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  • 1. embargo • Protest strike • Peasant strike • Farm workers’ strike • Refusal of Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations byMock funerals • Demonstrative funerals • Homage at burial places • impressed labor • Prisoners’ strike • Craft strike • Sympathetic strike • Slowdown organizations and institutions • Signed public statements • Declarations Handbook forAssemblies of protest or support • Protest meetings General strike • strike • Working to rule strike • Reporting “sick” (sick in) • of indictment or intention • Group or mass petitions • Slogans, • Teach-ins •Walk-outs • Silence • Renouncing honors • Turning one’s back • Social Nonviolent Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance • Refusal of public support • Literature caricatures, and symbols • Banners, posters, and displayedboycott • Lysistratic nonaction • • Boycott of legislative•bodies • Boycott of Excommunication Suspension of and speeches advocating resistance Action communications • Leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Newspapers andsocial and sports activities • Boycott of social affairs • Student strike and elections • Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents • Removal of own signs • journals • Skywriting and earthwwriting • Deputations • Mock awards •Withdrawal from socialaccept appointed Stay-at-home • to dissolve existing placemarks • Refusal to institutions • officials • Refusal Total personal Group lobbying • Picketing • Mock elections • Displays of flags andnoncooperation Reluctant and slow compliance boycott • organizations • • Sanctuary • Consumers’ • Nonobedience in absence of direct symbolic colors • Wearing of symbols • Prayer and worship • DeliveringNonconsumption of boycotted goods •meeting to disperse • Sitdown • Civil supervision • Refusal of an assemblage or Rent withholding • Refusal to symbolic objects • Protest disrobings • Destruction of own property •rent • Nationalof “illegitimate”boycott • Workers’ boycott • Producers’ disobedience consumers’ laws • Selective refusal of assistance by government Symbolic lights • Displays of portraits • Paint as protest • New signs and A nonviolenceboycott • Blocking of lines of command and information • training handbookof aides • Suppliers’ and handlers’ boycott • Lockout • Refusal Stalling and obstruction • for direct action against names • Symbolic sounds • Symbolic reclamations • “Haunting” officials nuclear weaponsindustrial administrative•noncooperationof JudicialdepositsOak Ridge Mutiny • General assistance Withdrawal • bank noncooperation • TN to pay in • Refusal • Taunting officials • Fraternization • Vigils • Humorous skits and pranks The Oak Ridge Environmentalfees, dues orevasions and delaysRefusal to pay debts or interest •• Severance Quasi legal assessments • • Withholding of diplomatic Peace Alliance relations June • Performances of plays and music • Singing • Marches • Parades •Severance of funds or • Withdrawal from international • International trade of diplomatic relations credit • Domestic embargo organizations • Refusal of Religious processions • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Political mourning •
  • 2. Contents Introduction 4 • sample agenda Opening Exercises 6 • history circle 7 • timeline 8 • violence/nonviolence spectrum History and Overview of the Principles of Nonviolence 9 • overview 11 • video segments 13 • discussion questions 17 • fear 19 • role playing OREPA Oak Ridge and International Law Issues 25 • international law 27 • court statements Civil Disobedience 33 • affinity groups 36 • consensus decision-making Logistics/Plans for August 38 • scenario 39 • arrest process 43 • jail strategies OREPA thanks 47 • jail in anderson countyMary Dennis LentschLissa McLeod Shelley Exercises for Centering and Closing ○ ○Wascom Kip Williams 50 • centering exercises ○ and Ralph Hutchison ○ 52 • imagining exercise ○ for preparing this 53 • closing exercise ○handbook for nonvio ○ Appendix ○ lent direct action ○ 56 • handout sheets ○ ○ Thanks also to all 65 • international law brochure ○ those groups whose 67 • communication/consensus booklet ○ 71 • CD resister card ○ history and ideas have ○ 72 • songsheet inspired and guided us ○ ○ in Oak Ridge as we ○work for change Many ○ of the pieces in this ○ additional copies of this handbook are available from: ○ booklet we have The Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance ○ adopted or adapted P O Box 5743 ○ ○ from our partners and Oak Ridge, TN 37831 ○ colleagues in the www stopthebombs org ○ ○ movement donations to defray the cost of printing and mailing gratefully accepted 2
  • 3. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worship IntroductionTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- The Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance has provided nonvio- lence trainings for over ten years in conjunction with actions at the Y12 nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. OREPA members contrib- uting to this collection/chronicling of activities have been trainers and facilitators at various trainings and members of the Gathering Community of Nonviolence. The Gathering Community was birthed by OREPA to encourage deeper thinking about and practice of nonviolent resistance. Some of these exercises are our own creations; some have been borrowed and adapted from other sources. All have been used in Oak Ridge to prepare people to take action against the ongoing building of nuclear weapons at Y12 and the military-industrial complex in the United States. This book provides a variety of resources for individuals or organizations who want to hold nonviolence trainings in their own communities. We envision this booklet being used as a starting point for tailoring a nonviolence training that meets your needs. Not every exercise would be appropriate for every training; instead, this is a compilation of exercises we have used at various trainings over the years. These exercises could be used to create a training for: • people planning to come to Oak Ridge for August 6 activities—whether or not they plan to do civil disobedience here—or if they are still undecided about whether they will; • an affinity group coming to Oak Ridge as they prepare themselves for civil disobedience; • giving a background and opportunity to grow in nonviolence for the general public and /or those without much experience in nonviolence; • people with civil disobedience histories wanting to continue their explora- tion of nonviolence as strategy or lifestyle. continued… 3
  • 4. The exercises and information here ration for nonviolent action. can be selected and adapted for your own timeframe, as well: a day-long History and overview of OREPA, Oak training, a series of shorter trainings or Ridge and International Law issues an evening meeting. We have typically This section contains information created day-long trainings that aim at a about OREPA and operations at Y12 variety of participants—from the that can supplement the Stop the Bombs newcomer to nonviolence to the veteran video at a meeting or training. Also civil resister. included is information on international Each of the chapters focus on a law, how it applies to nuclear weapons different topic of nonviolence training. production, and how civil resisters can use this information in court. Opening exercises Meeting everyone in the room and Civil Disobedience getting a sense of our personal history This section gives basic information is a great way to open a nonviolence on civil disobedience, why do it, civil trainings. There are ice-breaker/ disobedience in Oak Ridge, what introduction exercises. We include a affinity groups are and how they couple we have found especially useful function within a larger action. It alsoThe exercises and in setting the tone for a nonviolence covers the basics of consensus decision ○ ○ training. making—the process OREPA uses for ○information here affinity groups to come to a decision. ○ ○ History and Overview can be selected ○ of the Principles of Nonviolence Logistics/Plans for August 6, 2005 ○ ○ and adapted for This section includes exercises or This section contains information ○ activities for reflection on people and specific to Tennessee law and the ○ your own ○ nonviolence movements, discussion scenario for action for this August, ○ questions on both history topics and including likely charges, consequences, ○ timeframe as ○ challenges within the practice of what to expect, etc. Support people for ○ nonviolent resistance, an exercise on the action can also find information on well: a day long ○ fear and action and exercises in prepa- ○ their role. ○ training a series ○ ○ of shorter ○ ○ SAMPLE AGENDA FOR A DAY-LONG TRAINING ○ trainings or an (9:00am – 4:30 pm) ○ ○ ○evening meeting Gathering/Registration ○ Welcome/ Introduction/ Logistics for the Day A Centering Exercise Opening Exercise: Way to get to know who’s in the room History Circle, Timeline or Nonviolence Spectrum Overview of History and Principles of Nonviolence Includes video segment and discussion questions History/ overview of OREPA, Oak Ridge, International Law Possible special topic discussion: discussion questions or fear exercise Logistics and Legal Issues Specific to August 6 in Oak Ridge Including scenario plans, legal consequences, jail solidarity Formation of Affinity group seeing if there are any people wanting to take that next step Role Plays / Practice Nonviolence Closing Exercise Modify as needed for time and specific topic needs. 4
  • 5. Exercises for Centering and Closing Preparing as a group for action and not This section includes various just as individuals also builds cohesionexercises, reflections, litanies, songs that within the entire group.could be used in designing a nonvio- Finally, even if you offer a nonvio-lence training. lence training and no one attending decides to participate in the civilAppendices disobedience scenario, the training Throughout this manual, you will helps begin or continue each person’sfind references to sheets that you might journey, helping them build confidencewant to reproduce for use in your and challenge their fears.training; these sheets are provided in The Y12 nuclear weapons plantthe back of the manual so you can tear won’t be shut down this year. Milita-them out and make copies. rism, racism and poverty will continue in this country past our individual WE RECOMMEND THAT GROUPS coming action. We need trained, thoughtful,to Oak Ridge prepare themselves with a committed resisters to dismantle thisfull day of training (or series of shorter system. Hosting a nonviolence trainingtrainings) that includes some exercises adds to this movement building.and information from each of the topicsections in this book. We believe that WHILE THIS TRAINING WORKBOOKreflection on and practice of nonvio- includes information on affinity groupslence is very important to the success of and decision making, it does nota nonviolent action, no matter what provide the process or the space for theyour experience level. Even if there are formation of a unique affinity group.people in attendance not planning to We believe that formation is its ownparticipate in civil disobedience, their process and needs time to unfold apartunderstanding of the action and sup- from the time available in this training.port of it strengthens the entire action. The purpose of training is for participants to form a common understanding of the use of nonviolence It gives a forum to share ideas about nonviolence oppression fears and feelings It allows people to meet and build solidarity with each other and provides an opportunity to form affinity groups It is often used as preparation for action and gives people a chance to learn about an action its tone and legal ramifications It helps people decide whether or not they will participate in an action Through role playing people learn what to expect from police officials other people in the action and themselves Handook for Nonviolent Action 5
  • 6. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worshipTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to Opening exercises • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- HISTORY CIRCLE Time needed: 15 minutes Supplies needed: none This exercise is good for reviewing nonviolent movements in this country and in getting to know a little more about who is in the room. By doing a history circle you get people up and moving, and you acknowledge participants’ history. Beginning the exercise: Ask everyone to make a circle (standing, if able). Explain that this exercise will give you a chance to get to know people’s history, as they choose to acknowledge it. People will identify themselves as belonging to a group by taking a step into the circle. They can self-identify with any of these categories they choose. After each category, return to the circle shape each time. Here are some of the categories we have used. Add or alter as fits your group and the time allotted. Who among us has? Participated in a rally/march/protest during the civil rights movement Been a Conscientious Objector during WW II Participated in protests against Vietnam War Participated in protests against the First Gulf War Been arrested for doing civil disobedience/resistance Spent time in jail or prison for CD/CR Refused to pay war taxes Been to a protest/rally in the last week Attended a World Trade Organization protest Protested against the Contra War Not attended a Nonviolence Training before 6
