All equipment that relates to the movement, storage, control andprotection of materials, goods and products throughout the processof manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. 1.Palletization 2. Containerizations
Flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, front loader or other jacking device.
• Palletization is the assemblage and securing of individual items or work pieces on a platform.• Effective Palletization can improve cycle times, reduce time and labor costs of setup.• Method of storing and transporting goods stacked on a pallet, and shipped as a unit load.• It permits standardized ways of handling loads with common mechanical equipment such as fork-lift trucks.
Containerization is a systematic storage byusing standards that are standardized by theInternational Standardization Organization
• ‘Article Equipment intended to facilitate the carriage of goods by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading.• Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using standard inter modal containers as prescribed by ISO.• These can be loaded and sealed intact onto container ships, rail road cards, planes, and trucks 10
• Although having its origins in the late 1780• Innovations in 20th century logistics.• Malcom Purcell McLean(November 14, 1913 – May 25, 2001 )was an American entrepreneur, often called "the father of containerization".• In 1956, he developed the metal shipping container, which replaced the traditional break-bulk method of handling dry goods and revolutionized the transport of goods and cargo worldwide 11
ADVANTAGEStandard transport Can be manipulated anywhere in the world (ISO product standard).Specialized ships, trucks and wagons. Raw materials (coal, wheat), manufactured goods, cars, frozen products. Liquids (oil and chemical products) and � reefers� (50% of all Flexibility refrigerated cargo). Reuse of discarded containers. of usage Unique identification number and a size type code. Transport management not in terms of loads, but in terms of Management unit. Costs Low transport costs; 20 times less than bulk transport. Transshipment operations are minimal and rapid. Port turnaround times reduced from 3 weeks to about 24 hours. Containerships are faster than regular freighter ships. Its own warehouse; Simpler and less expensive packaging. Warehousing Stacking capacity on ships, trains (doublestacking) and on the ground. Contents of the container is unknown to shippers. Can only be opened at the origin, at customs and at the destination. Security Reduced spoilage and losses (theft). 20
FACTOR CHALLENGE Large consumption of terminal space; move to urban periphery. Site constraints Draft issues with larger containerships. Container handling infrastructures (giant cranes, warehousing Infrastructure costs facilities, inland road, rail access), are important investments. Complexity of arrangement of containers, both on the ground and Stacking on modes (containerships and double-stack trains). Loaded to avoid any restacking. Requires management and tracking of every container. Recording,Management logistics (re)positioning and ordering of containers. Many containers are moved empty (20% of all flows). Empty movements Either full or empty, a container takes the same amount of space. Divergence between production and consumption; repositioning. Common instrument used in the illicit trade of drug and weapons, Illicit trade as well as for illegal immigration. Worries about the usage of containers for terrorism.
• Containerization was introduced for the first time in Indian domestic market way back in 1966• In 1987 Government of India realized the importance of containerization and started constructing a satellite port at Bombay which commenced operations in 1988 and was christened The Jawaharlal Lal Nehru Port . 29
• First container was handled at Cochin in 1973.• Containerization has since grown substantially.• 1052000 TEUS in 1993.• 4637000 TEUS in 2005.• 6.60 Million TEUS in 2008 30
Name of The Company Ships GT % of GTShipping corporation of India 80.00 3,076,000.00 32.67Great Eastern Shipping Co 65.00 1,626,041.00 17.27Varun shipping 16.00 406,920.00 4.32Mercater line 16.00 690,396.00 7.33Essar Shipping 29.00 443,725.00 4.71Surendra Overseas 5.00 168,314.00 1.78Tolani shipping 6.00 209,460.00 2.22Five star bulk carriers 3.00 59,327.00 0.63West asia maritime 4.00 107,672.00 1.14Chowgule streamship 5.00 53,882.00 0.57chambal fertilisers 4.00 227,714.00 2.41Sanmar shipping 4.00 104,722.00 1.11Rediant shipping 4.00 90,551.00 0.96Others 722.00 2,148,440.00 22.82Total 963 9413164 99.94 31