Strategic Partnering:
Types of SP
• Quick Response:
– Vendors receive POS data from retailers, and
use this information to...
Strategic Partnering:
Types of SP
• Continuous Replenishment: Vendors
receive POS data and use it to prepare
shipments at ...
Strategic Partnering:
Types of SP
• Vendor Managed Inventory
(VMI):JITD
– VMI Projects at Dillard Department
Stores, J.C. ...
Advantages of SP
• Decrease required inventory
levels
• Improve service levels
• Decrease work duplication
• Improve forec...
Advantages of SP
• Fully utilize system knowledge
– Consider the partnership between
White-Hall Robbins (W-R), who makes
o...
Disadvantages of SP
• Expensive advanced technology
is required.
• Supplier/retailer trust must be
developed.
• Supplier r...
Conceptual Evolution of
Inventory Management
Owner Managed
Inventory

Continuous
Replenishment

VMI

Consignment
Selling

...
Vendor Managed Inventory
(VMI)
VMI is essentially an integrated
approach whereby the inventory
at the distributor/retailer...
VMI rationale ….
By pushing the decision making
responsibility further up the supply
chain, the manufacturer/vendor will b...
VMI includes …
• Determining appropriate order
quantities
• Managing proper product mixes
• Configuring appropriate safety...
Typical Benefits to
Manufacturers
• Lower inventory investments (raw
and finished)
• Better scheduling and planning
• Bett...
Typical Benefits to Retailers
• Fewer stock-out with higher
inventory turnover
• Better market information
• More optimal ...
VMI Success Factors
• Top management commitment
• Focus on effort
• Trust and partnership between
supply chain stakeholder...
Electronic Data
Interchange EDI
computer to computer
exchange of business
transaction in a standard
format
EDI Benefits …
• Quick access to information
• Reduced labor and material costs
associated with handling paper-based
busin...
Ownership of inventory
• Initially, ownership transferred to retailer
upon receipt of goods
• Now, VMI is based on consign...
Requirements for Effective SP
• Advanced information systems
• Top management commitment
– Information must be shared
– Po...
Important SP Issues
• Inventory ownership:
– Retailer owns inventory
– Supplier owns the goods until they are
sold (consig...
Important SP Issues
• Confidentiality
• Communication and cooperation
– When First Brands started partnering
with Kmart, K...
Steps in SP Implementation
• Contractual negotiations
–
–
–
–

Ownership
Credit terms
Ordering decisions
Performance measu...
Main Characteristics of SP
Criteria
Decision
Inventory
Types
Maker
Ownership
Quick
Retailer
Retailer
Response
Continuous
C...
Examples of SP Successes
and Failures
• Western Publishing-Golden Books:
– Western Publishing is using VMI for its Golden ...
Examples of SP Successes
and Failures
• VF Corporation’s Market Response
System:
– The VF Corporation, which has many well...
Examples of SP Successes
and Failures
• Spartan Stores
– Spartan Stores, a grocery chain, shut
down its VMI effort about o...
Examples of SP Successes
and Failures
• Spartan Stores (continued)
– Suppliers didn’t do much to allay these
fears. The pr...
Distributor Integration
• Parts are shared across the distributor network
• Specialized service requests are steered to
ap...
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Vendor managed inventory ppt

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  • Wal-Mart do not own most of the merchandise in their retail stores. They own them briefly as they move through the check-out counter.
  • Vendor managed inventory ppt