  • 7. Participated in protests against bombing of Afghanistan Marched with Martin Luther King, Jr. Been on a peace-making trip to another country—Central America,p Middle East, Russia, etc. Protested nuclear weapons in Oak Ridge, TN Been arrested for protesting nuclear weapons Protested nuclear weapons at a site other than Oak Ridge Done “duck & cover” drills in school Ever served in the military Participated in anti-apartheid movement Been to SOA protest in Columbus GA Crossed the line at SOA Been to Cuba Written a press release Helped organize a fundraiser Ever been to a National party political convention Ever protested at a National Convention (Democratic/Republican) Ever created a piece of art, poetry, music, etc. as a way to protest Consider self an anarchist Ever given money to a group working for social change Ever worked on efforts to improve or strengthen neighborhood Ever seen a stripmine Ever been a welfare recipient Ever lived below the poverty line Identified as a person of color Identified as LGBT Been a parent Has grandchildren Come to the U.S. from another birth country Ever contacted a legislator about legislation Ever spoken at a protest rally Ever performed at a protest rally Planning to go to Oak Ridge for Hiroshima Day protest TIMELINE (meets objectives similar to history circle.) Time needed: 15 minutes for filling out, additional time for people to read it. (This works well to have up for people to fill out as they arrive, and then look over during lunch break or other breaks.) Supplies needed: long paper on wall, prepared with timeline; pens, markers. This is an exercise we have used for people to think about resistance over the continued… 7
  • 8. past 100 years and to better understand our collective history. We often use this exercise for the first 15 minutes or so after people gather—during the usual “milling time” as people straggle in. You will need paper 6-10 feet in length, taped to the wall, and markers. Thepaper will need a timeline drawn midway from top to bottom across length of thepaper. Divide line with dates (1900, 1910, 1920, etc.) You can place some importantevents on the line or let participants fill it all in. Invite people to fill in political events above the line, and “acts of resistances”below the line. For example, 1914-1918 would have “WWI” on top of line. Underline someone may write “spent 2 years in jail for conscientious objection.” Invite people to look at the line later in the day, noting what people have puton timeline. It is also useful to use it to refer to in doing a review of nonviolencehistory.VIOLENCE/NONVIOLENCE SPECTRUM ACTIVITY Time: 15-30 minutes Supplies Needed: None There are some areas in which we all (or most of us) can agree that somethingis violent or nonviolent. However, this activity reveals that we don’t all have thesame definition of violence or nonviolence. In fact, over time each of us maychange our mind (more than once even) about what we consider violent. We dothis exercise to remind ourselves that peacemaking is an ongoing process and weshould open our hearts and minds to the learning process. It also helps us toremember that we each have a piece of the truth, and that no one has the wholetruth. Facilitator Instructions: Ask people to stand in a (generally) straight line. Designate one end of the line torepresent violent and the other end to represent nonviolent. Read the following list one at atime. After you read each item, ask people to move to the place on the line where they thinkthis item lies. Then ask a few folks to share why they feel the way they do. Then move on tothe next item. Spanking your children. You see someone beating someone else up. You go and hit that person to get them to stop. Spray painting peace and equality messages on the sign at a bomb plant. You’re protesting at the home of Donald Rumsfeld. During the protest a group of people smash the windshield of his car. Voting for legislation that discriminates against a group of people. Voting to go to war. Playing a video game that simulates bombing villages from an airplane. Watching a boxing match. Yelling at a counter protester. Feel free to add to this list. 8
  • 9. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners, History and Overview••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worship of the Principles ofTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to Nonviolence • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- OVERVIEW OF NONVIOLENCE After using the history circle or timeline exercise to get people reflecting on history, we often move into a section where we reflect together on non-violent movements for social change. We have found that a short exercise/presentation, a video, and discussion work well together. Time: 20-30 minutes Supplies needed: handouts – Martin Luther King, Jr. Principles of Nonvio- lence, easel pad, markers, tape if you choose to record responses in discussion. Start with the facilitator asking participants to name times in history when nonviolent action has created change. These may include • Indian independence • Danish resistance in WWII • Abolition of apartheid in South Africa • Abolition of slavery • Women’s suffrage • Labor organizing/ free speech/ the right to organize/ working conditions/ workplace regulation/ worker health and safety • Conscientious Objection • Civil rights/ desegregation/ Voting Rights Act • War tax resistance • Vietnam • Women’s liberation • Nuclear freeze/ Nevada Test Site/ Rocky Flats • The environmental movement • The United Farm Workers • Pittston coal strike • Nestlé boycott/infant formula • Central America/ Witness for Peace and Pledge of Resistance/ sanctuary move- ment • South Africa divestment campaigns • ACT UP! • Gulf War • School of Americas • Trident to Life/ Nukewatch/ Ploughshares/ Y12/ Stop the Bombs • Globalization/ the World Bank/ International Trade • Afghan war • International mobilization against US war on Iraq The facilitator then makes a brief presentation of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s principles of nonviolence. (If you want to distribute copies, there is a master of this handout in the Appendix.) continued… 9
  • 10. 1) Nonviolence is a way of life for courageous people. It is active nonviolent resistance to evil. It is aggressive spiritually, mentally and emotionally. It is always persuading the opponent of the righteousness of your cause.2) Nonviolence seeks to win friendship and understanding. The end result of nonviolence is redemption and reconciliation. The purpose of nonviolence is the creation of the Beloved Community.3) Nonviolence seeks to defeat injustice, not people. Nonviolence holds that evil doers are also victims. The nonviolent resister seeks to defeat evil, not people.4) Nonviolence holds that suffering can educate and transform. Nonviolence accepts suffering without retaliation. Nonviolence accepts violence if necessary, but will never inflict it. Nonviolence willingly accepts the consequences of its acts. Unearned suffering is redemptive and has tremendous educational and transforming possibilities. Suffering can have the power to convert the enemy when reason fails.5) Nonviolence chooses love instead of hate. Nonviolence resists violence of the spirit as well as the body. Nonviolent love is spontaneous, unmotivated, unselfish and creative. Nonviolent love gives willingly, knowing that the return might be hostility. Nonviolent love is active, not passive. Nonviolent love is unending in its ability to forgive in order to restore community. Nonviolent love does not sink to the level of the hater. Love for the enemy is how we demonstrate love for ourselves. Love restores community and resists injustice. Nonviolence recognizes the fact that all life is interrelated.6) Nonviolence believes that the universe is on the side of justice. The nonviolent resister has deep faith that justice will eventually win. Nonviolence believes that God is a God of justice and love. continued… 10
  • 11. Present OREPA’s Nonviolence Guidelines: Combining these principles with similar guidelines from a base Christian communityin Latin America, OREPA has created its own Nonviolence Guidelines. People participat-ing in Hiroshima Day activities in Oak Ridge will be asked to follow these guidelines. (Ifyou want to distribute copies, there is a master of this handout at the back of this book.) Be nonviolent in tone as well as action. Show respect for all people; each person has a piece of the truth. Always leave the other a face-saving way out. In difficult moments, behave as a disciple of nonviolence. Try to make human contact with your antagonist, meeting them on the level of your common humanity. Do not hide anything, Tell the truth. Be firm and unyielding in your commitment to nonviolence and your action for peace. Be courageous. Choose to love. Ask: On hearing/reading these guidelines and principles, which one speaksmost to you and why? Give participants a few moments to answer. Highlightplaces of agreement and disagreement.VIDEO SEGMENTS: Time Needed: 20-30 minutes (depending on video and amount of discussion) Supplies Needed: video to be shown, TV/VCR We have found that showing a video segment can often help participants move fromthinking about nonviolence mainly in their “heads” to connecting to their “heart” orfeelings. We choose one video segment to show and invite reflection afterwards on whatprinciples of nonviolence were highlighted in the video and what meaning that has for usand our action(s). This is certainly not an all-inclusive listing of video material; it is a sampling ofwhat we have used at past nonviolence trainings. If you have trouble finding anyof these, give a call and we can help you. Listed below are segments from videos that we have used and discussionquestions that can go with each segment. 1. Passbook burning scenes from the movie Gandhi. This is from South Africawhen Gandhi worked as an attorney there and first began to formulate nonviolentstrategies for dealing with unjust situations. An amazing example of courage. Discussion: How does this action that Gandhi takes fit into the principle that Kingcreated that says: Nonviolence holds that suffering can educate and transform? Whatsustains a person to take such an action? 2. The Salt March of 1931 in India, scenes from the movie Gandhi. We usuallystart this segment from the scene on the second video where Gandhi is talking withthe reporter (Mr. Walker, played by Martin Sheen) at his home by the sea. We thenrun for 15 minutes or so through the end of the occupation attempt at the saltworks factory where the reporter calls in a story and says, “Whatever moralascendancy the West may have had has been lost here today.” continued… 11
  • 12. This section chronicles Gandhi’s creation of the March and the British government’s response, including a great line about the nonviolent resister as the one who is in control, not the oppressor. Discussion: What was the point of the action at the salt works? Was there any larger point to the great suffering inflicted? Does this speak to you in any way as you prepare for an action in Oak Ridge? 3. The overthrow of the Pinochet government in Chile, from A Force More Powerful video series. We show the entire segment on Chile from this series. This segment includes discussions about violent v. nonviolent overthrows, overcoming fear and repression, and great organizing. It is generally available through public libraries. Discussion: At one point in this film several people reflect on the point at which the forces for government reform had to make a choice about whether they would engage in violent resistance, as other countries in Central and South America had, or whether they would choose nonviolent resistance. Do you feel they made the right choice? Why or why not? Is there always a “right choice”? Who should make those decisions? 4. The Danish Resistance in World War II, from A Force More Powerful video series. This segment raises questions about whether property damage is part of a nonviolent movement. We generally show the section from where the resistance is running off papers underground (in defiance of the occupying Nazis) to the end. Discussion: Are actions resulting in property damage still “nonviolent” if no life is taken? Is property damage ever justified? Always justified? What do King’s principles have to say on this point? 5. The Nashville Sit-ins 1960 from the Eyes on the Prize documentary series. This explores how students prepared themselves to meet violence in the early sit-in movement and the role of training. We usually show a segment that starts with Diane Nash and the sit-in movement in Nash- ville and runs through Mayor Ben West agreeing to desegregate lunch counters. On the Ain’t Afraid of Your Jails segment. This tape is often available in public libraries. Discussion: What nonviolence principles were most reflected in this video piece on the sit-ins? What strikes you the most about seeing this footage (as opposed to knowing the story)? 5. Mississippi Voter Registration and the role fear played in Freedom on My Mind. The segment we have shown starts with Bob Moses and the death of Herbert Lee and runs through Ida Mae’s reflections on how, despite her fear, she couldn’t give up. Discussion: How does fear affect people? What role does fear play in maintaining the status quo? How (or why) do people take action despite their fears? Reflect on the principle that asserts that nonviolence is an active, not a passive, force for courageous people. Do you agree or disagree? Why? 6. Interviews with the “Greensboro Four” on the 45th anniversary of the first lunch-counter sit-ins, from a PBS special. This segment tells the story of how the sit-ins first began, how unplanned they were, and the courage and fear involved in stepping out. Discussion: Does this interview surprise you? Why? Did you know that Diane Nash the tactic of lunchcounter sit-ins was just dreamed up one evening? What did other peopleEyes on the Prize do to support the actions of the Greensboro Four and spread the movement? Were there factors in place that enabled the movement to use this action? What are things we can do to help our actions have broader effects? 12
