FOODADDITIVES Dr.J.N.Naidu Professor &HODDepartment of Biochemistry
Why use Additives ? Food produced on the large scale that is needed tosupply supermarkets and other food shops has to betransported and stored before it is consumed . It has to stay in top condition over a much longerperiod of time than home cooked food. Additives are used so that these foods still have aconsistently high quality.
What are food additives?• They are chemicals ,or ingredients which are addedto food products for maintaining their stability.• Additives are artificial or natural chemicals , addedto food , for microbial and chemical stability of foodsor delay or even stop food rancidity.
The Codex Alimentarious Commission has defined“Food Additive” as under: -Food Additive means any substance not normallyconsumed as a food by itself and not normally used as atypical ingredient of the food ,whether or not it has nutritivevalue, the intentional addition of which to food for atechnological purpose in the manufacture, processing,preparation, treatment , packing, or holding of such foodresults, or may be reasonably expected to result in it or itsbye products becoming a component or otherwiseaffecting the characteristics of such foods.The term does not include contaminants or substancesadded to food for maintaining or improving its nutritive value.
Functions of food additives:• Improve the taste or appearance of a processed foodEg: beeswax –glazing agent is used to coat apples• Improve the keeping quality or stability of a foodEg: sorbitol –added to mixed dried fruit to maintainmoisture level and softness of the fruit
Functions of food additives:• Improve shelf life or storage timeEg: sulphurdioxide added to sausage meat to avoidmicrobial growth• Ensure nutritional value• Maintain uniform quality and to enhance qualityparameters like flavour,colour etc., in large scaleproduction
Types of food additives:Direct or intentional food additives which areadded deliberately to improve its sensory quality,stability, ease in processing and retention of qualityduring handling and retailing .Indirect or unintentional food additives which getincluded into foods incidentally during handling,processing and packaging.
Classes of food additives Preservatives. Food colours. Food flavors and flavor enhancers High intensity / lowcalorie sweeteners. Antioxidants.Emulsifiers.AcidulantsAnti-caking agents
E-Codes• E-codes are codes sometimes found on food labelsin the European Union (Great Britain, France,Germany, Spain, Italy, Portugal etc.)• The codes indicates an ingredient which is sometype of food additives• The “E” indicates that is a “European UnionApproved” food additive• Other countries have different food labeling laws
E-Codes number Groups of Food IngredientsE-100 Coloring agentsE-200 PreservativesE-300 Anti-oxidantsE-400 Thickeners, Stabilizers, Gelling agents, EmulsifiersE-500 Agents for physical characteristicsE-600 Flavor enhancers
What is JECFA? The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on FoodAdditives (JECFA) is an international scientific expertcommittee that is administered jointly by the Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)and the World Health Organization (WHO). It has been meeting since 1956, initially to evaluatethe safety of food additives. Its work now also includes the evaluation ofcontaminants, naturally occurring toxicants andresidues of veterinary drugs in food.
JECFA The Committee also develops principles for thesafety assessment of chemicals in food that areconsistent with current thinking on riskassessment and take account of recentdevelopments in toxicology and other relevantsciences.
