robotics and its components

827 views
622 views

Published on

made by amandeep kaur

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
827
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
59
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

robotics and its components

  1. 1. Robotics
  2. 2. Introduction Of Robotics  Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots.  Robotics is the sciences of electronics, engineering mechanics, and software.  Robot and Robotics technologies represented a practical applications of physics, computer science, engineering and mathematics.
  3. 3. What is a Robot ? • In practice it is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer and electronic programming. • We can not exactly define that what robot is, but we can say that– A robot can be electrical, mechanical or electromechanical setup. – It can be programmable or non- programmable. – It can be Manual or automated controlled. – It can be use to move parts and help human beings.
  4. 4. three laws of robotics Isaac Asimov popularized the term robotics. Asimov is a visionary who envisioned in the 1930’s the positronic brain for controlling robots. He invented the three laws of robotics: 1) A robot may not harm a human through action or inaction, allow a human to come to harm 2) A robot must obey the orders given by human beings, except when such orders conflict with the First Law 3) A robot must protect its own existence as long as it does not conflict with the First or Second Laws
  5. 5. A robot must have the following essential characteristics  Mobility: It possesses some form of mobility.  Programmability: It can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. After being programmed, it operates automatically.  Sensors: On or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device.  Mechanical capability: Enabling it to act on its environment rather than merely function as a data processing or computational device (a robot is a machine); and  Flexibility: It can operate using a range of programs and manipulates in a variety of ways.
  6. 6. Introduction of Embedded C and demo programs Development process of AVR projects Control structures in C Algorithms to be studied AVR studio
  7. 7. Embedded system • An Embedded system is combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or others parts, designed to perform a specific task. • Example: microwave oven, AC etc
  8. 8. What is Embedded C?  Embedded C is nothing but a subset of C language which is compatible with certain microcontrollers.  Some features are added using header files like <avr/io.h>, <util/delay.h>.  scanf() and printf() are removed as the inputs are scanned from the sensors and outputs are given to the ports.  Control structures remain the same like if-statement, for loop, do-while etc.
  9. 9. Development process of Embedded C projects • Write C programs in AVR Studio. • Compile them into a .hex file using the AVR-GCC compiler (which integrates into AVR Studio). • Simulate the target AVR program and debug the code within AVR Studio. • Program the actual chip using the AVRISP mkII USB device, which is attached to our target board with a special 6pin cable. • Once programmed, the chip runs the program in your circuit.
  10. 10. If-statement • Syntax: if( condition) { statement……. } else { statement…….. }
  11. 11. Program for if-statement Int a=4; Int b=5; If(a>b) printf(“ a is largest”); else printf(“ b is largest”);
  12. 12. Do- while statement • Syntax: Initial counter Do { statement……. update statement } While(condition);
  13. 13. Program for do-while Int a=4; Do { a++; } while(a>5);
  14. 14. For- statement • Syntax: For( initial counter; test condition; update stmt) { statement…….. statement……... } • Program: for(int i=0;i<5;i++) sprintf(str, “Hello Robosapiens”);
  15. 15. What is a Microcontroller? A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC or MCU) is a small computer on a single IC containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. It is a decision making device used widely in embedded systems and all intelligent devices.
  16. 16. Basic Block Diagram of Microcontroller
  17. 17. Block Diagram to show the difference
  18. 18. Difference between Microcontroller and Microprocessor Microcontroller has I/O ports, Memory, timers etc all integrated on chip itself  In Microprocessors, I/O ports, memory, timer etc are to be connected externally
  19. 19. What is a 8-bit microcontroller? 8-bit means it can process 8-bit data per clock cycle It has 8-bit data bus It can process 1byte of data at a time
  20. 20. What is AVR?  AVR is a modified Harvard architecture , 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller. It was developed in the year 1996 by Atmel Corporation.
  21. 21. What’s special about AVR?  They are fast.  AVR Microcontroller executes most of the instructions in single execution cycle.  AVRs are about 4 times faster than PIC.  They consume less power and can be operated in different power saving modes.
  22. 22. Creation of AVR Projects with AVR studio
  23. 23. Home screen of AVR STUDIO
  24. 24. Naming project as Line follower
  25. 25. Selecting Platform and Device
  26. 26. Coding window
  27. 27. Building the code
  28. 28. Build and Run the code
  29. 29. Select the HID boot flash icon
  30. 30. Click on to the find device.
  31. 31. Click on the browse button to browse the hex file.
  32. 32. Browse the file from your project folder , select the hex file and click open.
  33. 33. Finally click on to the write button to burn the hex file in the MCU.
  34. 34. Some common projects are:-
  35. 35. WALL FOLLOWING ROBOT USING I-BOT mini V3
  36. 36. WALL FOLLOWING ROBOT USING I-BOT mini V3  Wall Follower using I-BOT is built using infrared based proximity sensor module.  The left module is used to detect the wall on the left side of the I-BOT.  The Left module is connected at approximately 45 degree to the board so as to detect the wall as shown next.