  • 13. 7. Women’s Suffrage movement, from Women in the 20th Century: SocialChange. This segment is not an introductory piece on nonviolence, but shows lesserknown pieces of this movement, including jail solidarity. It also explores the racismand classism in this movement and the role that different groups (radicals andmoderates) played in pushing the 19th amendment. Discussion: What pieces of racism or classism did you see in the movement forsuffrage? How are these factors still in place in movements today? What actions can wetake to challenge racism and classism and build stronger movements? Reflect on howdifferent groups played different roles in winning the right to vote. Is that true in othermovements? What part do you find yourself playing and why?DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Time needed: 30 minutes per question discussed Supplies needed: copy of discussion question for each group—see handoutsat back of section for copy-ready questions. If you want report backs, provideeach group with paper (large or small) and pens or markers. In the past, we have read the questions to the group and asked them to break intodiscussion groups according to the one question that most interests them. We have givendiscussion groups thirty minutes to discuss their question, and we have scheduled an hourfor the activity so that people have the opportunity to discuss two of the questions. It maybe helpful to have a spokesperson from each discussion share some of her/his group’s mainpoints when all the groups reconvene. Here are some questions we have used, followed by some quotes to considerduring discussions. The quotations help make sure that there are several sides ofeach question considered by the whole group. 1. In efforts to achieve peace and justice, history is full of both violent andnonviolent revolutions. Is violent resistance to injustice ever justified? Can youbring about justice and peace through violent means? Can you supportrevolutionary struggles for liberation without supporting the means? “I do not believe in short-violent-cuts to success. However much I maysympathize with and admire worthy motives, I am an uncompromisingopponent of violent methods even to serve the noblest causes. Experienceconvinces me that permanent good can never be the outcome of untruth andviolence.” ~ Gandhi “What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the home- 13
  • 14. less, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism orthe holy name of liberty or democracy?” ~ Gandhi “One pinpoint of clarity was that it was time for us to grow out of the shortpants of barbarism, of settling things by violence, and at least to get into the kneebreeches of honestly seeking and trying ways more fitted to our state as humans.” ~ Juanita Nelson “I have little hope of the freedom of the slave by peaceful means. A longcourse of peaceful slaveholding has placed the slaveholders beyond the reach ofmoral and humane considerations—The only penetrable point of a tyrant is thefear of death.” ~ Frederick Douglass “I do not wish to kill or be killed, but I can foresee circumstances in whichboth of these things would be by me unavoidable.” ~ Henry David Thoreau 2. Nonviolence has been used by those who believe in it as a way of life andthose that see it only as a strategy for political action. Can nonviolence be usedeffectively as only a tactic? Must it be a way of life? For everyone practicing it?For only the leaders? “One of the reasons so many people have developed strong reservationsabout the peace movement is precisely that they do not see the peace they seek inthe peacemakers themselves. Often what they see are fearful and angry peopletrying to convince others of the urgency of their protest. The tragedy is thatpeacemakers often reveal more of the demons they are fighting than the peacethey want to bring about.” ~ Henri Nouwen “The essence of nonviolence is love. Out of love and the willingness to actselflessly, strategies, tactics and techniques for a nonviolent struggle arise natu- rally. Nonviolence is not a dogma, it is a process.” ~ Thich Nhat Hahn “We live in a violent society, a violent world; that is, a world in which force is a vital mechanism used to keep the economic and social system intact. The laws of the land are supported by the use of violence; that is, the use of physical force to make people obey the law. This is the premise you have to start with. If you oppose things in that system, then all those powers of violence can be used to force you into line. As part of a minority group, you shouldn’t think in terms of playing the game by their rules, of using violence to get what you want, even if you don’t have any philosophical problem with it. On a level of strategy it’s quite obvious that you have to try and work out ways of creating social change which avoid coming intoviolent conflict with that power of the state.” ~ Myles Horton 14
  • 15. “I don’t think any one event, or any one day, or any one action, or any oneconfrontation wins or loses a battle. You keep that in mind and be practical aboutit. It’s foolish then to try and gamble everything on one roll of the dice—which is what violence really gets down to. I think the practical person has abetter chance of dealing with nonviolence than people who tend to bedreamers or who are impractical. We’re not nonviolent because we wantto save our souls. We’re nonviolent because we want to get somesocial justice for the workers. If all you’re interested in is goingaround being nonviolent and so concerned about saving yourself, atsome point the whole thing breaks down—you say to yourself,‘Well, let them be violent, as long as I’m nonviolent.’ Or youbegin to think it’s okay to lose the battle as long as youremain nonviolent, the idea is that you have to win and benonviolent. That’s extremely important! You’ve got to be nonviolent—and you’vegot to win with nonviolence! What do the poor care about strange philosophies ofnonviolence if it doesn’t mean bread for them?” ~ Cesar Chavez 3. Nonviolent practitioners contend that the strength of nonviolence comesfrom taking on suffering. How do we absorb pain and suffering when we createsocial disorder so great that something must yield. For example, what good do weaccomplish by taking actions that get us arrested? “You [the eight fellow clergymen who opposed the civil rights action] are quiteright in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action.Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension thata community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront theissue.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. “Somehow we must be able to stand up before our most bitter opponents andsay: ‘We shall match your capacity to inflict suffering by our capacity to enduresuffering. We will meet your physical force with soul force. Do to us what you willand we will still love you.’” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 4. What are the limits of nonviolence? One of OREPA’s nonviolence guidelinesis “Be nonviolent in tone as well as action.” Does this apply to people only? Also toproperty? Are there cases where property damage is necessary or justified? “Sabotage, resulting in impairing the traffic or property of a railway system, isalways ‘immoral’ from a capitalist’s standpoint because it is opposed to his [her]interests. On the other hand, discharging and blacklisting 3,000 railway employeesfor their activity in a strike is ‘immoral’ from the workers’ standpoint; and sabo-tage becomes a ‘moral weapon’ to remedy that condition. Sabotage as a weapon ofwarfare against the employers is no more ‘immoral’ than taking the first of May asa holiday without asking the bosses for it.” ~ Ben Williams, IWW organizer “In all the riots, taken together, the property damage reached colossal propor-tions (exceeding a billion dollars). Yet the physical injury inflicted by the Negroes 15
  • 16. upon white people was inconsequential by comparison. The bruising edge of theweapon of violence in Negro hands was employed almost exclusively againstproperty—not persons.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 5. What are the limits of nonviolence? Who are acceptable targets? Whatamount of suffering for others is okay? Is it justifiable for OREPA to take actions inthe Oak Ridge community that inconvenience community members, not justworkers at Y12? “[The workers] were on strike for three days. It was a general strike as far asthe railroads were concerned. It tied up transportation and communication fromParis to all the seaport towns. The strike had been on three days when the govern-ment granted every demand of the workers.” ~ William Haywood, on a strike in France in 1911 “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tensionthat a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confrontthe issue.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. “We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful wordsand actions of the bad people, but for the appalling silence of the good people.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 6. One of the principles of nonviolence is that everyone has a piece of the truth.What does that mean for how we treat people as individuals and as politicalfigures? Is there a difference? “The nonviolent approach does not immediately change the heart of theoppressor. It first does something to the hearts and souls of those committed to it.It gives them new self-respect; it calls up resources of strength and courage thatthey did not know they had. Finally it reaches the opponent and so stirs his [her]conscience that reconciliation becomes a reality.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 16
  • 17. FEAR Time needed: 45 minutes Supplies needed: candles, matches, copy of readings for each reader Fear is a powerful emotion that can limit our actions, often without us reallyunderstanding what we’re afraid of. Once we understand our fears, our responsi-bility doesn’t end. This is an exercise/reflection that invites participants to hear how other people—human rights advocates—have faced their own fears and still taken action. Italso asks participants to clarify their own fear. If in a large group, break people into circles of 10 – 12 people each. Light acandle in the center of each circle and invite people to get comfortable. Explain that we are going to spend the next 30 – 45 minutes thinking aboutfear. Ask participants to close their eyes and imagine themselves going to OakRidge in August. “Imagine yourself in Oak Ridge, you commemorate the victims of Hiroshima in the dawn light at the gates of Y12, tying peace cranes on the fence and listening to the bell tolling for the victims. You rally at Bissell Park and join hundreds and thousands (!!) in a march through Oak Ridge to the ○ ○ gates of Y12. “Courage is a way ○ “Notice the signs, and the puppets, and the banners. Look who is ○ ○ marching—grandparents, children, peace walkers, people who look like you of life Working ○ and people who don’t. Imagine that in the afternoon you join others in a ○ and struggling is ○ blockade of the gates of Y12, sitting in the road, arms linked. ○ “Imagine you are arrested by the police and taken to jail. As you imagine ○ how you become ○ these scenes, open yourself up to your fears. What things scare you? What ○ makes you uncomfortable? Sit with these feelings for a few minutes.” happy When you Give participants some time to be quiet and reflective. Then invite them to ○ ○ ○ ○ look back on yourlisten to the words of these men and women. Read each quote (one person may ○ life you should ○read all or you may have a different reader for each), leaving a few minutes of ○silence at the end of each reading. These readings come from Speak Truth to Power: ○ have changed the ○Human Rights Defenders who are Changing our World, by Kerry Kennedy Cuomo. ○ world somehow ” ○ ○ Senal Sarihan ○ Ms. Sarihan is a teacher, lawyer, union organizer, mother from Turkey. She has ○ ○been imprisoned and tortured for her writing and political activities. Courage is a way of life. Working and struggling is how you become happy. When youlook back on your life, you should have changed the world somehow. Of course humans arescared; being scared is a very human feeling. But you can’t live being scared. You have toovercome. And you know that those who are against you are really scared of you. You arenot doing this because of courage, you’re not ever thinking about courage. It has simplybecome your way of like. Sometimes I am really scared – for my children. But how nice itwill be if they have a mother that they can be proud of. So I struggle, until the end, so thatthey can be proud of me. Bobby Muller Bobby Muller is a Nobel Peace Prize winner for the Campaign to Ban LandMines and a Vietnam veteran. Courage for me means swimming against the tide. To go on in the face of adversity. Tobe willing to expose yourself to failure and ridicule. You have to be conscious of the fact that continued… 17