For the benefit of consumers , the Codex AlimentariusCommission has prepared the INS for food additives ,which provides an agreed international numberingsystem for identifying food additives
FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius CommissionFounded in 1963 by a joint initiative of the FAO and theWHO, the Codex Alimentarius Commission Formulates and harmonizes food standards andensures global implementation Develops food standards, guidelines, and related textssuch as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO FoodStandards Programme Generates guidelines to protect the health of consumersand ensures fair trade practices in food trade, and Promotes coordination of all food standards workundertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations
What are the effects of food additives?Immediate effects:HeadacheChange in energy levelAlterations in mental concentration, behavoiur , orimmune responseLong term effects:Increase risk of cancer ,cardiovascular disease andother degenerative conditions
Preservatives:• They prevent spoilage of food due to fungi , bacteriaand other microorganisms• Commonly used in Low fat spreads Cheeses, margarine, mayonnaise Bakery products Dried fruit preparationsEg: sodium benzoate , sodium nitrite, benzoic acid,BHA(butylated hydroxy anisole ) /BHT(butylatedhydroxy toluene)
Sodium benzoate- carbonated drinks ,pickles ,saucesSide effects:aggravates asthma and suspected to be aneurotoxin and carcinogen , may cause fetalabnormalities .Worsens hyperactivity
Sodium nitrite and nitrate – sausages, hotdogs,smoked fish, canned meatsSide effects: Nitrite is a Carcinogen (prostate, breast andstomach cancer in humans) Nitrate -Increases risk of miscarriages , fetal deathsand birth defects in lab. animals
BHA/BHT – potato chips , vegetable oils , chewing gum(butylated hydroxy anisole/toluene)Side effects: May be carcinogenic to humans . BHA also interacts with nitrites to form chemicals known to causechanges in the DNA of cells. Toxic to CNS and liver.
Colour additives:Make the food look appealing and so, taste betterThese are described as one of the mostdangerous additives .Synthetic colours are made from coaltar orpetroleum
Colour AdditivesUsed to colour beverages, dessertpowders, icecreams, custardsCause allergies ,asthma , hyperactivity Eg: erythrosine, allura red,tartrazine , brilliant blue
Colour additives:Erythrosine (Red No.3) – cherries in fruit cocktailand in canned fruits for salads, baked foods ,dairy products , snack foodsSide effects: cancer
Allura red - carbonted drinks , bubble gum,sauces , soups , wineSide effects: may worsen or induce asthma , rhinitis,utricaris(hives)
Brilliant blue –dairy products , sweetsSide effects:• hyperactivity and skin rashes .• Listed as human carcinogen.• Causes DNA damage and tumours in animals.
Flavor enhancers: Taste is a complex mixture of flavors and aroma .Flavourings are added to food products to give orintensify flavour.Eg: monosodium glutamate – is the sodium salt of theaminoacid glutamic acid and a form of glutamate
Flavor enhancers:Monosodium glutamate is found inrestaurant food , soups, chips, salad dressings ,frozen foods, sauces ,instant meals noodles
Monosodium glutamate:Side effects : headache , weakness, nausea , altered heart rate,aburning sensation in the forearms and back of theneck ,tightness in the chest. Neoantal exposure is linked to stunted growth andobesity – due to reduction in release of GH.
Sweeteners:( nonnutritive or alternative sweeteners):Substances that impart sweetness to food but supplylittle or no energy to the bodyFunctions :• Provide texture in baked foods• Humectant in cakes• Lowers the freezing point in icecream• Preservative in jams• Adds bulk to baked foods• Strengthens “mouthfeel” in soft drinks
Food sweenteners :Eg: aspartame, saccharin,acesulfame KFound inSugar free chewing gums,Drinks (carbonted , non-carbonated , milk based , alcoholic ),Breakfast cereals,Desserts,fillings and toppings,Processed fruit and vegetable products(jams,jellies),Yoghurt
Side effects of sweeteners :behavioural problems,hyperactivity ,allergies andpossibly carcinogenicAdvantage :They allow diabetics to have sugar free butsweet tasting food.
