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Velocity and acceleration

Velocity and acceleration






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    Velocity and acceleration Velocity and acceleration Presentation Transcript

    • Velocity and Acceleration
      8SCIENCE Thurs. May 5/Fri. May 6
    • Review: Forces and Motion/Speed
      What is speed?
      Rate of change of a position
      How do you calculate average speed?
      Average speed = total distance
      What is displacement?
      Change in position including a direction
      What is velocity?
      Rate of change of displacement
    • How Velocity and Acceleration are related
      Velocity provides more information by including a direction of movement
      You can sense a change in velocity
      Example: when a car starts driving and quickly slows down, you can feel a change in velocity
      • When you slow down or stop, your body may push against the seatbelt
      These changes in velocity: speeding up, slowing down and turning are all forms of acceleration
    • Acceleration
      Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity (speed with direction)
      Acceleration may be positive or negative:Positive – accelerates in the direction it is moving (speeds up)
      Ex: riding your bike forward and pedal harder to speed up
      Negative – accelerates in the opposite direction to its movement (slows down)
      Ex: riding your bike and pushing the brake slows you down
    • Positive and Negative Acceleration
    • Calculating Acceleration
      Average acceleration (a) = change in velocity (v₂ - v₁)
      time (t)
      Usually in m/s²
      Example: If a student takes 2 s (seconds) to go from velocity of 0m/s to a velocity of 4m/s, what is the average acceleration?
      Example: If a car begins at a velocity of 2m/s and then speeds up to 18m/s over 4 s what is the average acceleration?
      Example: What does it mean if your acceleration is 0m/s?
      - This means you are not moving or that you are moving at a constant speed, and not speeding up/slowing down i.e. parked car, driving at a constant rate of 60km/h
    • Motion: Calculating Acceleration minilab pg. 152
      Work with a partner. One of you should clap a slow, steady beat. The other partner should move along the taped course, stepping beside each line on the piece of tape.
      You should try and step beside each piece of tape on the beat of your partner’s claps.
      Create the table below to record information: Calculate the change in displacement (velocity) and the change in velocity (acceleration) for each time
      *Remember: velocity = displacement time
      Displacement = change
      in position
      Acceleration = final velocity – initial velocity
      time4) Experience negative acceleration by moving through the course from 3.6 – 0 while your partner claps a steady beat.
      As you move through the course forward and backward, does your velocity change?