  • 18. you’re at risk and aware of what you can lose – to then go forward is a courageous act. To just act blindly, that’s not courageous. Loss is not only reputation and money, it’s security and possibly your life. And if you go in and face those risks and threats I think that’s greatness. You’re doing it not because you’re gonna get applauded at some point down the road or rewarded but because it’s right. Marian Wright Edelman Ms Edelman is the founder of Children’s Defense Fund and was active in the Civil Rights movement, particularly in Mississippi. Courage is just hanging in there when you get scared to death. One of the things that I remember about Dr. King is how as a young person he could always look scared to death. Look at his face in many of his pictures, he is depressed. He often did not know what he was going to do next. I remember him saying how terrified he was of the police dogs in the back of the car when he was being taken out to rural Georgia after being arrested. And in my little college diary, the first time I met him, I must have written down half of the speech he gave, about how you don’t have to see the whole stairway to take the first step. You can be scared but shouldn’t let it paralyze you. And he used to say over and over again, “If you can’t run, walk; if you can’t walk, crawl; if you can’t crawl, just keep moving.” That reflects courage. There comes a point in life when you look around and decide that this is not what life’s about. It is not what God meant for you. And you have to change things. And if that means dying, that’s fine. But it is not living. Otis Moss used ○ If I were sitting an analogy recently that the worst thing to happen to a bird is not to kill it, it’s to clip its ○ ○ wings, to clip its tongue. Many people were terrified in the civil rights days but terror is a ○ by myself part of living in an unjust system. I felt that when I went to Crossroads, the Cape Town ○ ○ camp out in South Africa. When I saw those young people, I saw myself thirty years ○ isolated I would earlier, and I knew they would just not stop. That’s courage – acting despite it all. ○ ○have gone crazy ○ Helen Prejean ○ Sr. Helen Prejean is a Catholic religious who works with death row inmates ○ But the minute I ○ and their families. ○ see a half dozen How did Hemingway put it? “Courage is grace under pressure,” Courage for me is ○ ○ very close to integrity. It means doing what you need to. Acting. Getting out there to ○of my colleagues change things. I don’t call it courage when I accompany someone to execution. That is an ○ ○ act of love. Though they may be courageous in the way they go to their death, holding on well it’s a jolly ○ to their dignity when they die. But for me, courage comes more in tackling the American ○ ○ day—I don’t feel system and believing and hoping in people so that we continue to change things. Courage ○ is that steadfastness to continue – even if it means that you are going to be threatened. ○ scared at all ○ Like when we did our first walks in Louisiana we would get these threatening calls, “You ○ bleeding-heart liberal, you murder-loving people,” or “I’m gonna give a donation to the ○ group in the form of quarters that are going to be melted down into bullets.” And cars stopped, and people gave you the finger, and they yelled at you. Because violence really does trigger violence. The whole thing of execution is “Get him, get him.” My dream is that human rights is what’s going to bring us into the new millennium, that the more and more we grow into the sense of community, our respect for each other, the dignity of people, that we can learn much better how to build a society. It comes back to me, the goodness, and that goodness inspires, energizes. You know how when Jesus was executed he said “Father forgive them, they know not what they are doing?” I really think that lack of consciousness and awareness is what makes us so insensitive to each other, and so we do these things to each other. If we bring people to consciousness and their own best hearts, they will respond. And so that is what we have to do. Asma Jahangir Ms. Jahangir and her sister Hina Jilani are at the forefront of women’s and human rights movements in Pakistan. Ms. Jahangir has been the subject of violent attacks and surveillance for years. I honestly tell you, I have been able to overcome fear. It was not easy. But every time I 18
  • 19. felt frightened I would go to the home of the Human Rights Commission’s director. I wouldinvite all our friends there and we would have a good laugh. A sense of humor and thewarmth of the people around has made me survive. If I were sitting by myself, isolated, Iwould have gone crazy. But the minute I see a half-dozen of my colleagues, well, it’s a jollyday—I don’t feel scared at all. Of course, our families have to pay the price for our commit-ment, I feel no guilt about it at all. I have thought about it very carefully. I think that if I die tomorrow my children will be well looked after. They have a verygood father. They have three grandparents who are still alive. They have an aunt who is notmarried. They are nearly grown, my children: 23, 21 and 17. So in terms of building theirvalues (which is what I was most interested in as their mother), they’ve got that. They haveto learn to live in a society that is very brutal and very violent. There is no guarantee foranything, and I think my children understand that now, appreciate it. They are veryworried for me. I have had to sit them down, and explain to them, and even sometimes jokewith them and say, “Okay, now what I am going to do is get myself insurance, so when Idie you will be rich kids.” They have gone through psychological trauma but they havedealt with it. It has made them stronger people. Once seven armed people came into my mother’s house (where [my sister] Hina lives),looking to kill me and my children. And they took my brother, my sister-in-law, my sisterand their kids as hostages. Hina had fortunately just left the house in the morning with mymother. We always joke with her that it was one hour to mincemeat. But is was really veryscary. That was one time that I was really upset about my family, extremely upset. And I appreciate very much that my brother and sister, especially, because they are nothuman rights activists, have never said, “Give up.” Never, ever have they said that thisdanger they experienced was because of me. That has been such a source of strength for me.They make me feel so proud. How can they be so decent about it? How can they be sounderstanding? It makes me more brave that there are people like them in this world. Closing: Invite people to share fears as they want. What is your greatest fear about participating in the action at Y12? How did hearingany of these people change your thoughts or feelings?ROLE PLAYING Time needed: 20 minutes for Hassle Lines 20 minutes per affinity group scenario role play. Supplies needed: nothing for Hassle Lines written instructions for scenarios, if you want to use them (can just orally instruct each group) After talking about the principles of nonviolence and what they mean to uspersonally, we have used role-playing exercises to practice using theprinciples. People some times have a hard time getting into the roles,but these exercises are helpful in identifying our fears about directaction and about engaging with people who don’t agree with us. Hasslelines allow short explorations of how to remain personally nonviolent intense situations. The affinity group role plays allow people to practicesupporting each other in situations as they unfold. Both are usefulexplorations and exercises. HASSLE LINE ROLE PLAY Hassle lines are short exercises, especially if you are disciplinedabout the de-briefing time. Even though they are quick, they can beintense; passions tend to surface quickly. Explain that during the hassle 19
  • 20. line exercise participants might identify that moment in a tense situation wherethey are about to break from their nonviolent commitment—when someonepushes your button or takes it a little bit too far. It is good to feel where that pointis and learn to handle it, to train ourselves, to develop some “muscle memory” wecan rely on when we are in a real situation. HASSLE LINE SCENARIOS 1. You are at a demonstration calling for an end to nuclear weapons, and a counter-protester begins to hassle you for what you’re doing. 2. You are standing at a demonstration in Oak Ridge calling for an end to nuclear weapons manufacture at the Y12 plant, and a member of the community begins to hassle you for being there and disturbing the peace of the commu- nity. 3. You are legally and peacefully protesting nuclear weapons production, and a police officer begins to threaten you with violence or with arrest.Facilitator instructions: Have people form two lines, facing each other. Each person standing in theline should be facing one partner in the other line. Each line will take one side ofthe scenario, ie. protesters on the left and counter protesters on the right. Afterassigning roles, allow fifteen seconds or so to get in character. Instruct the groupsto interact with each other in their “character” for the next two minutes. (If yousee things getting too intense, or if you see people running out of steam, you maystop early). At the end of that time, take a few minutes to debrief the experience. After each role-play, we take a minute or two to debrief. Ask each side how it felt to be in their role. (Usually, the roles we are most uncomfortable with are the hardest for us.) Ask the hasslers if a protestor did something that disarmed them and was particularly effective. Ask protesters if the hasslers did something that pushed their buttons and made them want to react violently (or caused them to act violently). Ask everyone to reflect on what tactics or techniques or responses they saw or experienced that they might use themselves in a hostile situa- tion. Reverse the roles, either using the same “scenario” or a different one. Allowinteraction for 3-4 minutes, followed by debriefing again. AFFINITY GROUP SCENARIOS Scenarios/The scene 1. You are at Y12 on Hiroshima Day. There is a group of peaceful demonstra-tors walking past a group of counter-protesters as part of the march from BissellPark to Y12. The counter-protesters call themselves “Citizen Soldiers for theAtomic Bomb.” Their cars are decorated with slogans like “USS VENGEANCE.”They believe that the Bomb is their right, a gift from God that saved their ownfamily members’ lives. They call on the “God of justice” to strikedown their 20
  • 21. opponents. The counter-protesters begin to harrass people who are walking bythem. 2. You are at Y12 on Hiroshima Day. There is an affinity group risking arreston the highway. They have linked arms and are sitting in the middle of the road.There are observers on the side of the road. There is a group of police who arearresting the protesters. The police begin roughing up protesters as they arrestthem. When one protester complains, the police knock her to the ground and beginto strike her with billy clubs. 3. You are at Y12 on Hiroshima Day. There is a group of protesters blocking aroadway and a group of supporters on the side of the road, supporting the action.There are police observing all this. Suddenly, people among the supporters on theside of the road begin to provoke the crowd to violence. Facilitator instructions: Divide the group into two or three sections, dependingon the needs of the scenario. Take each group aside and give them their roles. Don’ttell each group what the other will be doing, just encourage them to act out thecharacters they’ve been given. Part of the value of the exercise is to experiencewhat happens. After giving each group a couple minutes to get set, begin the scenario.Allow it to run for 5 minutes or so, as you see what people are going to do. Stop itbefore people get hurt and when it seems there has been enough action for goodlearning and discussion. Following the scenario, debrief as a group. Take each group within thescenario and ask them what happened, how they felt, what their experience waslike. After each group has had a chance to debrief, ask participants to reflect andshare what things happened that escalated the violence, what happened thathelped diffuse violence, and how did they or could they act in ways to support andprotect each other when they are really in such a situation. Be sure that everyone has a chance to debrief. 21
  • 22. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worshipTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott ofOREPA, Oak Ridge elections • Refusal of assistance to • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” issues and International Law laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- O ak Ridge Tennessee is a city deeply commit ted to violence People don’t walk around whomping each other over the head in the Wal Mart parking lot here (at least not any more than in other places) Our violence is more subtle and more outrageous We make thermonuclear weapons of mass destruction This work of hell is only possible because of the support— active or tacit—of the community In town there is a virtual taboo on discussing the Bomb—a silence in effect since the Manhattan Project The Oak Ridge Environmental effective Our work compelled the Peace Alliance was founded in on Department of Energy to provide principles of nonviolence Initially increased protection of the public and OREPA was a coalition of individuals drove environmental cleanup decisions; and groups who planned simply to hold we also helped spur institutional a demonstration which would include changes in the federal government to the first ever civil disobedience at the enhance effective public participation Oak Ridge bomb plant Five people in cleanup decisions were arrested on August In headlines declared that For the next several years OREPA Oak Ridge was no longer manufactur held demonstrations which included ing nuclear weapons—OREPA’s focus nonviolent direct action OREPA also became almost entirely environmental evolved into a powerful voice for the We still advocated dismantlement and environment—we schooled ourselves in storage of weapons and weapon enough science and history and we materials in Oak Ridge organized enough to be a force to be In DOE announced it was reckoned with We were scrupulously back in the bomb business—Oak Ridge careful with facts did our homework made the high tensile strength used media artfully were fiercely nosecone for the B turning an old dedicated to our principles and were gravity bomb into a new earth pen 22
