4 G mobile technology

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4 G mobile technology

  1. 1. 4G - An Ultimate Mobile Solution By: Aman Jain, 1BJ05EC003. 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Wireless Future - Evolution -> 3G </li></ul><ul><li>4G Mobile Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been Deployed? </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed to Build 4G Networks of Future? </li></ul><ul><li>THE CREW: CURRENT R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Future -> Issues and Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Developments/ Industry Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Mobility is one of the most invigorating features, having an enormous impact on how communication is evolving into the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility in 4G networks requires new level of mobility support as compared to traditional mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>This review aims to identify and explore the different issues and challenges related to mobility management in 4G networks. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  4. 4. 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  5. 5. 0G <ul><li>Half-duplex lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One speaks, the other cannot speak. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Push-to-talk protocol (PTT) </li></ul><ul><li>Voice only </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way radio / “Walkie-Talkies” </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Telephone System (MTS) </li></ul><ul><li>1946 MTS </li></ul><ul><li>1962 IMTS </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  6. 6. 1G <ul><li>Analog cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Voice only </li></ul><ul><li>1980s to 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) </li></ul><ul><li>AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with analog: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not encrypted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone to distortions </li></ul></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  7. 7. 2G <ul><li>1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mainly circuit-switched </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplexing: TDMA and CDMA </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: GSM, iDEN </li></ul><ul><li>1999  2.5G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate up to 128 kb/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data rate up to 384 kb/s </li></ul></ul></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  8. 8. 3G <ul><li>Combines with IP based services </li></ul><ul><li>Video-conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Music downloading? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transfer of data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDMA2000, UMTS, W-CDMA </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different places, different air interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of deploying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet, e-mail, fax, e-commerce, music, video clips, and videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>UMTS- UNIVERSAL MOBILE </li></ul><ul><li>TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  9. 9. 4G <ul><li>Expected in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>M obile multimedia, A nytime anywhere, G lobal support, I ntegrated wireless solution, C ustomized personal service </li></ul><ul><li>WiMAX </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  10. 10. Wireless Future - Evolution -> 3G (3rd generation of mobile networks) <ul><li>The Third Generation of mobile communications systems will soon be implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Following on the heals of analog and digital technology, the Third Generation will be digital mobile multimedia offering broadband mobile communications with voice, video, graphics, audio and other information. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, in countries such as    Japan, South Korea and Singapore 3G networks are already deployed and being used. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  11. 11. Evolution of the Mobile Technologies 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  12. 12. What is 4G anyway? <ul><li>4G refers to the next generation of wireless technology that promises higher data rates and expanded multimedia services.  </li></ul><ul><li>The 4G is defined as a completely new fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computers, consumer electronics, and communication technology and several other convergences that will be capable to provide 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps, respectively in outdoor and indoor environments, with end-to-end QoS and high security, offering any kind of services at any time as per user requirements, anywhere with seamless interoperability, always on, affordable cost, one billing and fully personalized . </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  13. 13. 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE Generation Overview Technology 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G First design 1970 1980 1985 1990 2000 Implementation 1982 1991 1999 2002 2010? Service Analog voice Digital voice, SMS Packaged data Broadband data up to 2 mb/s IP-oriented unlimited multimedia data Standards AMPS TDMA, CDMA, GSM GPRS, EDGE EV-DO, W-CDMA, HSDPA WiMAX, HSOPA Data bandwidth 1.9 kbps 14.4 kbps 384 kbps 2 mbps 200 mbps
  14. 14. Comparision of 4G with 3G Mobile Technologies 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE Major requirement driving architecture  3G (Including 2.5G, Sub3G) 4G   Predominantly voice driven; data was always add on  Converged data and voice over IP Network Architecture  Wide area cell-based  Hybrid: Integration of wireless LAN (WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area Speeds 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps  20 to 100 Mbps in mobile mode  Frequency Band  Dependent on country or continent (1800 ‐ 2400 MHz)  Higher frequency bands (2-8 GHz)  Bandwidth  5-20 MHz  100 MHz (or more)  Switching Design Basis  Circuit and Packet  All digital with packetized voice  Access Technologies  W-CDMA, 1xRTT, Edge  OFDM and MC-CDMA (Multi Carrier CDMA)  Forward Error Correction  Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3  Concatenated coding scheme 