Antioxidants :Oxidation is a destructive process , causing loss ofnutritional value and changes in chemicalcompositionAntioxidants are added to food to slow the rate ofoxidation and if used properly can extend the shelf lifeof food in which they have been used.Eg: BHA( butylated hydroxy anisole) , BHT(butylatedhydroxy toulene)
Antioxidants :Side effects:• Hyperactivity ,• Asthma ,• Angiodema,• Rhinitis ,• Utricaria and• May affect ESTROGEN levels .• Have been linked with cancer in animals
Emulsifiers: Emulsions in food are mixtures of oil and water.Emulsifier keeps the mixture stable and prevents theoil and water from seperating into two layers. Other Functions:• Make food appealing• Effect on the texture of food• Prevent the growth of moulds in low fat spreads• Aid in processing and help maintain quality andfreshness
Examples of food emulsifiers are:Egg yolk (in which the main emulsifying agent is lecithin)Proteins and low-molecular-weight emulsifiers are commonas wellSoy lecithin is another emulsifier and thickenerIn some cases, particles can stabilize emulsions through amechanism called Pickering stabilizationsodium stearoyl lactylateDATEM (Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Ester of Monoglyceride)is an emulsifier primarily used in baking
Emulsifiers Commonly found in•Peanut butter•Icecream•Coffee whiteners•Margarine/low fat spreads•Biscuits and toffees•Cakes•Frozen desserts•Bread•Chewing gum
Acidulants: They are additives that givea sharp taste to foods. Also assist in the setting of gels and to act as preservativeThe acid environment they produce prevents the growth ofmicrobesEg: widely used organic acid is citric acid in food products ,drinks and pharmaceuticals
Anticaking agents:Processed food often contains ingredients that aremixed as powders. anti-caking agents are added to allow them to flowand mix evenly during the food production process.Eg: silicon dioxide ,calcium silicate Table salt
Anti-caking agents:Commonly found in• vending machine powders( coffee , cocoa )• Milk and cream powders• Grated cheese• Icing sugar• Baking powder• Cake mixes• Instant soup powders• Drinking chocolate•Table salt- magnesium carbonate is the agentadded
Anticaking agents TABLE SALT
Harmful food additives: Sodium nitrite and nitrate Aspartame Acesulfame Monosodiumglutamate(MSG) BHA and BHT Transfat Colour additives Potassium bromate High fructose corn syrup(white sugar) Olestra Propylgallate Sodium chloride
Sodium nitrite and nitrate:Used as preservative, colouring and flavouring agentFound in hotdogs, smoked fish , sandwich meats ,Sausages ,canned meatKeep meat that bright red colour and help preventbacterial growth
Sodium nitrite and nitrate:Side effects : nausea , dizziness , headache ,vomiting• Studies confirm that nitrites and nitrates can causeprosatate,breast,gastric cancer in humans•Link to cancer – nitrites can lead to formation ofchemicals called NITROSAMINES in the digestive tractwhich may cause cancer.•Nitrates are associated with increased miscarriages, fetaldeaths , and birth defects in laboratory animals.
Aspartame :Chemically it is Aspartylphenylalanine methylesterSide effects:It has strong excitatory effect on the brain leading toanxiety, depression , dizziness , headache , visionloss andBrain cancer.
Aspartame :Link:Phenylalanine –tyrosine- aminoacid used to make ,excitatory neurotransmitters ,catecholamines thatenergise you and speed up body functionAspartic acid -- an excitotoxin i.e, it overstimulatesnervous systemMethanol – it is metabolised to formaldehyde which is “ known human carcinogen”CAUTION: Phenylketonuric patients must excludeaspartame in their diet ; also pregnant women mustexclude.
Acesulfame K :•Artificial sweetener ,200 times more sweet than sugar•Found in soft drinks , baked foods , chewing gum , gelatindesserts, alcoholSide effects: some studies shown that it may cause cancer inmiceLink: it contains known carcinogen METHYLENE CHLORIDE
Monosodium glutamate: Flavour enhancer Chemically it is sodium salt of glutamic acid and aform of glutamateFound in soups, chips, crackers , salad dressings
Monosodium glutamate:Side effects:Cause allergic and behavioural reactionsincluding headache , weakness , nausea , alteredheart rate, a burning sensation in forearm andback of neck, tightness in the chestLink: Excitotoxin – that overexcites cells to thepoint of damage/death Possible neurotoxin Affects neurological pathways of brain anddisengage the “I’m full” function which explainseffects of weight gain
Monosodium glutamate:Caution:dangerPregnant women who ingestthis are at increased risk of developing fetus with smaller pituitary,thyroid ,ovary/testis that leads to reproductivedysfunctionNeonatal exposure has been linked to stuntedgrowth and obesity as there is reduction in the releaseof Growth hormone.