  • 23. etrating bomb the first such nuke in Action commemorating sixty yearsthe US arsenal since the destruction of Hiroshima and In response OREPA began to Nagasaki by US atomic bombs Indevelop the Stop the Bombs campaign addition to cosponsoring the PeaceIn a series of actions (seven during Walk from Oak Ridge to the Unitedthe year) brought a variety of voices to Nations this spring OREPA is preparingOak Ridge to protest bomb building— for a series of events leading up to andmothers fathers artists people of including August —a film series anfaith women—more than fifty people Interfaith convocation on the Globalwere arrested during the year Nuclear Crisis a puppet workshop and In the campaign decided to more We will hostfocus on two major actions each year hibakushaand to devote time energy and people survivors of theresources to educating and organizing Hiroshima bombagainst bomb production in Oak Ridge ingMartin Sheen narrated a video for us OREPA isand we hired an organizer and here we pleased to be theare Attendance at Y actions has primary sponsor ofgrown consistently to more than the Stop the BombsIn April people risked arrest— campaign Our parttwenty one were finally charged by the is educating (we’ll dostate and four by the federal govern more thanment As one local lawyer said of the presentations thisfederal charges “Obviously you are year) organizing andmaking a big difference They are really mobilizing people toscared ” address the global nuclear crisis We hope they have reason to be It is energizing to see people rising up—Not scared of violence We are not a to put the movement back in the peacethreat to the health and safety of movementworkers or security people and we are In addition to organizing the Stopnot really a threat to the bombs them the Bombs campaign OREPA alsoselves But we are a threat to nuclear works to build nonviolent commupolicy and eventually we hope we will nity—we hold weekly peace vigilsbe a threat to the support this commu monthly potlucks publish a dailynity has for bomb building reflection booklet and maintain the Since thousands of people Peace House in Oak Ridgehave come to Oak Ridge and more than Since our founding OREPA has have been arrested in civil disobedi been firmly committed to nonviolenceence actions In OREPA is partici in all of our activitiespating in the Year of Remembrance and In October of the federal governmentseized acres of land in Roane and Anderson counties in east Tennessee Thepeople who lived there were removed from their property and the communities ofElza Scarboro and Wheat were replaced by bulldozers and mud—and eventuallyfour huge industrial complexes devoted to creating materials for the world’s firstatomic bomb It was the Manhattan Project Most of the people who worked on ithad no idea; Oak Ridge was a town born in secrecy Today that time is celebratedwith The Secret City Festival each year Three major facilities survived the end of the Oak Ridge Reservationwar years and became instrumental in enriched uranium through gaseousthe pursuit of nuclear power—for war diffusion Uranium enrichment at Kand for peace The K site on the west continued… 23
  • 24. officially ended in ; today buildings dismantlement at Y some stored inare being decommissioned and the site unsafe conditionsis being “privatized;” DOE operates an Y can’t fulfill its dismantlementincinerator there and waste companies mission because we are busy buildingimport waste from states to process more bomb parts Under the DOE’sand treat it on its way to disposal “Stockpile Life Extension Program” Y The Oak Ridge National Lab is performing life extension upgradesknown during the war years as X on our current nuclear arsenal Agingwas home to the world’s first full scale warheads are disassembled the cannedoperating nuclear reactor It’s original subassemblies returned to Y andpurpose was to create plutonium for parts are refurbished or replaced withbombs and it served as a model for the new parts When finished the newhuge reactors that would be built at warhead is certified reliable forHanford in Washington state After yearsthe end of WWII the lab diversified Itbuilt experimental reactors producedradioisotopes for a variety of purposestrained physicists with hands on M any people who live in Oak Ridge are ambivalent aboutreactor experience and produced bomb building The work at Y is seenmaterials for nuclear weapons as necessary to maintaining economic But it is Y that carries stability—a myth that has power The on the wartime legacy truth is that Y could continue to of death Y produced operate at full capacity for or more the enriched uranium years if it was dismantling our nuclear that fueled Little Boy arsenal; and cleaning up the legacy the bomb that de mess of the past will take that long as stroyed Hiroshima By well Y had found a Even those who oppose bomb different role—building production though are reluctant to the “canned subassem talk about it publicly The WWII ethos bly” for the thermo the original don’t ask don’t tell policy nuclear bomb Also still prevails in Oak Ridge even to the known as the “second point of hampering environmental and ary ” the canned subas public health efforts on occasion sembly made of Outsiders find Oak Ridge perplex enriched and depleted ing unless they are familiar with theuranium beryllium lithium deuteride dynamic of a company town When aand other classified materials is the newspaper series documented suspipart of the physics package that turns cions of health impacts from wastean atomic bomb into a thermonuclear operations the local government choseholocaust to hire a public relations firm to combat Y has produced the secondary for the allegations rather than push for aevery nuclear weapon in the US thorough study to make sure thearsenal public’s health is fully protected Y has other missions as well In its Visiting Oak Ridge in Assiswork for others program Y produces tant Secretary of Energy for Defenseparts for Department of Defense Programs Vic Reis visited Y to celprojects—Seawolf submarines and ebrate a restart of operations and saidattack jets for instance “As long as this community supports Y is also the nation’s storehouse the mission of Y we will be here ”for enriched uranium And Y has as Supporting the mission means notpart of its mission the job of disman asking questions—asking questions cantling retired nuclear weapons This risk your security clearance or yourcrucial mission usually goes undone brother in law’s or your neighborsand there is currently a ten year And without a security clearance youbacklog of retired warheads awaiting can’t work 24
  • 25. And there are benefits Supporting half of them do not live in Oak Ridgethe mission means having the best Anderson or Roane counties (The Cityschools in the state of Tennessee and of Oak Ridge has aroundswimming in the “superpool” in the residents) But for those who do worksummertime there the jobs—median income of Of the nearly people who  —can hardly be matched in eastwork on the Oak Ridge Reservation TennesseeINTERNATIONAL LAW & NUCLEAR WEAPONS The Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance (OREPA) believes that the Depart-ment of Energy and BWXT are in violation of international law and international treatiesat the Y12 nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Materials Needed Use letter size copies (appendix) to make enlarged copies of 3 charts: TheNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; Findings of the International Court of Justice;Article VI, Constitution of the U.S. Make copies of the brochure: International Law & Nuclear Weapons to handout (brochure is in Appendix). Copy of one or more “Excerpts from Court Statement” Directions Use the 3 large charts for giving information about International Law. Provide opportunity for discussion and/or questions. Select one or more of theCourt Statements to be read loudly and slowly by individuals from the group. Hand out the brochure on “International Law & Nuclear Weapons.” Facilitator presents information something along these lines There are 4 basic documents for our belief that the United States is violat-ing international law and treaties by making bombs at Y12 in Oak Ridge. The firstthree of these documents provide the legal foundation for action; the fourthestablishes an obligation to act. 25
  • 26. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty—In 1968 the United States entered, with 150 other nations (now up to 189), into the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT), promising to pursue negotiations leading to complete disarmament at an early date. The NPT entered into force in March, 1970. Article VI of the NPT imposes an obligation on those states which possessed nuclear weapons in 1970—“All parties to the treaty undertake to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective mea- sures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.”—to achieve a precise result: Nuclear disarmament in all its aspects. Article VI requires states to achieve nuclear disarmament through good faith negotiations. Talking is not enough, the talk must lead to action. Findings of the International Court of Justice—-In 1996, the International Court of Justice (World Court), the highest and most authoritative court in the world on the questions of International Law issued an opinion that held that “the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law ○ We understand applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rule of humani- ○ ○ tarian law.” The World Court further admonished the maintenance and building of ○ the Nuremberg nuclear weapons as a violation of Article VI of the NPT. In the Court’s view, ○ ○ “elimination of nuclear weapons is the only adequate response to the dilemma and ○ Principles to hold risks posed by the nuclear age.” ○ ○ individual citizens ○ United States Constitution—-International treaties and agreements have the ○ ○ responsible for force of law in the United States. Article VI of the U.S. Constitution asserts that the ○ Constitution and “all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority ○ actions of the of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the judges in every ○ ○ state shall be bound thereby.” ○state in which they In other words, international treaties are binding on the government, its ○ ○ courts, and the citizens of the United States. They are not just international law; live if those ○ they have become our law. ○ ○citizens have a free ○ The Nuremberg Charter defines crimes against peace as preparations for wars of ○ moral choice ○ aggression or wars that violate international treaties. War crimes are violations of ○ the customs or laws of war, including but not limited to: “wanton destruction of ○ cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity.” Crimes against humanity are defined in the Nuremberg Charter as “inhumane acts committed against any civilian population.” The use of weapons being built at Y12 would violate all three of these prin- ciples. And Principle Seven, the last one, says that simple complicity in the commis- sion of a crime against peace, a war crime, or a crime against humanity is itself a crime under the international law. We understand the Nuremberg Principles to hold individual citizens respon- sible for actions of the state in which they live if those citizens have a free moral choice. Not only are those who actively participate in Peace crimes, War Crimes or Crimes Against Humanity held responsible, but those who are complicit in such crimes are equally culpable. Dr. Karen Parker, international law expert, states that a four-point test of a weapon’s legal status is based on the laws of war found in binding international treaties. Taken together, the Geneva Conventions, the Hague Regulations and the Nuremberg Charter form the basis of Dr. Parker’s test: 1) Weapons must be limited to the war zone; 2) Weapons must not continue to kill long after a war has ended; 3) Weapons must not be unduly inhumane; and 4) Weapons may not cause long-term damage to the natural environment. continued… 26
  • 27. Facilitator OREPA believes that the Department of Energy and BWXT are in violation ofinternational law and international treaties at the Y12 nuclear weapons plant in OakRidge, Tennessee. Our actions seek to uphold international laws and treaty obligations(which supercede local, state, and federal laws in the United States). We believe strongly that acts of civil disobedience at the Y12 nuclear weapons plantprovide an opportunity to educate people that the United States is violating the NuclearNonproliferation Treaty and disregarding the United States Constitution. There areopportunities to bring this lawless situation to police officers, judges, prosecutors, juries,attendees and the public in general. Despite the fact we present international law in courtto uphold these truths, we are found guilty. You now have the opportunity to listen to some excerpts from statements defendantshave given in court after being charged at the Y12 nuclear weapons plant.EXCERPTS FROM STATEMENTS GIVEN IN COURT David If a house is burning, one has the legal right to break and enter in order tosave lives. I don’t want to be sensationalistic, but it seems to me our collectivehome is on fire. As we further commit to upgrade, develop and proliferate nuclearweapons, we prepare for a fire threatening our world and all its inhabitants. As a responsible citizen, I am compelled to action to help awaken both myselfand our citizenry…We seem committed to stoke the fires of hate, distrust andviolence with the intensification of militarism and nuclear weapons development.It is my civic duty to affirm a commitment to nonviolence, truth, justice, freedomand love. Our country is clearly in violation of international law. International law,universal law, and humane law dictate that as U.S. citizens it is our civic responsi-bility to commit ourselves to not only rescue the child in thefire, but to prevent the fire than can annihilate our belovedworld. Brenda I entered the property of the Y12 National SecurityComplex to deliver the message that continued productionof nuclear weapons is a violation of international law andthat weapons production, including the life extensionupgrade of the W87 warhead, profits corporations anddrains massive resources from social services for citizens ofthis country. I believe that it is my responsibility as a citizen to speakout about crimes against humanity, of which the use orthreat to use nuclear weapons is one. The NurembergPrinciples holds that those who remain silent are complicitin such crimes. The production of nuclear weapons is contrary toArticle VI of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, to whichthe United States is a signatory and which, according to theU.S. Constitution, has the force of law. It is the U.S. govern-ment and its contracting corporations such as BWXTBechtel that are breaking the law, not the citizens who are using nonviolent meansto speak out against nuclear weapons production. continued… 27
