Workplace Emotions%2 C Attitudes%2 C %26 Stress


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Workplace Emotions%2 C Attitudes%2 C %26 Stress

  1. 1. Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress Chapter FourMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Serious Fun at Cxtec Cxtec employees live up to their company values, which include having fun at work.  Helium-filled balloons adorn the office.  Work-life balance.  Miniature golf tournaments along the hallway. Courtesy of CXtec 4-2
  3. 3. Emotions Defined Psychological, behavioral, and physiological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness. Most emotions occur without our awareness Courtesy of CXtec 4-3
  4. 4. Attitudes versus Emotions Attitudes EmotionsJudgments about an Experiences related to anattitude object attitude objectBased mainly on Based on innate and learnedrational logic responses to environmentUsually stable for days Usually experienced foror longer seconds or less 4-4
  5. 5. Traditional Model of AttitudesPurely cognitive approach Beliefs: established perceptions of attitude object Feelings: calculation of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object Behavioral intentions: motivation to act in response to the attitude objectProblem: Ignores important role of emotions inshaping attitudes 4-5
  6. 6. Emotions, Attitudes and Behavior Perceived Environment Cognitive Emotional process process Beliefs Emotional EpisodesAttitude Feelings Behavioral Intentions Behavior 4-6
  7. 7. Role of Emotions in AttitudesFeelings toward attitude object influenced bycumulative emotional episodes toward itWe ‘listen in’ on our emotions while thinkingthrough what we like or dislikeCognitive and emotional processes don’t alwaysagree with each otherEmotions also directly affect behavior e.g. facial expression 4-7
  8. 8. Generating Positive Emotions at Work The emotions-attitudes- behavior model illustrates that attitudes are shaped by ongoing emotional experiences. Thus, successful companies actively create more positive than negative emotional episodes. Courtesy of CXtec 4-8
  9. 9. Cognitive DissonanceA state of anxiety that occurs when an individual’sbeliefs, feelings and behaviors are inconsistentwith one anotherMost common when behavior is: known to others done voluntarily can’t be undone 4-9
  10. 10. Emotional Labor and Emotional Intelligence Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and StressMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Emotional LaborEffort, planning and control needed to expressorganizationally desired emotions duringinterpersonal transactions.Emotional labor higher when job requires: frequent and long duration display of emotions displaying a variety of emotions displaying more intense emotions 4-11
  12. 12. Emotional Labor Across CulturesDisplaying or hiding emotions varies acrosscultures Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in Korea, Japan, Austria Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt, Spain, Russia 4-12
  13. 13. Emotional Labor ChallengesDifficult to display expected emotions accurately,and to hide true emotionsEmotional dissonance Conflict between true and required emotions Potentially stressful with surface acting Less stress through deep acting 4-13
  14. 14. Emotional Intelligence DefinedAbility to perceive and express emotion,assimilate emotion in thought,understand and reason with emotion,and regulate emotion in oneself andothers 4-14
  15. 15. Model of Emotional IntelligenceHighest Relationship Managing other people’s emotions Management Understanding and sensitivity to the Social Awareness feelings, thoughts, and situation of others Controlling or redirecting our internal Self-management states, impulses, and resources Understanding your own emotions,Lowest Self-awareness strengths, weaknesses, values, and motives 4-15
  16. 16. Emotional Intelligence Competencies Self Other (personal competence) (social competence)Recognitionof emotions Self-awareness Social awarenessRegulation Relationshipof emotions Self-management management 4-16
  17. 17. Improving Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence is a set of competencies(aptitudes, skills)Can be learned, especially through coachingEI increases with age -- maturity 4-17
  18. 18. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and StressMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Job SatisfactionA persons evaluation of his or her job and workcontextA collection of attitudes about specific facets ofthe job 4-19
  20. 20. EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction • Leaving the situation Exit • Quitting, transferring • Changing the situation Voice • Problem solving, complaining • Patiently waiting for the situationLoyalty to improve • Reducing work effort/qualityNeglect • Increasing absenteeism 4-20
  21. 21. Job Satisfaction and PerformanceHappy workers are somewhat more productiveworkers, but: 1. General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviors 2. Job performance affects satisfaction only when rewarded 3. Depends on employee control of job performance (e.g. limited in assembly lines) 4-21
  22. 22. Happy Staff = Happy Customers at Wegmans Courtesy of Wegmans Food MarketsWegmans Food Market enjoys strong customer loyalty and lowemployee turnover by keeping employees happy. Shown here, CEODanny Wegman meets with staff during a new store opening. 4-22
  23. 23. Job Satisfaction and Customers Courtesy of Wegmans Food MarketsJob satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviors towardcustomersLess employee turnover, resulting in more consistent and familiarservice 4-23
  24. 24. Organizational CommitmentAffective commitment Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organizationContinuance commitment Belief that staying with the organization serves your personal interests 4-24
  25. 25. Building Organizational CommitmentJustice and support Organizational comprehension Apply humanitarian values  Know firm’s past/present/future Support employee wellbeing  Open and rapid communicationShared values Employee involvement Values congruence  Employees feel part of company  Involvement demonstrates trustTrust Employees trust org leaders Job security supports trust 4-25
  26. 26. Workplace Stress and Stress Management Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and StressMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. What is Stress?An adaptive response to a situation that isperceived as challenging or threatening to theperson’s well-beingA complex emotion that prepares us for fight orflightEustress vs. distress 4-27
  28. 28. General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Alarm Reaction Resistance Exhaustion Normal Level ofResistance 4-28
  29. 29. Consequences of Distress Cardiovascular disease,Physiological hypertension, headaches Work performance, accidents, Behavioral absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions Dissatisfaction, moodiness,Psychological depression, emotional fatigue 4-29
  30. 30. What are Stressors?Stressors are the causes of stress -- anyenvironmental condition that places a physical oremotional demand on the person.Some common workplace stressors include: Harassment an incivility Work overload Low task control 4-30
  31. 31. Psychological HarassmentRepeated and hostile or unwantedconduct, verbal comments, actionsor gestures, that affect anemployees dignity or psychologicalor physical integrity and that resultin a harmful work environment forthe employee 4-31
  32. 32. Sexual HarassmentUnwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on workenvironment or job performanceQuid pro quo employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relationsHostile work environment an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment 4-32
  33. 33. Work Overload and Task Control StressorsWork Overload Stressor  Working more hours, more intensely than one can cope  Affected by globalization, consumerism, ideal worker normTask Control Stressor  Due to lack control over how and when tasks are performed  Stress increases with responsibility 4-33
  34. 34. Individual Differences in StressDifferent threshold levels ofresistance to stressorUse different stress copingstrategiesResilience to stress Due to personality and coping strategiesWorkaholism Highly involved in work © Photodisc. With permission. Inner pressure to work Low enjoyment of work 4-34
  35. 35. Managing Work-Related StressRemove the stressor Minimize/remove stressorsWithdraw from the stressor Vacation, rest breaksChange stress perceptions Positive self-concept, humorControl stress consequences Healthy lifestyle, fitness, wellnessReceive social support 4-35
  36. 36. Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress Chapter FourMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.