  15. 15. 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE Major requirement driving architecture  3G (Including 2.5G, Sub3G) 4G Component Design  Optimized antenna design, multi-band adapters  Smarter Antennas, software multiband and wideband radios  IP   A number of air link protocols, including IP 5.0   All IP (IPv6)  Standard WCDMA, CDMA2000 Single Standard Multiplexing CDMA CDMA Core Network Packet Network Internet
  16. 16. Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been Deployed? <ul><li>3G performance may not be sufficient to meet needs of future high-performance applications like multi-media, full-motion video, wireless teleconferencing. We need a network technology that extends 3G capacity  by an order of magnitude.  </li></ul><ul><li>There are multiple standards for 3G making it difficult to roam and interoperate across networks. we need global mobility and service portability </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and high data rate to meet multimedia services requirements, together with the coexistence of different services needing different QoS. </li></ul><ul><li>We need wider bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>We need all digital packet network that utilizes IP in its fullest form with converged voice and data capability. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  17. 17. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Network configuration </li></ul><ul><li>RAN configuration </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  18. 18. Network Configuration 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE MN MN PSTN/ ISND GW 3G RAN MT GW MT MT MT CN INTERNET WLAN 4G RAN 4G RAN 4G RAN
  19. 19. Ran Configuration 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  20. 20. Objectives <ul><li>The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G wireless communication standard: </li></ul><ul><li>A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site) </li></ul><ul><li>High network capacity: more simultaneous users per cell </li></ul><ul><li>A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R </li></ul><ul><li>A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability with existing wireless standards and </li></ul><ul><li>An all IP, packet switched network </li></ul><ul><li>In summary, the 4G system should dynamically share and utilise network resources to meet the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled users. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  21. 21. Approaches <ul><li>Consideration points </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage, radio environment, spectrum, services, business models and deployment types, users </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  22. 22. Refresher 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  23. 23. Principal Technologies <ul><li>Baseband techniques [9] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OFDM : To exploit the frequency selective channel property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIMO : To attain ultra high spectral efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbo principle : To minimize the required SNR at the reception side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptive radio interface </li></ul><ul><li>Modulation , spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  24. 24. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) <ul><li>Transmission technique based on FDM </li></ul><ul><li>In FDM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple signals are sent out at the same time, but on different frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In OFDM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single transmitter transmits on many different orthogonal (independent) frequencies (typically dozens to thousands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequencies closely spaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each only has room for Narrowband signal </li></ul></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  25. 25. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) <ul><li>Advantage of OFDM </li></ul><ul><li>High spectrum efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance against multipath interference </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of filtering out noise </li></ul><ul><li>Combining OFDM technique with other techniques (possible to achieve more advantages e.g. MC-CDMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage of OFDM </li></ul><ul><li>Suffers from time-variations in the channel : severely degrades performance </li></ul><ul><li>Circuitry must be very linear </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  26. 26. Components - Access schemes <ul><li>Recently, new access schemes like Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), Interleaved FDMA and Multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>WiMax is using OFDMA in the downlink and in the uplink. For the next generation UMTS, OFDMA is being considered for the downlink. </li></ul><ul><li>By contrast, IFDMA is being considered for the uplink since OFDMA contributes more to the PAPR related issues and results in nonlinear operation of amplifiers. </li></ul><ul><li>IFDMA provides less power fluctuation and thus avoids amplifier issues. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  27. 27. Components – IPV6 <ul><li>By the time that 4G is deployed, the process of IPv4 address exhaustion is expected to be in its final stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, in the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. </li></ul><ul><li>By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation (NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices. </li></ul><ul><li>In the context of 4G, IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better multicast, security, and route optimization capabilities. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  28. 28. Components - Advanced Antenna Systems <ul><li>Transmitting & receiving antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve problem of diminishing spectrum availability </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require increase power or additional frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Fix no. of beams that can be selected to follow devices as it moves about </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less power use for transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in handoff rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase security </li></ul></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  29. 29. 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  30. 30. Components – Software-Defined Radio (SDR) <ul><li>SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). </li></ul><ul><li>Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology, which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  31. 31. What is needed to Build 4G Networks of Future? <ul><li>Lower Price Points Only Slightly Higher than Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>More Coordination Among Spectrum Regulators Around the World </li></ul><ul><li>More Academic Research </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization of wireless networks </li></ul><ul><li>A Voice-independent Business Justification Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Integration Across Different Network Topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-disruptive Implementation </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  32. 32. 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  33. 33. THE CREW: CURRENT R&D <ul><li>Alcatel, Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Siemens founded the Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in early 2001 (www.wireless-world-research.org). </li></ul><ul><li>That forum's objective is to formulate visions on strategic future research directions for the wireless field. </li></ul><ul><li>The timeframe for these reflections is in the range of 7 to 12 years from now. The main deliverables of the WWRF are white papers on emerging-technology topics and its seminal Book of Visions. </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  34. 34. Wireless Future -> Issues and Threats <ul><li>Wireless Spam </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Standards </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  35. 35. Developments/ Industry Initiatives <ul><li>The Japanese company NTT DoCoMo has been testing a 4G communication system prototype with 4x4 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100 Mbit/s while moving, and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. </li></ul><ul><li>Digiweb, an Irish fixed and wireless broadband company, has announced that they have received a mobile communications license from the Irish Telecoms regulator, ComReg. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprint plans to launch 4G services in trial markets by the end of 2007 with plans to deploy a network that reaches as many as 100 million people in 2008 and has also announced WiMax service called Xohm. Tested in Chicago, this speed was clocked at 100 Mbit/s. </li></ul><ul><li>WWRF (Wireless World Research Forum)- consisting of Alcatel, Ericsson, Nokia and Siemens have started a research forum for 4G </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  36. 36. Applications <ul><li>• E-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>• Business/Work </li></ul><ul><li>• Private Life </li></ul><ul><li>• Vehicular </li></ul><ul><li>• Public Place </li></ul><ul><li>• Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>• Education </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  37. 37. 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  38. 38. References <ul><li>Mobility Management Challenges and Issues in 4G Heterogeneous Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Sadia Hussain, Zara Hamid and Naveed S. Khattak Department of Computer Sciences,MCS, NUST, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>4G Wireless Systems in Virtex-II by James A. Watson -- Manager, Applications Engineering, Xilinx, Inc. (7/1/01 -- Issue 40) jim.watson@xilinx.com </li></ul><ul><li>Y Raivio, “4G - Hype or Reality”. In IEE 3G Mobile Communication Technologies , Conference Publication, Mar.2001, No 477, pp. 346-350. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Janny Hu,Willie W. Lu ,“Open Wireless Architecture - The Core to 4G Mobile Communications”. In Proceedings of ICCT, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Juuso Pesola, Sami Pönkänen,”Location-aided Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks”. In Wireless Personal Communications ,Volume 30 , Issue 2-4 , September 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Jawad Ibrahim (December 2002). &quot;4G Features&quot; (PDF). Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal . Retrieved on 2007-03-26 .   </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  39. 39. <ul><li>http://www.wirelessnewsfactor.com/perl/story/6186.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.charmed.com/html/press/articles/47.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://209.249.142.27/nnpm/owa/NRpublicreports.usageweekly </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>www.google.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikipedia.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.slideshare.net </li></ul><ul><li>www.4g.in </li></ul><ul><li>www.4G.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>www.futuregeneration-research.com </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics for u </li></ul>3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE
  40. 40. THANK YOU 3/18/2009 Department of Electronics and Communication, SBMJCE

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