  • 28. Judy What is happening at Y12, under the heading of “security” is such animmense threat to human life, to the environment, and under certain conditions toour planet itself, that I cannot watch it happen without doing everything I can tostop it. We speak and act now because when the world is on fire, it will be too late. All in all, I would say that my infraction at Y12 pales in the face of what isgoing on there. It is a curious thing—I was arrested for breaking a law. Yet ourgovernment has broken vital international nonproliferation treaties at will. AndY12 goes rolling on! Anne As a citizen of this country I believe I was obliged to enter the Y12 Plant.In the eyes of the law I was trespassing; in my eyes I was upholding the UnitedStates Constitution and International Law. The United States signed the NuclearNonproliferation Treaty in 1968 and it was subsequently ratified by the U.S. Senateand entered into force in 1970. Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction. They are capable ofdestroying not only humanity but Earth itself. To continue to produce nuclearweapons at Y12, along with the intention to use them, in violation of the NuclearNonproliferation Treaty the United States signed, is not only unlawful but is evil. Beyond the legal arguments about lawful authority my deepest motive for myactions at the Y12 nuclear weapons plant is the conviction that not to speak and actis to be complicit in what the U.S. Department of Energy is doing here at Y12 andelsewhere in the United States. Gaye: The U.S. Constitution is the law of our country. All other laws must fitwithin the constitution or they’re struck down. The constitution is clear thattreaties made under the authority of the United States are the supreme law of theland. This includes the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The Nuremberg principlesfurther require that we exercise a moral choice when governments abandon thelaw. When I stood in the road near Y12, I felt I was upholding the law of theconstitution and the moral choice called for in the Nuremberg Principles. I did this to try and hold the United States accountable for disregarding international law and the U. S. Constitution by continuing to build nuclear weapons. I felt I could not obey the lesser law and the higher law at the same time. Shelley: International law is being violated at Y12. I was upholding International law by trying to enforce the World Court ruling that the threat of use of nuclear weapons is against international law. The United States Constitution is being violated at Y12. I was there to attempt to uphold the Constitution and enforce the Nuclear Nonpro- liferation Treaty. I have heard the statement that this court deals with Tennessee law, not the USConstitution. But Tennessee is proud to be a part of the United States of America.And I do not believe that the citizens of Tennessee would want Tennessee laws 28
  • 29. upheld if by upholding them, they ignore the violation of the laws of the UnitedStates. The fact is that the law is being broken at Y12. I know it and according to theNuremberg Principles I have to make the moral choice even though my govern-ment is continuing to violate its own laws. In this country we believe that citizens have the right and the responsibility tohelp enforce both the legal and the moral laws. We have continued to hold bothour own citizens and the citizens of other countries to this responsibility. I didwhat I am required to do as a citizen. I acted as a disciple of nonviolence, with deep respect for the law. I havewritten letters to the editor, testified at hearings, attended rallies, raised anddonated money and made countless other efforts to bring attention to this prob-lem. I did not come to the decision to participate in this action lightly. I submit tothis court that the Constitution of the United States and the Nuremberg Principlesgave me lawful authority to attempt to close down Y12. The 4th Nuremberg Principle says “The fact that a person acted pursuant toorder of his Government does not relieve him from responsibility, provided amoral choice was in fact possible to him.” The moral choice was possible. Themoral choice was clear. 29
  • 30. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worship Civil disobedienceTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- O REPA has always believed that there are many “tools” for creating change. We use many: letter writing, letters to editors, speaking at public hearings, education, sign holding, vigils, and direct action/civil disobedience. Often people ask “Is CD effective?” or “What is the point?” In his Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote to white clergymen of Bir- mingham who objected to the tactics of the civil rights movement, and he articu- lated a powerful defense of direct action/civil disobedience. “You are quite right in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a commu- nity which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue.” The change wrought by direct action is sometimes immediate and dramatic, but more often direct action is the catalyst for change that comes slowly and painfully from institutions and social structures that are reluctant to change. Dr. King said the first thing that changes in any nonviolent direct action is oneself. “The nonviolent approach does not immediately change the heart of the oppressor. It first does something to the hearts and souls of those committed to it. It gives them new self-respect; it calls up resources of strength and courage that they did not know they had. Finally it reaches the opponent and so stirs his [her] conscience that reconciliation becomes a reality.” Civil Disobedience calls out to others to think about their own response to an unjust situation—giving an opportunity for growth. One purpose of civil disobedi- ence is to take a lawless situation into a court of law, calling judge and jury to action. Direct action also continues a dialogue in the community that watches the 30
  • 31. court process long after the action is over. And direct METHODS OF NONVIOLENT PROTEST & PERSUASIONaction/civil disobedience often provides another“hook” for the media to report our concerns that Formal statementswithout arrests wouldn’t be deemed “news—” Public speeches Letters of opposition or supportanother way to raise awareness about an issue. Declarations by organizations and institutions Risking arrest in a direct action scenario is just Signed public statementsone means of nonviolent action. History records Declarations of indictment or intentionmany ways to creatively address unjust or lawless Group or mass petitionssituations. Professor Gene Sharp has listed some of Communication with a wider audiencemethods—check out his list in the sidebar. Slogans caricatures and symbols Banners posters and displayed communications This August in Oak Ridge, there will be an Leaflets pamphlets and booksaction scenario for individuals or already-formed Newspapers and journals Records radio and televisionaffinity groups who wish to follow their conscience Skywriting and earthwritingand take direct action. Local people in the Knoxville/ Group representationsOak Ridge area will be forming an affinity group Deputationsover the summer; if you want to form an affinity Mock awardsgroup in your area, there is information in a follow- Group lobbyinging section on how to do that, including information Picketingabout the support roles for that affinity group. Mock elections You do not need to be part of an existing Affinity Symbolic public actsGroup to participate in this action. OREPA will provide Displays of flags and symbolic colors Wearing of symbolsa chance for participants to meet (Friday evening) Prayer and worshipand go over the scenario, answering questions, and Delivering symbolic objectsthe process following arrest. OREPA will provide Protest disrobingsgeneral support for people participating in the action Destruction of own property(this does not cover finances or legal support). We Symbolic lightsask that each person participating have an individual Displays of portraitssupport person to handle issues particular to you, i.e. Paint as protestholding car keys/wallet, contacting people, deliver- New signs and namesing your meds to the jail, finding someone to feed Symbolic sounds Symbolic reclamationsyour pets, etc. (See Scenario Section) Rude gestures If you have unusual or special support needs, Pressures on individualsyou should know that OREPA is a small organization “Haunting” officialswith limitations; please contact us in advance to talk Taunting officialsabout how we can meet your needs. Do not assume Fraternizationthings will be taken care of at the last minute. For Vigilsinformation, on specific scenario and more support Drama and Musicinformation, look at the Logistics Section below. Feel Humorous skits and pranksfree to call 865 483 8202 or email orep@earthlink.net Performances of plays and music Singingwith specific questions. Processions Marches Parades Religious processions Pilgrimages Motorcades Honoring the dead Political mourning Mock funerals Demonstrative funerals Homage at burial places Public assemblies Assemblies of protest or support Protest meetings Camouflaged meetings of protest Teach ins Withdrawal and Renunciation Walk outs 31
  • 32. Silence Blacklisting of traders Removal of own signs and Renouncing honors International sellers’ embargo placemarks Turning one’s back International buyers’ embargo Refusal to accept appointed International trade embargo officials METHODS OF SOCIAL Refusal to dissolve existing NONCOOPERATION THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC organizations NONCOOPERATION: THE STRIKE Citizens alternatives to obedienceOstracism of persons Reluctant and slow compliance Social boycott Symbolic strikes Nonobedience in absence of Selective e social boycott Protest strike direct supervision Lysistratic nonaction Quickie walkout (lightning Popular nonobedience Excommunication strike) Disguised disobedience Interdict Agricultural strikes Refusal of an assemblage orNoncooperation with social events Peasant strike meeting to disperse customs and institutions Farm workers’ strike Sitdown Suspension of social and sports Strikes by special groups Noncooperation with activities Refusal of impressed labor conscription and deportation Boycott of social affairs Prisoners’ strike Hiding escape and false Student strike Craft strike identities Social disobedience Professional strike Civil disobedience of Withdrawal from social Ordinary industrial strikes “illegitimate” laws institutions Establishment strike Action by government personnelWithdrawal from the Social System Industry strike Selective refusal of assistance by Stay at home Sympathetic strike government aides Total personal noncooperation Restricted strikes Blocking of lines of command “Flight” of workers Detailed strike and information Sanctuary Bumper strike Stalling and obstruction Collective disappearance Slowdown strike General administrative Protest emigration (hijrat) Working to rule strike noncooperation Reporting “sick” (sick in) Judicial noncooperation THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC Strike by resignation Deliberate inefficiency selective NONCOOPERATION Limited strike nonenforcement by agencies Selective strike MutinyActions by consumers Multi industry strikes Domestic governmental action Consumers’ boycott Generalized strike Quasi legal evasions and delays Nonconsumption of boycotted General strike Noncooperation by constituent goods Combination of strikes and closures governmental audits Policy of austerity Hartal International governmental action Rent withholding Economic shutdown Changes in diplomatic and other Refusal to rent representations National consumers’ boycott THE METHODS OF POLITICAL Delay and cancellation of International consumers’ boycott NONCOOPERATION diplomatic eventsAction by workers and producers Withholding of diplomatic Workers’ boycott Rejection of authority relations Producers’ boycott Withholding or withdrawal of Severance of diplomatic relationsAction by middlemen/women allegiance Withdrawal from international Suppliers’ and handlers’ boycott Refusal of public support organizationsAction by owners and management Literature and speeches Refusal of membership in Traders’ boycott advocating resistance international bodies Refusal to let or sell property Citizen’s noncooperation with gov’t Expulsion from international Lockout Boycott of legislative bodies organizations Refusal of industrial assistance Boycott of elections Merchants’ “general strike” Boycott of government THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENTAction by holders of financial resources employment and positions INTERVENTION Withdrawal of bank deposits Boycott of government Refusal to pay fees dues or departments agencies other bodies Psychological intervention assessments Withdrawal from government Self exposure to the elements Refusal to pay debts or interest educational institutions The fast Severance of funds or credit Boycott of government a] fast of moral pressure Revenue refusal supported organizations b] hunger strike Refusal of a government’s money Refusal of assistance to c] satyagraphic fastAction by governments enforcement agents Reverse trial Domestic embargo Nonviolent harassment 32
