Debianintro

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  • 1. Debian Intro Introduction to the Debian Operating System Teo Romera
  • 2. Index
    • Introduction
    • Debian Size
    • The Debian Philosophy
    • Release Strategy
    • The Advanced Packaging Tool
  • 3. Let's start with you
    • What do you know about Debian?
    • How do you use Debian?
    • What do you like about Debian?
    • What you do not like about Debian?
    • I switched from Red Hat Linux 5.1 to Debian Slink in June 1999...
    • ... switched to Ubuntu in Nov. 2004.
  • 4. Introduction
    • Debian GNU/Linux Operating System
    • Started in 1993
    • Founder, Ian Murdock (Debra)
    • One of the largest FLOSS projects
    • One of the most successful FLOSS projects
    • Influential: base for many other distributions
  • 5. Introduction
    • Unique in its instance towards the philosophy of Free Software
    • The Advanced Packaging Tool
    • Strict quality control for the releases
    • Feature based release management
    • Pure FLOSS development processes
  • 6. Debian Size
    • Probably the biggest FLOSS project
    • +26000 software packages
    • Supporting 11 different architectures
    • +1000 contributors
  • 7. Debian Size
    • Debian size over time
  • 8. Debian Size
    • “ Measuring Etch: The size of Debian 4.0” by Juan José Amor et alt.
    • Windows XP ~40.000.000 SLOC
    • Fedora Core 3 ~70.000.000 SLOC
    • Debian ~280.000.000 SLOC
    • ... that means 10.000.000.000 $ with COCOMO!
    • http://libresoft.dat.escet.urjc.es/debian-counting/
  • 9. Debian Size
    • The Linux kernel size grows exponentially
  • 10. Debian Size
    • What do you think about this growth rate?
    • Do you think this applies to Debian too?
    • “ Every year (plus a month or so) both the total number of projects and lines of code double! The interesting question is: Can Open Source sustain this exponential growth?”
    • -- Amit Deshpande
  • 11. The Debian Philosophy
    • Debian is in the FLOSS hard wing
    • The Debian Free Software Guidelines are the foundation of the OSI's Open Source Definition
    • There is also The Debian Constitution and The Debian Social Contract
    • These documents formalize the Debian Philosophy
    • Software for the Public Interest
  • 12. The Debian Philosophy
    • The Debian Social Contract
      • Debian will remain 100% free
      • We will give back to the free software community
      • We will not hide problems
      • Our priorities are users and free software
      • (Allow) Works that do not meet our free software standards
  • 13. The Debian Philosophy
    • The Debian Free Software Guidelines
      • Free Redistribution
      • Source Code
      • Derived Works
      • Integrity of the Author's Source Code
      • No discrimination against persons or groups
      • No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor
      • Distribution of License
      • License Must Not Be Specific to Debian
      • License Must Not Contaminate Other Software
      • Example Licenses
  • 14. The Debian Philosophy
    • All Debian packages are structured in three groups
      • Main: They follow the DFSG
      • Contrib: They follow the DFSG, but their dependencies may not do it
      • Non-Free: They do not fulfill the DFSG
      • ...
  • 15. The Debian Philosophy
    • What do you think about the Debian Philosophy? Is it too strict?
    • What licenses do you believe to be accepted by Debian?
    • Can you find out what is happening with Debian, the GFDL and its invariant sections ? What happened back in 2005?
  • 16. Release Strategy
    • FLOSS is characterized by a highly iterative development model
    • With frequent releases
    • But there is always problems with stable releases
    • Coordination is specially difficult in release time
  • 17. Release Strategy
    • Types of releases in terms of the audience they are intended to
      • Development releases: for developers and experienced users
      • Major releases: for users, well tested, full of features and functionality
      • Minor releases: updates, critical defects, security bug fixes
  • 18. Release Strategy
    • Types of releases in terms of the release strategy
      • Feature based releases: when a set of features is ready and tested. Traditional software development.
      • Time based releases: there is a planned date for the release. Features that are not ready then, are not included in the release.
  • 19. Release Strategy
    • Debian follows feature based releases
    • The Debian branches
      • Etch (Current Stable Version): security updates
      • Lenny (Current Testing Version): stability and newer updates. Most used.
      • Unstable (sid): may not work as you expect
    • Ever used sid for a while?
  • 20. Release Strategy
    • Very strict criteria for a package to be included in a release
      • It sits in unstable for a time
      • Less release-critical bugs than the one in testing?
      • Compiles for all the architectures?
      • The same for all its dependencies?
      • Then take it into testing
      • The package freezes when testing does
      • There is a new release
  • 21. Well, not as simple as that... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Debian-package-cycle.png © Martin F. Krafft
  • 22. Release Strategy
    • The Debian project suffers from increasingly delayed and unpredictable releases
    • Debian Sarge 3.1 planned for Dec. 2003 and finally released in June 2005
    • Software that is considered out of date
    • Did not run on modern hardware
  • 23. Release Strategy
    • What do you think about this release strategy?
    • How would a time based release strategy affect Debian's robustness and security?
    • ... and popularity?
    • Do you think Ubuntu is more popular because it uses time based releases?
  • 24. The Advanced Packaging Tool
    • APT has always been the killer feature of Debian (IMHO)
    • APT brought more users to Debian
    • Previously there was dselect
    • Ever used dselect ?
    • Do it now...
    • ... you will want to swallow your tongue and die in horrid pain
  • 25. The Advanced Packaging Tool
    • “ I was attacked by dselect as a small child and have since avoided debian”
    • -- Andrew Morton
    • (Linux Kernel developer)
  • 26. The Advanced Packaging Tool
    • Nowadays Synaptic, KPackage or aptitude are front-ends to APT
    • APT can:
      • apt-get update
      • apt-cache search for new packages
      • apt-get upgrade packages
      • apt-get install or remove packages
      • apt-get dist-upgrade distributions
  • 27. The Advanced Packaging Tool
    • Some tips for APT
      • Try it with bash_completion
      • Install apt-file
      • Apt pinning = Lock Version in Synaptic
  • 28. Some Links
    • The Debian Project
          • http://www.debian.org/
    • The Debian Reference
          • http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/reference/
    • The Apt HOWTO
          • http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/
    • Release Management in Free Software Projects: Practices and Problems, by Martin Michlmayr et alt.
          • http://www.cyrius.com/publications/