Hybrid innovation (Yuwei Lin paper)


Published on

Collaboration Between FLOSS Community and Corporations

Published in: Economy & Finance, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hybrid innovation (Yuwei Lin paper)

  1. 1. Collaboration Between FLOSS Community and Corporations Comments on: Hybrid Innovation: How Does the Collaboration Between the FLOSS Community and Corporations Happen? Yuwei Lin, 2006 Master on Free Software
  2. 2. Overview ● Introduction ● A Community of Open Source Practices ● Working Practices in OSS Firms ● The Working Relationship Between the FLOSS Community and Firms ● Tensions in the Hybrid Collaboration ● The Hybrid Identity of OSS Developers ● The Heterogeneous FLOSS Social World Master on Free Software
  3. 3. Ghost Slide Would you like to comment on... ... hybrid innovation? ... the stealing of knowledge? ... social networking? ... identity building? ... hybrid developers? ... from hackers to developers? Master on Free Software
  4. 4. Introduction ● Yuwei Lin is a sociologist interested in ● FLOSS, virtual communities, IT ● This is a qualitative study ● There is not a single number on it ● IT is based in 10 semi-structured interviews ● A knot of opinion and very smart Master on Free Software
  5. 5. Introduction ● FLOSS-based products are maturing ● We are facing a hybrid innovation model ● Resources from the community ● Resources from companies ● Almost boundless space for experimentation Master on Free Software
  6. 6. Introduction ● Hackers, they get hired by companies ● Companies are less flexible than communities ● But hackers inside firms, still behave like hackers ● This leads to hybrid innovation ● The paper shows the dynamics of this innovation Master on Free Software
  7. 7. Introduction ● Cases of hybrid innovation ● Ubuntu | Debian ● StarOffice | OpenOffice ● Red Hat | Fedora Master on Free Software
  8. 8. Open Source Practices ● Decisions in FLOSS go across sociological boundaries ● Sharing source code ● Trying releases ● Reporting bugs ● These are based on ideals Master on Free Software
  9. 9. Open Source Practices ● Boundaries are needed to preserve heterogeneity in the society ● Members travelling across boundaries is a form of communication ● Mutual shaping of two different organisational cultures Master on Free Software
  10. 10. Working practices in OSS firms ●Collaboration between FLOSS community and companies ● Institutionalises the OSP ● Brings hackers to the social world Master on Free Software
  11. 11. Working practices in OSS firms ● Massive usage of ICTs and virtual communication in FLOSS ● Corporations start to communicate like this among them (ObjectWeb) ● They are still companies, love paperwork, meetings, routine... ● But, they appear to be more liberal... Master on Free Software
  12. 12. Working practices in OSS firms Do you volunteer for work in your companies? Master on Free Software
  13. 13. Working practices in OSS firms ● OSS companies follow a mixture ● They pursue profit (deadlines, customers, money) ● Hackers are put in a cage (smaller group, specific projects, certain colleagues) ● They keep linked to the community (Ubuntu hiring people working together in Debian) Master on Free Software
  14. 14. Working practices in OSS firms “It's very rare that I [post] question[s] on the Internet. Although I sign [up] for my local Linux community at home, usually I can find the answer to my question on the [firm's] internal mailing list” I call this, stealing of knowledge. It is part of the mutual reshaping. What do you think? Master on Free Software
  15. 15. Working practices in OSS firms ● They say, clients and markets are the driving forces for firms to innovate “[Un]like KDE developers just do it because they want to do it, we [company employees] have clients, [...] the application [...] must be pretty stable” Commitments and clients, boost quality? Master on Free Software
  16. 16. Working practices in OSS firms ● But clients want to feel “at home” “Everything we do is just a little variation on what we did a couple of years ago [...] you need a reason for going somewhere else” Commitments and clients, restrain innovation! Master on Free Software
  17. 17. Working practices in OSS firms In FLOSS, you do not need a reason for going somewhere else. Do a web search for PAWM... Master on Free Software
  18. 18. Working practices in OSS firms ● But you still need customers, so how to fix this? ● They have to understand OSS ● There is only advantages for customers ● Making them understand = convincing them Master on Free Software
  19. 19. Working practices in OSS firms ● Where to find such customers? ● Linux-related conferences ● Virtual platforms ● Snowballing contacts ● Social networking “Knowing people is extremely important for a small company” Master on Free Software
  20. 20. Working practices in OSS firms Can you find the sponsors of the GUADEC, AKADEMY and GUADEMY? Master on Free Software
  21. 21. Relation Between Community and Firms ● There is a mutual dependency ● Companies know that they need the community “The community is actually necessary. It is. Because that's the form to share interests and to communicate” Master on Free Software
  22. 22. Relation Between Community and Firms ● The mutual-help model ● Bugs-reporting and Patches-contributing ● Social Networking ● Identity Building ● License Scheme Master on Free Software
  23. 23. Relation Between Community and Firms ● Bugs-reporting and Patches-contribution ● You fix and report if you want others to do the same ● If volunteers feel detracted, there will not be more contributions Master on Free Software
  24. 24. Relation Between Community and Firms What do you think about companies requesting a copyright cession with code contributions? Master on Free Software
  25. 25. Relation Between Community and Firms ● Social Networking ● Social capital in FLOSS provides innovation opportunities “people starting to contribute to the project and you never asked them to do it” “You get many friends when you do free software” Master on Free Software
  26. 26. Relation Between Community and Firms ● Identity building ● The community provides identity ● People identify themselves with their projects like employees identify themselves with their companies ● A prominent project, a stronger identity “be known as competent and helpful” Master on Free Software
  27. 27. Relation Between Community and Firms ● Licensing scheme ● Some OSS licenses are invented to fit a corporations' needs ● In firms, licensing schemes are chosen with practicality over morality ● OSS licenses engage actors Master on Free Software
  28. 28. Relation Between Community and Firms Would you recommend to your company creating a new tailored license? Master on Free Software
  29. 29. Tensions in the Hybrid Collaboration ●When the firms are dealing with business, complying with the OSP is no longer in their agenda ●This is the only way companies can loose trust Master on Free Software
  30. 30. The Hybrid Developers ● Developers in OSS companies keep close to the community ● They hold a double role ● Profit and customers ● Contributions to the community ● They are flexible, since they can get resources from both sides of the relationship Master on Free Software
  31. 31. The Hybrid Developers ● A developer works in networking software ● She volunteers in scripts detecting vulnerabilities ● The scripts get better in the community ● She uses them to find flaws in her networking software ● She is profiting from her position ● Did we mention that the networking software does not have to be OSS? Master on Free Software
  32. 32. The Heterogeneous FLOSS Social World ● Sharing the OSP ● Hybrid innovation ● Community experimentation ● Putting it into the market ● Standardisation of the hacker => developer Master on Free Software
  33. 33. The Heterogeneous FLOSS Social World Open and tolerant social structure where Us and Them can live together and cooperate while Others have the right to express their views Master on Free Software