  • 33. Physical intervention Sit in Stand in AFFINITY GROUPS Ride in (This section comes from the Gandhian Wave training book produced by the SOA Watch.) Wade in Mill in Affinity groups are self-sufficient support systems of about 5 to Pray in 15 people. A number of affinity groups may work together toward a Nonviolent raids common goal in a large action, or one affinity group might conceive of Nonviolent air raids and carry out an action on its own. Nonviolent invasion Sometimes, affinity groups remain together over a long period of Nonviolent interjection time, existing as political support and/or study groups, and only Nonviolent obstruction occasionally participating in actions. Affinity groups are composed of Nonviolent occupationSocial interventions people who have been brought together at a nonviolence training or Establishing new social patterns have existing ties such as friendship, living in the same area, or working Overloading of facilities together. Stall in Affinity groups form the basic decision-making bodies of mass Speak in actions. They are usually considered autonomous, independently Guerilla theatre entitled to develop any form of participation they choose, as long as Alternative social institutions they remain within the nonviolence guidelines. Groups of affinity Alternative communication groups working together are sometimes called clusters. system A large action can have several large clusters all working together.Economic intervention Reverse strike In large actions, affinity groups usually send spokespersons to a Stay in strike spokescouncil meeting, to communicate and coordinate the different Nonviolent land seizure groups’ decisions and then bring the coordinated information or Defiance of blockades proposal back to their respective groups for their final discussion and Politically motivated approval. counterfeiting Affinity groups also serve as a source of support for the members Preclusive purchasing and reinforce a sense of solidarity. They provide a solution to the Seizure of assets isolation or separation that can come to individuals acting alone. By Dumping including all participants in a circle of familiarity and acquaintance, the Selective patronage Alternative markets affinity group structure reduces the possibility of infiltration by outside Alternative transportation agents or provocateurs. If a new person asks to join an affinity group, s/ systems he should find out what the group believes in and what they plan to do, Alternative economic institutions and decide if s/he can share in it.Political intervention Overloading of administrative Roles Within the Affinity Group systems Disclosing identities of secret Take turns so that everyone gets a chance to try different roles. agents At meetings: facilitator(s), timekeeper, recorder, vibes-watcher. Seeking imprisonment Civil disobedience of “neutral” During an action: those risking arrest, support persons laws (during a mass action, affinity group spokespersons). Work on without collaboration Dual sovereignty and parallel Affinity Group Support government The role of support in a nonviolent civil disobedience action isSource: Gene Sharp The Politics of crucial. Support people accept the responsibility of being contacts to theNonviolent Action ( vols) Boston: Porter outside once a member of the affinity group is arrested. During andSargent Beacon Street Boston after a mass action support members need to stay in touch with supportMA Pp people from other affinity groups, for information sharing and emo- tional support. Support Before an Action: • Know the people in your affinity group by name and description. • Know where people who are arrested are likely to be taken. • Make a confidential list with the following information: Name of arrestee, Name, if any, used for arrest. continued… 33
  • 34. • Know whether or not each individual wants bail, and when. • Know whom arrestee would like contacted and under what circumstances. • Know medical or other special needs. • Know whether the individual plans to cooperate and in what ways. • Know whether the person wants a lawyer. • Know whether the person is a minor.Additional Support Before a Mass Action • Know who the support coordinators are. • Know the phone number of the action office. • Be sure group fills out group check-in sheet or other paperwork for the action office. • Be sure your name, phone number, where you can be reached, and how long you will be available to do support work are written on your group’s list.Support During an Action • Know boundaries of arrest and non-arrest areas. • Give emergency info about yourself to another support person. • Bring lots of food and water for your affinity group. • Bring a big first aid kit. • Bring paper and pens and, if possible, a camera or video camera. • Hold money, keys and other things for those getting arrested. • Keep in touch with arrestees as long as possible, noting any changes in arrest strategies etc. • Once arrests begin, write down each individual’s name, and the time and nature of the arrest (get name and badge number of officer); note whether there was any police misconduct (brutality, inappropriate words). • At least one support person should stay at place of arrest until all members of your group are arrested, and at least one should go to where those arrested are being taken.Support After Arrests • Call whomever needs to be informed about each person arrested. • Go to any court appearances of those arrested. • Help gather information needed by those in jail. • In large actions, let office and/or coordinators know when you have to leave town and make sure to leave them all relevant information. • If activists are in jail, make sure to have someone near a phone at all times, so that all calls from jail can be received. • Contact office to tell them about people in jail (who, how many, in which cellblock/dorm/pod, what needs). • Visit your group members in jail, and pass on any messages. • Take care of kids, pets, cars, plants, etc., for those in jail. • Write letters to the people in jail; organize support vigil in front of jail. • Be there to pick activists up when they are released from jail. • Support other support people—working together will ease the load. 34
  • 35. CONSENSUS DECISION MAKING Consensus is the decision-making process used by OREPA and many othersocial change organizations for our organizational decisions; it is also used byaffinity groups for making decisions leading up and during actions. Time needed: 45 minutes Materials Needed: posterboard/newsprint & markers to record PROS & CONS Facilitator This training has four components: a) Brief introduction to the consensus process b) Presenting and discussing how consensus works c) Listing and discussing PROS & CONS d) Practicing consensus decision-making in affinity group situationsIntroduction The consensus process is a method of group decision-making by which an entire groupof people can come to an agreement. The consensus process tries to make sure that eachpersons’ voice is equally heard and valued. It reflects Gandhi’s teaching that each personhas a piece of the truth, and we need all the pieces to achieve the best possible outcome. In the consensus process, care is taken so that the input and ideas of all participants aregathered and synthesized to arrive at a final decision acceptable to all.How Consensus Works Someone acts as facilitator Usually the process begins with a discussion about an issue. As the discussion develops people come to understand the issue, raise questions, get a sense of the group. A proposal is put forth and modified if necessary (this is often the case) The proposal is stated by facilitator—make sure everyone is clear Consensus Call—The facilitator calls for consensus. If there are no objections, you have your decision. (A method often used during the consensus process to indicate agreement is to raise hands above head and shake them— twinkle. This action saves time of asking each person in the group to respond verbally. You can also test for consensus by asking if anyone wants to stand aside or block.) Concerns and objections should be considered carefully by the whole group.However, it is the responsibility of each individual to practice discipline in bring-ing forward valid and related concerns. In the end, it may not be entirely possibleto satisfy every concern of every person. Each person is responsible to voiceconcerns or objections so the group can seek to satisfy them. If there are unresolved/unresolvable concerns remaining after the call forconsensus is made, those with concerns have three options: 1] Stand aside (“I can live with it,” or “I don’t think it’s needed, but I’ll go along.”) 35
  • 36. 2] Block (“I believe this is immoral; it violates my conscience and I need to exercise my right to block.”) 3] Withdraw from group (“I don’t fit here, and I don’t want to continue work- ing with this group.”) Consensus does not always mean everyone thinks the decision is the bestpossible or even that everyone is sure it will work. But consensus tries to makesure everyone was heard and understood, reach a decision that everyone can livewith and support, and assure that no one’s fundamental moral values are violated. Many groups who use the consensus process to make decisions have found ithelpful to have “vibes watcher” and “timekeeper” roles. The job of the timekeeperis clear if there is a limited amount of time to make a decision, or if the groupagrees to set aside a specific amount of time for a decision. The vibes watcher’s jobis to track the emotional dynamic of the group—to make sure people who want tobe heard are being called on, to note out loud if some voices are not being heard (Itseems some folks have not had a chance to speak; I wonder if we could hear from them beforewe hear more from people who have already spoken), or sometimes even to call a time-out (I am feeling the emotional level of the discussion has maybe escalated and I amwondering if we should take a little break to let people discuss things privately or just tohave a period of reflection before we move this process forward…). Let’s prepare a list of PROS and CONS for using the consensus process (recordresponses on newsprint; the list may include these points: CONSENSUS DECISION-MAKING PROS CONS Includes everyone in the process Process takes longer Encourages community growth and trust Requires discipline in participation Invests everyone in the outcome Requires personal responsibility Synthesizes many diverse elements Need cooperative spirit Come to an agreement Process as important as outcome Each person’s input is valued Process as important as outcome 36
  • 37. Affinity Group Situations for the Consensus Process The following exercises are designed to practice the consensus process asoutlined above. The facilitator forms small groups to role play the followingsituations. It is helpful to have at least one person experienced in consensusdecision-making in each group. Allow the exercise to run about 10 minutes in thequest for consensus. Some time should be spent debriefing following the exercisewith a focus on the consensus decision-making process. You may create threegroups, each doing a separate scenario, or choose one scenario for all the groups todo and compare results. It is also possible to do this in a “fishbowl,” with a smallgroup circling chairs in the middle of the room to role-play the scenario and othersgathered around in a larger circle observing. If you choose this, allow the innercircle to debrief before turning to the observers. Group A. Your group has been blocking a road to stop traffic. As an affinitygroup you made an earlier commitment to stay together as a group. The police tellyou they are going to open the road for traffic. You have 10 minutes to make adecision on what to do. Group B. You are all part of a group that came to the Y12 event on a bus. Halfof the group agreed to risk arrest believing you would be released in time to ridethe bus back home that evening. The group risking arrest is blocking a road to stoptraffic. Other passengers from the bus are standing along the side of the road. Thepolice have just announced they are going to leave everyone on the road all night.You have 10 minutes to make a decision on what to do. Remember there are 2groups—one group on the road risking arrest and another group along the side ofthe road thinking about going home on the bus. Group C. There are 3 different groups risking arrest by blocking a road. Thepolice tell you to leave immediately or you will stay on the road overnight. Youhave 10 minutes to make a collective decision. A SHORT MANUAL that OREPA has used over the years to present ConsensusDecision-Making and other communication issues is included in the Appendix;feel free to photocopy and distribute it if you find it helpful. 37
  • 38. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worshipTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • Logistics speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- SCENARIO FOR AUGUST People who live in the Knoxville/Oak Ridge area are creating an action around the question/theme: Who is responsible for building nuclear weapons at Y12? Who is responsible for the use and threat of use of these weapons? We will build on this theme with street theater, speakers, musicians, and action. We will name Y12 and its workers; the federal government/Department of Energy/ National Nuclear Security Administration; corporations and contractors, including BWXT; universities, including the University of Tennessee; the city of Oak Ridge which benefits with great school systems and businesses; taxpayers; and others. Our hope is to create multiple affinity groups to do actions at several different locations, highlighting this theme. We anticipate that these actions might involve blocking roads at sites that could support the theme we have laid out. The night before the action, Friday, August 5, we will have a meeting for people interested in discussing the specifics of the action scenario and risking arrest and for support people. We will go over specific scenarios, form affinity groups, work out coordination and review information about the arrest process and post- arrest. One of the sites for action will be at the main entrance to Y12, as in past years. This scenario would involve blocking the entrance, risking arrest on charges brought by the state of Tennessee. The group doing this action could have multiple “pieces” of an action – some doing a “die-in,” some linking arms, some going limp, waves of arrest—depending on the interests and desires of affinity groups. Crossing onto DOE property (resulting in arrest by the federal government) is not part of this scenario. We believe that focusing on state charges and getting 38