BHT and BHA: Antioxidant and preservative. Derived from petroleumFound in potato chips, vegetable oils
BHA and BHT:Side effects :• Allergic reactions , hyperactivity and CANCER in humans•Behavoiural problems with BHA as some people cannotmetabolise it• BHT toxic to nervous system and liverLink to cancer: BHA interacts with nitrites to formchemicals known to cause changes in the DNA of cells
Butylate Hydroxyanisole(BHA)Chronic exposure – gall bladder, endocrine,lungs, thorax -tumorsMutagen – DNA inhibition, unscheduledDNA synthesis, DNA damageChronic exposure – reproductive damage
Transfat : also known as partially hydrogenatedvegetable oilHydrogenation – process of adding H2 gas under highpressure to liquid oils to turn into solids at roomtemperatue.Found in deep fried fast foods , pastries , crackers,butter
Transfat :Side effects:• Atherosclerosis and CVS disorders• Obesity and diabetes• Immune dysfunctuion• Birth defects• Problems in bones and tendonsLink:• Transfat clog arteries and lead to heart disease andstroke• Increase LDL and decrease HDL
Potassium bromate: Additive that helps dough to become full and obtaina greater volume , during baking Found in breads , rolls , pizzasSide effects:• Known to cause cancer in animals• Even smaller amounts in bread can create problemsfor humans
Colour additives :Most dangeours additivesMade from coal tar / petroleumFound in drinks , jellies , sweets , icecream
Colour additives :Dangerous additives – blue 1 and blue 2, red 3 , green 3 andyellow 6Side effects : allergy , asthma, hyperactivity and possiblecarcinogenLink to cancer – cause chromosomal damage
Colour additives- link to hyperactivityIn 2008 the EuropeanFood Safety Authority (EFSA) assessed this study.They concludedthat the findings may be relevantfor specific individuals showing sensitivity to food additives.Since mixtures and not individualadditives were tested in the study, it is not possible to ascribe theincreased hyperactivity to anyof the individual food additives.
Colour additives- link to hyperactivityIn 2007 a group of British scientists published a study showing that childrenwho drank a mixture of 4 syntheticfood colours and a food preservative became more hyperactive than whenthey did not drink the mixture.The level of food colours andfood preservative in the experimentaldrink was comparable to the level that children may drink or eat in real lifeif they consume brightly coloured sweets or soft drinks.
High fructose corn syrup-H F C S• Flavour enhancer• Derived from corn starch , usually a combination of 55%fructose and 45% 0f sucrose• Found in softdrinks, baked foods , ketchupSide effect :Weight gain , diabetes and increased risk of heart diseaseparticularly in menMay alter Magnesium balance in the body leading toaccelerated bone lossLink: impairs function of leptin that controlssatiety
Propyl gallate :Used in conjunction with BHA and BHTFound in meat products, chicken soup base andchewing gumAnimal studies have suggested that it could belinked to cancer
Olestra:•Synthetic fat• Found in potato chip brandsSide effects :• Severe diarrhea ,abdominal cramps and gas• It also inhibits vitamin absorption from fat solublecarotenoids that are found in fruits and vegetbales
Sodium chloride (table salt):Flavour enhancer and preservativeDuring the refining process , naturally occuringminerals and trace elements are stripped away , then it is blasted with high heat , bleached andchemicals like aluminium and anti-caking agents areadded to it.
