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Velocity and acceleration

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Velocity and acceleration

1. 1. Velocity and Acceleration<br />8SCIENCE Thurs. May 5/Fri. May 6<br />
2. 2. Review: Forces and Motion/Speed<br />What is speed?<br />Rate of change of a position<br />How do you calculate average speed?<br />Average speed = total distance<br /> time <br />What is displacement?<br />Change in position including a direction<br />What is velocity?<br />Rate of change of displacement<br />
3. 3. How Velocity and Acceleration are related<br />Velocity provides more information by including a direction of movement<br />You can sense a change in velocity<br />Example: when a car starts driving and quickly slows down, you can feel a change in velocity <br /><ul><li>When you slow down or stop, your body may push against the seatbelt </li></ul>These changes in velocity: speeding up, slowing down and turning are all forms of acceleration<br />
4. 4. Acceleration<br />Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity (speed with direction)<br />Acceleration may be positive or negative:Positive – accelerates in the direction it is moving (speeds up)<br />Ex: riding your bike forward and pedal harder to speed up<br />Negative – accelerates in the opposite direction to its movement (slows down)<br />Ex: riding your bike and pushing the brake slows you down<br />
5. 5. Positive and Negative Acceleration<br />POSITIVE<br />POSITIVE<br />NEGATIVE<br />
6. 6. Calculating Acceleration<br />Average acceleration (a) = change in velocity (v₂ - v₁)<br /> time (t)<br />Usually in m/s²<br />Example: If a student takes 2 s (seconds) to go from velocity of 0m/s to a velocity of 4m/s, what is the average acceleration?<br />Example: If a car begins at a velocity of 2m/s and then speeds up to 18m/s over 4 s what is the average acceleration?<br />Example: What does it mean if your acceleration is 0m/s?<br />- This means you are not moving or that you are moving at a constant speed, and not speeding up/slowing down i.e. parked car, driving at a constant rate of 60km/h<br />
7. 7. Motion: Calculating Acceleration minilab pg. 152<br />Work with a partner. One of you should clap a slow, steady beat. The other partner should move along the taped course, stepping beside each line on the piece of tape.<br />You should try and step beside each piece of tape on the beat of your partner’s claps. <br />Create the table below to record information: Calculate the change in displacement (velocity) and the change in velocity (acceleration) for each time<br />*Remember: velocity = displacement time<br />Displacement = change <br />in position<br />Acceleration = final velocity – initial velocity<br />time4) Experience negative acceleration by moving through the course from 3.6 – 0 while your partner claps a steady beat.<br />QUESTION: <br />As you move through the course forward and backward, does your velocity change?<br />