Hybrids existed in the late 1800’s
Cars could be fuelled by either electricity or
No regenerative energy
The answer is :
The invention of the IGBT and other power
electronic advancements 1970 onwards has made
way for the modern hybrid electric vehicles.
An electric propulsion system is comprised of
three main elements: power electronic
batteries , motor, and its controller
DC Commutator Motor
Permanent Magnet (PM) Brushless DC (BLDC)
Switched Reluctance Motor ( SRM)
Fig : HEV by Tesla Motors
Full Hybrid •Engine downsizing
Reduces •Decoupling of engine and wheel
•Can eliminate engine entirely
Regenerative braking actually makes city driving
Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice).
Emissions are greatly decreased.
Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased.
Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well.
Currently more expensive than conventional
Heavier than conventional, due to battery pack
and electric motors weight
Limited battery life and expensive battery pack if
you want to replace it
More complex computer controlled systems
May have drivability issues
Expensive to repair
More efficient diesel hybrids
Plug in hybrids
Fuel cell and plug in vehicles
Powering your house/business with
your fuel cell/hybrid cars
According to the Business News on
12thApril, 2012, M&M is planning to Launch
a full Hybrid Electric Vehicles in India in a
couple of Years.
Soon can be seen on Indian Roads.
“Sometimes being different is good enough, you need not be
new all the time”
So, the HEVs have more efficiency, Low Fuel
Economy, High Reliability and Less Air Pollution.
Optimum Utilization of these Vehicles will yield in good
Results, especially Reduction of pollution.
It can prove to be vehicle of future.
If designed well, these hybrids can equal or better the
utility, comfort, performance and safety we’ve come to
expect, while saving us thousands of dollars at the gas
Husain, Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Design Fundamentals, 1st ed.,
New York: CRC Press, 2003, p.150.
J. Larminie and J. Lowry, “Electric vehicle technology explained,” John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd., England, 2003
Kulkarni, A; Kapoor, A; Mahalinga, I and Kosse, V. “Innovative
automotive design.” International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol.6, No.1
S. Matsumoto, “Advancement of hybrid vehicle technology,” in Proc.
EPE, Dresden, Germany, Sep. 11–14, 2005, pp. 1–7.
James Larminie, and John Lowry, Electric Vehicle Technology
Explained, John Wiley, England, 2003.