  37. 37. WALL FOLLOWING ROBOT USING I-BOT mini V3 2 CASE 1 OFF LS = ON
  38. 38. WALL FOLLOWING ROBOT LOGIC TABLE LEFT SENSOR MOVEMENT ON OFF TURN RIGHT TURN LEFT
  39. 39. LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT USING I-BOT mini V3
  40. 40. A Line follower is an autonomous robot which follows either black line in white are or white line in black area. Robot must be able to detect particular line and keep following it. BLOCK DIAGRAM An array of sensor is used to detect the line. Based on the status of sensors, special circuit or controller decides the position of line and also the required direction of motion required to follow the line. Motor driver circuit is used to ON/OFF the LEFT/RIGHT motors of the robot to provide desired motion.
  41. 41. types LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT BLACK-LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT WHITE-LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT
  42. 42. Programme for line follower #include<avr/io.h> #include<delay/util.h> Void main() { DDRA=0X00; DDRB=0XFF; While(1) { IF(PINA==0b00001001)
  43. 43. { PORTB=0b00001001; } IF(PINA==0b00000001) { PORTB=0b00000001; } IF(PINA==0b00001000) { PORTB=0b00001000; } IF(PINA==0b00000000) { PORTB=0b0000000; }}}
  44. 44. BLACK-LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT CASE 4 Ls = OFF CASE 3 Ls = ON Ls = ON CASE 1 Ls = ON Rs = ON Rs = ON CASE 2 Ls = OFF Rs = ON Rs = OFF Rs = OFF
  45. 45. BLACK LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT LOGIC TABLE LEFT SENSOR RIGHT SENSOR MOVEMENT ON ON FORWARD OFF ON LEFT TURN ON OFF RIGHT TURN OFF OFF STOP
  46. 46. WHITE-LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT CASE 3 Ls = OFF CASE 4 Ls = OFF Rs = ON Rs = OFF Ls = OFF CASE 1 Ls = OFF Rs = OFF CASE 2 Ls = ON Rs = OFF Rs = OFF
  47. 47. WHITE LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT LOGIC TABLE LEFT SENSOR RIGHT SENSOR MOVEMENT ON ON STOP OFF ON RIGHT TURN ON OFF LEFT TURN OFF OFF FORWARD
  48. 48. Current Robotic Technologies • Large organisations and companies reap many benefits from robotic technologies because: • Robots are less expensive than paying human workers over the long run and robots are not prone to injure themselves.
  49. 49. Robots are currently used for situations where human safety is an issue • Robots are used internationally by Police, Army, Navy and Air force organisations • Robotic technology is used to deal with hazardous situations such as dealing with suspicious packages, riots and for the collection of foreign intelligence • NASA scientists use robotic technologies (Mars Explorer) to explore other planets
  50. 50. Industrial Application •Repetitive tasks •High speed •High precision movements •Pre-planned trajectories and task policies •Automated and no human interference required
  51. 51. SENSORS
  52. 52. WHAT IS A SENSOR….? • A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. • Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touchsensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. • Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.
  53. 53. TYPES OF SENSORS • IR SENSOR • SOUND SENSOR • TEMPERATURE SENSOR
  54. 54. IR SENSOR
  55. 55. WORKING • IR sensor works on the principle of emitting IR rays and receiving the reflected ray by a receiver (Photo Diode). • IR source (LED) is used in forward bias. • IR Receiver (Photodiode) is used in reverse bias.
  56. 56. VOLTAGE COMPARATOR • A Comparator is a device which compares two voltages or currents and switches its output to indicate which is larger. • Comparator is an Op-amp.
  57. 57. LIGHT Sensor Circuit
  58. 58. TEMPERATURE SENSOR
  59. 59. TIMER 555 IC
  60. 60. The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications.
  61. 61. OPERATING MODES • MONOSTABLE MODE • BISTABLE MODE • ASTABLE MODE
  62. 62. Monostable mode • In this mode, the 555 functions as a "oneshot" • Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc
  63. 63. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM IN MONOSTABLE MODE
  64. 64. Contd.... • The pulse begins when the 555 timer receives a trigger signal. • The width of the pulse is determined by the time constant of an RC network, which consists of a capacitor (C1) and a resistor (R1). • The pulse width can be lengthened or shortened to the need of the specific application by adjusting the values of R and C. T = 1.1 X R1 X C1
  65. 65. Pictorial representation
  66. 66. Bistable Mode o In bistable mode, the 555 timer acts as a basic flip-flop. o The trigger and reset inputs (pins 2 and 4 respectively on a 555) are held high via pull-up resisters while the threshold input (pin 6) is simply grounded. o Thus configured, pulling the trigger momentarily to ground acts as a 'set' and transitions the output pin (pin 3) to Vcc (high state). o Pulling the reset input to ground acts as a 'reset' and transitions the output pin to ground (low state). o No capacitors are required in a bistable configuration o Pin 8 (Vcc) is, of course, tied to Vcc while pin 1 (Gnd) is grounded. o Pins 5 and 7 (control and discharge) are left floating.
  67. 67. Astable mode • In Astable mode, the '555 timer ' puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency. • Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7), and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node. • Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2, and discharged only through R2.
  68. 68. Contd.... • In the above circuit we are triggering the 555 timer by applying voltage produced by sound. • This voltage when generated pass through the capacitor which works as a filter. • This filtered voltage is then fed to transistor which is inverting the voltage and also amplifying it. • And hence creating a negative triggering pulse.

×