Direction Intensity Persistence What Is Motivation?
Direction It's better to hang out with people better than you. Pick out associates whose behavior is better than yours and you'll drift in that direction. Warren Buffett
I was saying "I'm the greatest” long before I believed it. Intensity
It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer. Persistence
Motivation—the forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.
Reward —a work outcome of positive value to the individual
Extrinsic Rewards —valued outcomes given to someone by another person.
Intrinsic Rewards —valued outcomes that occur naturally as a person works on a task.
Why Motivation? To achieve maximum motivational potential in linking rewards to performance … Respect diversity and individual differences to best understand what people want from work. Allocate rewards to satisfy the interests of both individuals and the organization.
To Motivate… having high expectations of employees, providing rewards that are valued, relating rewards to performance, treating employees as individuals, encouraging employee participation, and providing feedback, including praise.
Relationship between Motivation and Performance Motivation: Giving people incentives that cause them to act in desired ways. The objective of motivating employees is to lead them to perform in ways that meet the goals of the department and the organization. Because supervisors are largely evaluated on the basis of how well their group as a whole performs, motivation is an important skill for supervisors to acquire.
Types of motivation theories
Content theories Human needs and how people with different needs may respond to different work situations. Process theories How people give meaning to rewards and make decisions on various work-related behaviors. Reinforcement theory How people’s behavior is influenced by environmental consequences.
“Content theories” of motivation focus on the content of the motivator. Three researchers whose content theories of motivation are widely used are Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, and Frederick Herzberg.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory Abraham Maslow There is a hierarchy of 5 needs---Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, & Self-Actualization---and as each need is sequentially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant Review:1.intuitively logical, ease of understanding, receiving wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. 2. little empirical support
Hierarchy of needs theory
Deficit principle A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior. Progression principle A need at one level does not become activated until the next lower-level need is satisfied.
ERG Theory Developed by Clayton Alderfer. Three need levels: Existence needs — desires for physiological and material well-being. Relatedness needs — desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. Growth needs — desires for continued psychological growth and development
Self Esteem Social Safety Physiological ERG Theory of Motivation
E.R.G. Theory (Cont.) Satisfaction-progression: move up the hierarchy as needs are satisfied Frustration-regression: move down the hierarchy when a need is frustrated Deficiency cycle:more strongly desire existence needs when they are unsatisfied Enrichment cycle: more strongly desire growth needs when they are satisfied
Acquired needs theory
Developed by David McClelland. People acquire needs through their life experiences. Needs that are acquired: Need for Achievement(nAch) Need for Power(nPower) Need for Affiliation(nAff)
Acquired needs theory Need for Achievement(nAch) Desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. People high in (nAch)prefer work that: Involves individual responsibility for results. Involves achievable but challenging goals. Provides feedback on performance. People with achievement motives are motivated by standards of excellence, delineated roles and responsibilities and concrete, timely feedback.
Acquired needs theory Need for Power (nPower) Desire to control other persons, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for other people. Personal power versus social power. People high in (nPower)prefer work that: Involves control over other persons. Has an impact on people and events. Brings public recognition and attention. Thosewithpower motive is activated when people are allowed to have an impact, impress those in power, or beat competitors.
Acquired needs theory Need for Affiliation (nAff) Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other persons. People high in (nAff)prefer work that: Involves interpersonal relationships. Provides for companionship Brings social approval. Those with affiliation motives are motivated when they can accomplish things with people they know and trust.
Developed by Frederick Herzberg. Hygiene factors: Elements of the job context. Sources of job dissatisfaction. Satisfier factors: Elements of the job content. Sources of job satisfaction and motivation.
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, also known as the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, was derived from a study designed to test the concept that people have two sets of needs: Their needs as animals to avoid pain Their needs as humans to grow psychologically
Herzberg’ study Herzberg's study consisted of a series of interviews that sought to elicit responses to the questions: Recall a time when you felt exceptionally good about your job. Why did you feel that way about the job? Did this feeling affect your job performance in any way? Did this feeling have an impact on your personal relationships or your well- being? Recall a time on the job that resulted in negative feelings? Describe the sequence of events that resulted in these negative feelings.
Research Results: It appeared from the research, that the things making people happy on the job and those making them unhappy had two separate themes. 1)SATISFACTION 2)DISSATISFACTION (MOTIVATION) (HYGIENE) Achievement Recognition Workitself Responsibility Advancement
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
People are motivated by Hygiene factors(external) and Motivation factors (internal). Combining these factors we get 4 scenarios as, High Hygiene + High Motivation (ideal condition: highly motivated and few complaints) High Hygiene + Low Motivation (few complaints but not very motivated) Low Hygiene + High Motivation(very motivated but have complaints) Low Hygiene + Low Motivation(worst situation: very little motivation and many complaints)
McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.
McGregor: Theory X, Theory Y There are two ways of perceiving people at work: Theory Y:
Work is as natural as play or rest- not disliked..
Workers will exercise self-direction and
Meeting goals is satisfying and motivating. .
Workers seek responsibility. ...
Workers will be creative and are willing to do more.
The average human inherently dislikes to work
So, people must be coerced, controlled, directed.
Workers prefer this – but want security.
The average worker is only partially utilized.
Conclusion… Theory of X assumes Maslow’s lower level needs dominate in employees. Whereas Theory of Y, assumes Maslow’s higher level needs dominate in employees.
Theory Z - William Ouchi First things first - Theory Z is not a Mcgregor idea and as such is not Mcgregor's extension of his XY theory. By William Ouchi, in his book 1981 'Theory Z: How American management can Meet the Japanese Challenge'. William Ouchi is professor of management at UCLA, Los Angeles, and a board member of several large US organisations.
Nevertheless, Theory Z essentially advocates a combination of all that's best about theory Y and modern Japanese management, which places a large amount of freedom and trust with workers, and assumes that workers have a strong loyalty and interest in team-working and the organisation
It places more reliance on the attitude and responsibilities of the workers, whereas Mcgregor's XY theory is mainly focused on management and motivation from the manager's and organisation's perspective. There is no doubt that Ouchi's Theory Z model offers excellent ideas, albeit it lacking the simple elegance of Mcgregor's model, which let's face it, thousands of organisations and managers around the world have still yet to embrace.