Relative clauses2bach


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Relative clauses2bach

  1. 1. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>RELATIVE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>They do two jobs at once. They are used as the subjects or objects of verbs, like other pronouns; at the same time, they join clauses together, like conjunctions. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the name of the blonde girl ? She just came in. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the name of the blonde girl who just came in? </li></ul>
  2. 2. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>The most common relative pronouns are who , which , whom and that . Who and whom are used for people; which is used for things. </li></ul><ul><li>Whom , (MUST be used after prepositions) which refers to the object of a verb or a preposition, is quite formal, not usually found in defining relative clauses and much more common in non-defining relative. clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>That can very often be used instead of the other relative pronouns. In fact, it is often used (preferred) after quantities like: all, every(thing), some(thing), any(thing), no(thing), none, little, few, much, and only . Also, used after superlatives. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s nothing that can be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this all that ’s left? (More natural than Is this all which is left?) </li></ul><ul><li>She’s the kindest woman that I have ever met. </li></ul>
  3. 3. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES : They identify the person or thing which we are talking about. The information they provide could not easily be left out. </li></ul><ul><li>Is that the woman who wants to buy your car? </li></ul><ul><li>NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES : They give useful additional information, but they do not identify the noun they qualify. They could easily be left out. They are seldom found in speech. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve just seen Thomas, who wants to buy your car . </li></ul>
  4. 4. RELATIVE CLAUSES CHARACTERISTICS of defining and non-defining relative clauses: DEFINING NON-DEFINING No pauses in spoken language and no commas in written language. Pauses in spoken language and commas in written language. That is very often used instead of who / which . · Could you iron the trousers that are hanging up behind the door? That cannot be used instead of who / which . · I passed him a large glass of whisky, which he drank immediately. We often leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the verb in the relative clause (common in spoken English: contact clause). · He is a man people like at first sight. Object pronouns cannot be left out . *I passed him a large glass of whisky, he drank immediately.* Prepositions can come either before relative pronouns or at the end of the clause. Much more common at the end . · This is the room Churchill was born in. Prepositions can come either before relative pronouns or at the end of the relative clause. Usually before . · Repsol, of which the government had an important share, has been sold.
  5. 5. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>EXAMPLES of relative clauses (1/2) </li></ul><ul><li>The man who / that told me this refused to give me his name. </li></ul><ul><li>The man (who / that) I bought it from told me to oil it. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the picture which / that caused such a sensation. </li></ul><ul><li>The car (which / that) I hired broke down. </li></ul><ul><li>My neighbour, who is very pessimistic, says there will be no apples this year. </li></ul><ul><li>· </li></ul>
  6. 6. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>EXAMPLES of relative clauses (2/2) </li></ul><ul><li>She wanted Tom, whom / who she liked as a partner. </li></ul><ul><li>That block, which cost five million pounds to build, has been empty for years. </li></ul><ul><li>These books, which you can get at any bookshop, will give you all the information you </li></ul><ul><li>need. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherwood Forest, through which we’ll be driving, isn’t a forest any longer. </li></ul>
  7. 7. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>WHAT (the thing(s) that) </li></ul><ul><li>I gave her the money (which / that) she needed. </li></ul><ul><li>I gave her just what she wanted . </li></ul><ul><li>WHOSE. This is a possessive relative word. It can refer to people or things, although of which </li></ul><ul><li>can be used, and is sometimes preferred, for things. It is useful to remember that whose cannot be omitted in a defining relative clause. </li></ul><ul><li>This is Henry, whose wife works for my brother-in-law. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a meeting whose importance / the importance of which I didn’t realize at the time . </li></ul>
  8. 8. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>WHEN, WHERE, WHY (relative adverbs) 1/4 </li></ul><ul><li>After nouns referring to times and places, when and where can be used to mean at which or in which . After the word reason , why is used to mean for which . </li></ul><ul><li>The exam will be on Tuesday, when you said would be better </li></ul><ul><li>This hotel, where I first met her, is my favourite. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any reason why you should have a holiday? </li></ul>
  9. 9. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>WHEN, WHERE, WHY (relative adverbs) 2/4 </li></ul><ul><li>When is often replaced by that or even dropped after common nouns referring to time ( time, day, month, year ) in an informal style. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you suggest a time ( when/that) it will be convenient to meet? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll never forget the day ( when/that ) we met. </li></ul>
  10. 10. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>WHEN, WHERE, WHY (relative adverbs) 3/4 </li></ul><ul><li>The same thing happens to where after s omewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere and place, but not after other words. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you got somewhere ( that ) I can lie down for an hour? </li></ul><ul><li>We need a place ( that ) we can stay for a few days. </li></ul>
  11. 11. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>WHEN, WHERE, WHY (relative adverbs) 3/3 </li></ul><ul><li>The same thing happens with why after reason . </li></ul><ul><li>The reason ( that ) you’re so bad tempered is that you’re hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>After way , in which can be replaced by that or dropped in an informal way. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t like the way ( that ) she spoke to me. </li></ul>
  12. 12. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>WHICH referring to a whole clause ( Sentence Relative ) </li></ul><ul><li>The relative clause does not make reference to the noun before it, but to the whole of the previous clause: </li></ul><ul><li>He showed me a photo that upset me. ( defining relative clause ) </li></ul><ul><li>He got married again a year later, which surprised everybody. </li></ul><ul><li>He showed me a photo, which upset me. ( sentence relative ) </li></ul><ul><li>She cycled from London to Glasgow, which is pretty good for a woman of 75. ( sentence relative ) </li></ul>