the paid media models that have been at the centre of the traditional marketing approach. When social media is not fully understood by marketers, they sometimes see it as free or at least very low cost. Presence requires commitment. That means planning to sustain a blog, social network profile or community presence, often over long periods. That may not be expensive, but it is certainly not free. Nokia acknowledges that the shift to social demands presence and long-term commitment. It invests accordingly. Currently there is investment in the tools and infrastructure that will shift the culture and approach within the organisation significantly and permanently. Examples include the Socializer system, local community management teams around the world, and a global social media team. What this means for Nokia’s marketing There will always be campaigns in marketing, but campaigns are not enough in social media. Nokia can’t just show up when it has something to say or something to sell – conversation in social media requires more than this. It requires a persistent presence, for Nokia’s employees to be there when its customers want to talk to them, when they have something to say to them. It means “always-on” listening and response. One implication of maintaining presences rather than just bursts of campaign activity is that more investment should be put into platforms and technology to help Nokia maintain a meaningful presence in social media, to keep the conversations alive, as it were. This also suggests that resourcing of Nokia’s marketing activity will in the future rely less on outsourcing to agencies and more on developing in-house expertise, especially in areas like editorial (stories), community management (conversations) and data analysis (numbers). Nokia is already investing heavily in these areas. Another compelling aspect of social media and marketing is using paid media within social spaces to stimulate conversation and possible engagement. In the past year Nokia has deployed a growing number of highly successful advertising campaigns in social media and expects to see more as it learns and refines ideas about what works in these spaces.33 34
  • Conclusion Case study: @NokiaConnects advocacy activity on Twitter One example of investing for the long term, which is currently happening at Nokia, can be seen in the global Nokia Connects program. As part of this strand of work, Nokia’s global team of community managers are monitoring Twitter to look for opportunities to open up conversations with existing and potential advocates. In one case, an influential blogger in India tweeted to his followers that he was fed up Social media is a vital part of what it means to be a citizen, a consumer, an organisation, a with his new phone, which was prone to break. As a former Nokia consumer he wondered brand today. aloud to his followers whether he should think about switching back his loyalties. The @ NokiaConnects team spotted this and contacted him, asking him if he would like to trial a Social media, social technology, will continue to evolve, mutate and bring new new Nokia phone for a couple weeks, no strings attached. opportunities and risks to companies like Nokia. There is no option but to take the risks and carefully observe and learn from failures in as transparent a manner as is possible for a This single contact generated a very positive outcome. The blogger himself was delighted large organisation. to have been contacted. He liked the new phone and wrote several blog posts about it. His authentic, earned advocacy reached a wide group of people online – people that Nokia Nokia has three factors at work which may lead to significant success in adapting its wouldn’t or couldn’t have reached directly itself. marketing approach to social media: –– Social media is a priority in its marketing and is building a business case for more investment. –– The spread of the Stakeholder Decision Journey model will help marketers to understand the importance of social media (and its earned media partner disciplines, content strategy, word-of-mouth marketing and search engine optimisation). –– Guiding principles: its articulation and adoption of the six principles outlined in this document will help guide decision making and strategy around the world. The approach that Nokia is taking is interesting because it is approaching its success so far with humility and recognising that the primary challenge now is to scale “bright spots” - as Chip and Dan Heath call them - of successful change in marketing and social media and scale them across a global organisation. We hope you find the lessons and ideas they have allowed us to share useful.35 36
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