Sodium chloride (table salt):Side effects : Too much processed salt intake burdens thekidneys and adrenals Depletes calcium and interferes with absorption ofessential nutrients Causes high BP, heart attack and stroke“low sodium salt” is more toxic , as chemicalsare added to it to remove sodium and simulate thesynthetic taste of salts
•Junk foods• It doesnot provide our body with the essentialnutrients , but harm our health as well as weakenour immune system.•They contain substantial amount of nitrite , salt ,food colouring , stabiliser and food additives whichcan harm our health.•The long term effect of junk foods-obesity,atherosclerosis,HYPERTENSION etc
What are junk foods?1.Grilled or roasted foods2.Deep fried foods3.Instant foods4.Soft drinks5.Canned foods6. Pickled foods
Grilled or roasted foods:• It contains very high proportion of “ TRIPHENYL SIBING TOPIRAMATE”, which is a carcinogen.Eg: found in barbecue , grilled /roasted meats
Grilled or roasted foods:consuminggrilled foods regularly is dangerous:1. contains a large number of triphenyl Sibingtopiramate ( carcinogen),2. a burning chicken = 60 cigarettes toxicity,3. resulting protein charring causes (heavier burdenon the kidneys and the liver) Triphenyl sibing topiramate on coming contact withgastric mucosa , the possibility of getting gastric canceris very high
Deep fried foods :•They contain ACRYLAMIDE, a carcinogen.•It is also found in vehicular emission and potatochips.•Also they contain ALUM that impairs memory,harm brain and nerve cells, besides causing irritability and depression once itis absorbed into our body
Instant foods :High calorie but no nutritive value as they lack essential vitamins andminerals , trace elements that leads tonutritional deficiencyThey contain very high content of salt ,colouring and food additive .
Instant foods :Sideeffects : prolonged intake of these foods maycause,obesity, cancer , hypertension .
Soft drinks:They contain lots of PHOSPHATE ,CARBONATE which will lead to theloss of calcium from our body
Canned foods:They are High in calories , low in nutrients.These foods refer to any fruit , meats and vegetablesthat were canned to preserve for longer storage.
Canned foods:Sideeffects: Aluminium used to make a can is easilycontaminated when exposed to the surroundingair. People who get accustomed with cannedfoods are more likely to have high proportion ofALZHEIMER’S disease developed.
Pickled foods:May be contaminated with microbes during the foodhandling process .May cause nasopharygitis ,hypertension,harmful to stomach.
FOOD SAFETYThe practical certainty that injury or damage will not result from a food or ingredient used in a reasonable manner or quantity.
Consumer concerns and issuesregarding use of food additives:SafetyQualityClaim LabelsPackaging and The value of money spent on package foods
The GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) List• Manufacturers do not have to prove safety• Already regarded as safe
Safety of Additives• Tested on 2 animal species• Determine the highest dose that produces no observable effects level (NOEL)• Prorate the dose to human dose• Divide the dose by 100 to establish a margin of safety• If it is shown to cause cancer even at the high dose, it is taken off the market
Government controls:• Only certain additives are allowed for use• Amounts are controlled & must be noted on the label• Maximum amounts used are small & must serve a useful purpose• Are safety tested by the industry & these tests are monitored by Health Protection Branch• Monitoring usage of additives is ongoing
Approval For A New Food Additive bythe FDA (food and drug administration)• Must identify new additive• Give its chemical composition• State how it is manufactured• Specify method of measurement• Proof of intended purpose• Proof of safety• Not to be used to deceive
Food safety in India( FSI) is ensured byGovernment of India’s Ministry of Health under theprovisions of Prevention of Food Adulteration Actand Rules.They are responsible for Food laws and the rulestherein.State Government FDA carries out surveillancewith help of Food Inspectors,does the enforcement.Food analysis labs both state and central , willverify the authencity of food products.
Food safety legislation requires involvementof several aspects1.Research and development2. Information and documentation3. Education and training4. Quality assurance program5.Codex and international norms6.Advisory system ,planning , enforcement andsurveillance.
Is it necessary to give up all processed foods andfood additives?Rules:Be aware about what you are eatingIf there are special treats that you just can’t imagineliving without, have them only on ocassion.Think about the possible wholesome alternativesthat might just as good and which don’t put yourhealth at risk.
How to make food additives safe?Rinse and scrub fresh fruits and vegetables before consuming themEnsure to tear off outer leaves ofleafy vegetablesRemove the skin and fat frommeat, fish and poultry, if they have been preserved and frozenKnow about the harmful food additives and try to avoid themwhile buying food stuffInsist on buying ONLY those that have safe food additives inthem
What can you do?Fresh ,unprocessed food not only is safer butalso tastier for your family