    1. 1. Strategic Partnering: Types of SP • Quick Response: – Vendors receive POS data from retailers, and use this information to synchronize production and inventory activities at the supplier. – The retailer still prepares individual orders, but the POS data is used by the supplier to improve forecasting and scheduling. – Example: Milliken and Company: The lead time from order receipt at Milliken’s textile plants to final clothing receipt at several of the department stores involved was reduced from eighteen weeks down to three weeks.
    2. 2. Strategic Partnering: Types of SP • Continuous Replenishment: Vendors receive POS data and use it to prepare shipments at previously agreed upon intervals to maintain agreed to levels of inventory. – Wal-Mart, Kmart • Advanced Continuous Replenishment: Suppliers may gradually decrease inventory levels at the retailer’s store or distribution center as long as service levels are met. Inventory levels are thus continuously improved in a structured way.
    3. 3. Strategic Partnering: Types of SP • Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI):JITD – VMI Projects at Dillard Department Stores, J.C. Penney, and Wal-Mart have shown sales increases of 20 to 25 percent, and 30 percent inventory turnover improvements.
    4. 4. Advantages of SP • Decrease required inventory levels • Improve service levels • Decrease work duplication • Improve forecasts
    5. 5. Advantages of SP • Fully utilize system knowledge – Consider the partnership between White-Hall Robbins (W-R), who makes over-the-counter drugs such as Advil, and Kmart. W-R initially disagreed with Kmart about forecasts, and in this case, it turned out that W-R forecasts were more accurate because they have a much more extensive knowledge of their products than Kmart does.
    6. 6. Disadvantages of SP • Expensive advanced technology is required. • Supplier/retailer trust must be developed. • Supplier responsibility increases. • Expenses at the supplier often increase. –Why? How can this be addressed?
    7. 7. Conceptual Evolution of Inventory Management Owner Managed Inventory Continuous Replenishment VMI Consignment Selling Direct Selling
    8. 8. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) VMI is essentially an integrated approach whereby the inventory at the distributor/retailer (downstream) is monitored and managed by the manufacturer/vendor (upstream)
    9. 9. VMI rationale …. By pushing the decision making responsibility further up the supply chain, the manufacturer/vendor will be in a better position to support the objectives of the entire integrated supply chain resulting in sustainable competitive advantage
    10. 10. VMI includes … • Determining appropriate order quantities • Managing proper product mixes • Configuring appropriate safety stock
    11. 11. Typical Benefits to Manufacturers • Lower inventory investments (raw and finished) • Better scheduling and planning • Better market information • Closer customer ties and preferred status
    12. 12. Typical Benefits to Retailers • Fewer stock-out with higher inventory turnover • Better market information • More optimal product mix • Less inventory in channels (transfer costs) • Lower administrative replenishment costs
    13. 13. VMI Success Factors • Top management commitment • Focus on effort • Trust and partnership between supply chain stakeholders • Highly effective computer/information systems (EDI, Bar coding, Scanning) • Competent manufacturers and the ability to forecast • Willing stakeholders partners and patience
    14. 14. Electronic Data Interchange EDI computer to computer exchange of business transaction in a standard format
    15. 15. EDI Benefits … • Quick access to information • Reduced labor and material costs associated with handling paper-based business transaction • Better communication • Increases productivity • Improved tracing and expediting • Improved billing • Better customer service
    16. 16. Ownership of inventory • Initially, ownership transferred to retailer upon receipt of goods • Now, VMI is based on consignment relationship in which manufacturer owns goods until sold • Retailer benefit: lower inventory cost • Manufacturers benefits: better control • Supply chain benefit: system-wide cost reduction
    17. 17. Requirements for Effective SP • Advanced information systems • Top management commitment – Information must be shared – Power and responsibility within an organization might change (for example, contact with customers switches from sales and marketing to logistics) • Mutual trust – Information sharing – Management of the entire supply chain – Initial loss of revenues
    18. 18. Important SP Issues • Inventory ownership: – Retailer owns inventory – Supplier owns the goods until they are sold (consignment) • Why would a firm do this? • Performance measures: Fill rate, inventory level, inventory turns
    19. 19. Important SP Issues • Confidentiality • Communication and cooperation – When First Brands started partnering with Kmart, Kmart often claimed that its supplier was not living up to its agreement to keep two weeks of inventory at all times. It turned out that this was due to the fact that the two companies employed different forecasting methods.
    20. 20. Steps in SP Implementation • Contractual negotiations – – – – Ownership Credit terms Ordering decisions Performance measures • Develop or integrate information systems • Develop effective forecasting techniques • Develop a tactical decision support tool to assist in coordinating inventory management and transportation policies
    21. 21. Main Characteristics of SP Criteria Decision Inventory Types Maker Ownership Quick Retailer Retailer Response Continuous Contractually Agreed Either Replenishment to Levels Party Advanced Contractually agreed Either Continuous to & Continuously Party Replenishment Improved Levels VMI Vendor Either Party New Skills Employed by vendors Forecasting Skills Forecasting & Inventory Control Forecasting & Inventory Control Retail Management
    22. 22. Examples of SP Successes and Failures • Western Publishing-Golden Books: – Western Publishing is using VMI for its Golden Books line of children’s books at several retailers. – POS data automatically triggers re-orders when inventory falls below a reorder point. – This inventory is delivered either to a distribution center, or in many cases, directly to the store. – Ownership of the books shifts to the retailer once deliveries have been made. – In the case of Toys R Us, the company has even managed the entire book section for the retailer, including inventory from suppliers other than Western Publishing. – Extra sales, increased costs to Western
    23. 23. Examples of SP Successes and Failures • VF Corporation’s Market Response System: – The VF Corporation, which has many well known brand names (including Wrangler, Lee, Girbaud, and many others), began its VMI program in 1989. – Currently, about 40 percent of its production is handled using some type of automatic replenishment scheme. – This is particularly notable because the program encompasses 350 different retailers, 40,000 store locations, and more than 15 million replenishment levels. – VF’s program is considered one of the most
    24. 24. Examples of SP Successes and Failures • Spartan Stores – Spartan Stores, a grocery chain, shut down its VMI effort about one year after its inception. – One problem was that buyers were not spending any less time on reorders than they did before – This was because they didn’t trust the suppliers enough to be able to stop carefully monitoring the inventories and deliveries of the VMI items, and intervening at the slightest hint of
    25. 25. Examples of SP Successes and Failures • Spartan Stores (continued) – Suppliers didn’t do much to allay these fears. The problems were not with the suppliers’ forecasts; instead, they were due to the suppliers’ inability to deal with promotions, which are a key part of the grocery business. – Since they were unable to appropriately account for promotions, delivery levels were often unacceptably low during these periods of peak demand.
    26. 26. Distributor Integration • Parts are shared across the distributor network • Specialized service requests are steered to appropriate dealers or distributors. • What is required? – – – – Trust Pledges Guarantees from the manufacturer Advanced information systems • Disadvantages – Incentives for dealers – are they giving away competitive advantages? – Skills and responsibilities are taken from some dealers/distributors. • Examples - Caterpillar, Okuma
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