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Energy in motion
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Transcript

  • 1. Energy in Motion
    8SCIENCE Mon. May 16
  • 2. How is energy related to motion?
    Energy of matter in motion is called kinetic energy
    Energy is the ability to cause a change or do work
    Energy can be transferred between objects
    Ex.: energy can be transferred through the momentum of objects (chest bounce)
    Ex: chemical energy in a person gives muscles energy to kick a ball; energy is transferred from the leg and foot to the ball and the ball accelerates and gains the kinetic energy
  • 3. Law of Conservation of Energy
    Ex: as you kick a soccer ball, the energy from your leg is the same amount of energy transferred to the ball
    This is the law of conservation of energy:
    Energy is neither created or destroyed, but can only transform from one form to another
  • 4. Calculating kinetic energy
    Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of its motion
    Depends on mass and velocity
    Kinetic energy = ½ (mass) (velocity)²
    KE = ½ mv²
    Unit of energy is called the joule (J), named for James Joule, a scientist
    (1 joule = 1 kg x m²/s²)
  • 5. Potential Energy
    Potential energy is the stored energy of a position
    Ex: a book about to fall off a table has potential energy – if you knock it off, it will accelerate towards the ground because of gravity
    Gravitational potential energy (GPE) is the energy an object could change to kinetic energy if it falls
    Depends on the mass (m) and height (h)
    GPE = (mass) (force of gravity) (height)
    GPE = mgh
  • 6. How are GPE and KE related?
    Ex: Throwing a ball into the air
    When you first throw a ball into the air, ithas kinetic energy (KE) because it is moving
    As it reaches a point in the air and stops moving, this kinetic energy changes to potential energy
    This potential energy changes to kinetic energy as the ball falls back towards the ground
    Ex: Imagine you are riding a slide
    At the top, you have potential energy, before you let yourself move down the slide
    As you fall, this changes to kinetic energy because you are moving