  • 39. many people arrested in this venue at this time gives us a chance to leverage morepressure on the local system with current jail conditions. We intend to make fulluse of the chance to apply pressure to the system. For that reason, we ask people toseriously consider arrests on state charges at this time. If you feel compelled to doan action that will result in federal prosecution, it would require different kinds ofsupport, and we would like to talk with you about whether or not you have thatkind of support in place for such an action. Things to know about Y12 arrest scenario: • You cannot “accidentally” get arrested on federal charges. On August 6, theentrance to Y12 will be blocked with bike racks chained together. You would haveto deliberately cross onto the property by climbing over barricades or throughbarbed wire fencing to be arrested on federal property. • In the past, there have not been accidental arrests at this site. When told toclear the road, people have left or, if they intend to risk arrest, have remained in theroad. • If you don’t intend to be arrested, you should follow police instruction.Unless all discipline breaks down and there is anarchy, the police will issue awarning before arresting someone—if you comply with the warning, you will notbe arrested. If you do not comply, you will be arrested; failure to obey a policeofficer is in itself a violation of the law.ARREST PROCESS Should you participate in a direct action, you may be violating local, state orfederal laws. You should be prepared for the consequences and willing to acceptthem. As with any law violation, there is a chance that you might spend some timein jail for this action. You should be prepared for that. It is important to understandthat once you violate the law, you have no control over what you will be chargedwith or the sentence handed down. We expect that the action planned for the August event will be pros-ecuted by the state of Tennessee. In order to speak truth to power for action ofthe U.S. violation of international law by making bombs at Y12, we are planningfor a lot of people to be arrested. We envision many of these people staying injail and exercising their right to a jury trial. The information provided is theprocess for the action planned. It is based on past experience. We can not guar-antee that things will follow this path, but it is our strong expectation.Risks if the State of Tennessee prosecutes Likely violations for the actions envisioned would be Obstruction of aHighway, standing or parking prohibited in specific places— a ClassC Misdemeanor which carries penalties of a $50.00 fineplus $174.50 court costs or 30 days in jail. (Commu-nity service may be offered in lieu of fines and courtcosts but must be completed in Anderson County.Sometimes Community Service is denied). Jail chargesare $50/day. Support Person It is very important that each person risking arrest has arranged for asupport person before the action. The support person keeps a protective eye onyou during the action and documents anything that happens to you. The supportperson understands your personal information about who to call/contact, retainsany medication you might need in jail in its original bottle, and holds your car continued… 39
  • 40. keys/wallet/personal things. Each support person should know the CDers intentions regarding a jail stay atthe time of the action. The situation may change as the action unfolds and asupport person would help from the outside with changing information. If you are planning to pay bond or bail, your support person should have thatmoney. It is hoped the support person will be available for jail support and to getyou home from jail. You may want to arrange with your support person the detailsfor taking care of your car and companion animals.Warning Usually, before all arrests, you will be warned: “If you do not leave, you will beplaced under arrest.” This is your chance to leave. Obviously, if there is chaos,warnings are not given. If you choose to stay, you will be arrested. If at any timeyou fail to obey a police officer, you are at risk of arrest. After being told “you are under arrest,” you most likely will be handcuffed,searched for weapons and may be photographed. If questioned you may respond,“I wish to remain silent and need to see a lawyer.”Transport/Process You will most likely be transported from the arrest site to a site for processing.Photos are taken and initial information given to police. If you are offered release on your own recognizance, and accept release, youwill be given a citation. The citation is like a ticket with the name and number of the arresting officerand your personal information. The charge is stated (but can be changed later, atyour arraignment). The date/time/place to appear in court is given. You are askedto sign the citation and will be given a copy. You will then be turned out to thestreet. (See “Arraignment” for next steps) If you are not released, then you will be transported to jail. Past experienceindicates we should expect to be taken to Anderson County jail in Clinton, TN, afifteen minute drive from Oak Ridge.Booking Once at the jail, you will be searched (has not included a strip search in thepast). Personal and medical information will be collected and fed into computer. This process may be slow, depending on the number of staff, the number of people arrested, the time of day, etc. You will be finger- printed and photographed. Shoes will be taken and personal items such as jewelry and money will be taken. You will be asked to sign an inventory of your items. Wear socks! Release from Jail You will likely have a choice to remain in jail or get out. There are two standard methods to get out, post bond or bail. Bond is the entire amount set for your release and it must be paid in cash. Bond money is returned to you at the end of the court process—minus any fines and costs. Bail is 10% of your bond amount plus bondspersons’ fee. You will not ever see that money again. Our history is that bond is $1000 for locals; up to $2000 for non-locals; and bond or release is denied for repeat offenders. (See the section on jail solidarity for more creative attempts for release or leverage in the system.) Our hope is significant numbers will stay in jail if personal situations allow. Most of the people we are in jail with have no option to get out. Large numbers in jail continues pressure on the system and gives rise to the creative tension that Martin Luther King spoke about. 40
  • 41. Initial Court Appearance Usually, on the first workday after you are put in jail, we expect you will betransported to General Sessions court in Anderson County (either at the countycourthouse in Clinton or in Oak Ridge at the Municipal building) to appear beforea judge. The judge confirms your bond amount. If you want to ask for a bondreduction, now is the time. After the hearing, you will be transported back to jail. In the past, those who make clear to the judge that they wish to plead guilty or“no contest” or “best interest”* are held at court for the docket later in the morn-ing when the judge will hear their plea, find them guilty, and assess the penalty. (You have 30 days to pay any fine or court costs assessed, and the judge willset a date when you must either have paid or must reappear in court to explainwhy. Failure to reappear will result in new, separate “failure to appear” chargesand likely jail time).Bench Trial A defendant may ask for a “bench trial” meaning a trial by a judge without ajury. The defendant may have the opportunity to make a statement in court.Agreeing to bench trial means waiving right to jury trial and appeal rights.Jury Trial In a jury trial the jury will decide the facts of the case and render a verdict,typically guilty or not guilty, on specific criminal charges defined by the judge. Thejury trial may extend over a period of time.Legal Aid OREPA does not have a cadre of attorneys volunteering to assist us. We do nothave arrangements for pro bono legal aid on standby. We urge people to representthemselves—pro se. We will share our lay knowledge of the legal process (based onexperience) and can usually get reasonable questions answered by real attorneys.We can provide advice and support, but we cannot provideattorneys for people arrested. In state and federal court, if youare indigent and are at risk of being sentenced to jail (based onyour charges) you have the right to a public defender, and onewill be appointed if you request one. OREPA has a very small fund (less than $2000) to assistpeople with fines and court costs. The OREPA Board has estab-lished a policy for disbursing funds from the Ralph Galt Fund.You must request assistance before you undertake an action.Funds will be disbursed equally among all who request with aceiling of $200 for any individual. We try to reserve the RalphGalt Fund for those who truly have no other way to pay theirfines and costs, and we encourage people to use funds drawnfrom the Ralph Galt Fund to leverage other money (“I’ve man-aged to raise $150 and need another $100, and I’m wondering if youcould help…”) from friends, family, church or support groups. continued… * A guilty plea acknowledges that you are guilty of the charge(s) against you. No contest (nolo contendere) means you are not contesting the charges against you—notadmitting guilt or putting on a defense. “Best interest” is often the choice of CDers who justwant to get it over with. It means you recognize it is in your best interest to dispose of thecase; it admits no guilt. If you enter any of these pleas, the judge will treat you as though you have entered aguilty plea, will require you to waive your rights to a trial and to appeals, and will sentenceyou the same as if you had said, “Guilty.” In each case, the judge is unlikely to allow anystatement to the court except for a brief statement at sentencing. 41
  • 42. FEDERAL PROCESS A scenario risking federal charges, i.e. trespass onto DOE property, is notplanned for the mass action. This information is included here in case anyone isconsidering that type of action. An action placing you in the federal system re-quires different support than the state system and we would ask that you talk withus if you are considering such an action. If you cross the Y12 plant boundary, you can be absolutely certain of a federalcharge—most likely Criminal Trespass. There is a special law for federal nuclearinstallations; it is printed on the signs on the fence at Y12. The maximum fine is$100,000 and/or up to one year in prison. Here is what you should expect if you undertake an action that risks arrest onfederal charges: ➻ Handcuffed, searched and processed on site at Y12 ➻ Transported to Blount County Jail in Maryville TN (30 mi. SE of Oak Ridge) ➻ Processed again for their records. Held overnight in jail ➻ Transported next working day to federal court, Knoxville, for initial bondappearance ➻ You will either be asked to post a $1000 cash bond (or more) or be releasedon signature bond (some of this depends on your previous record) ➻ You will be given your next court date and released (if you post bond),provided you have no outstanding warrants or are not violating probation ➻ Meet with your assigned Pre-Sentence Investigator ➻ The federal process continues, with a series of hearings (for motions, re-sponse to motions) and eventually a trial. If charged with trespass on an enclosedproperty (risk of prison time), you have the right to a jury trial. You are expected toappear at hearings related to your case; your appearance will not be waived. During the federal process, you will be assigned a Pre-Sentence Investigatorwho you will be reporting to twice a month. You will also be restricted to remain in certain districts (depending where you live) and must get permission every time you travel outside that area. There will be other conditions given to you as well. Be pre- pared to put significant parts of your freedom to move about on hold for this entire process. 42
  • 43. STRATEGY AND PLANS AFTER BEING ARRESTED This section relies heavily on the work of Starhawk, amended with our own experience in Oak Ridge. Often, the discernment before an a direct action centers on the logistics of theaction itself. But deciding to participate in an action is really just the first of manydecision you will have to make as you enter the “criminal justice system.”Cooperation/Non cooperation One decision you will need to make is whether or not you intent to cooper-ate with authorities once you are arrested. Will you stand up and walk with theofficer to the police van or do you intend to go limp so that the police will have tocarry you? Some people refuse to cooperate with the police on any level whileothers feel like the arrest itself makes their point. If you do decide to go limp,please remember that the police are not always careful with “non-cooperators” andmight drag you or let your head bump the ground or the van. Non-cooperation is not resisting arrest. Only an active form of resistance (e.g.running away, fighting back) is considered resisting arrest and could carry a moreserious charge.Jail Solidarity Jail solidarity, like other forms of solidarity, means that those in jail act togetherto combine their power. We have more power when we act together than when weact alone. Jail solidarity gives us a way to help protect each other, share conse-quences and mitigate the suffering we encounter as we confront oppression in thejail system. Jail solidarity at its best can build our movement and give expression toour care for each other and for justice. Solidarity works best when we respect each other’s differing needs and lifecircumstances, understand that there are many ways of being in solidarity, andcoordinate our responses. It does not work when we attempt to coerce, shame orinflict guilt upon each other, even subtly. Jail solidarity can be used to pressure the system to treat us fairly and justly, toprotect the physical safety and health of jailed protesters, to treat arrested protest-ers equally, to prevent individuals from being singled out, to improve jail condi-tions, to resist harsh or unequal punishment or sentences that would constrict ourfuture freedom. Jail solidarity puts pressure on the system by raising the social andpolitical costs of its oppressive acts, raising the economic costs of holding us in jailor bringing us to trial, and by interfering with the smooth running of the system. Solidarity can be extremely effective, but it is always exercised at a cost andwith consequences. Before deciding on a solidarity strategy, we need to know whatour intentions and goals are for any given action. We do not have experience using jail solidarity in large numbers in Oak Ridgeand the Anderson County jail system. We believe that jail solidarity can be effec-tive, and we invite people to seriously consider engaging in it. There are many ways to exercise solidarity, and many choices to make alongthe way. The discussion should take place before the action, and begins withstaying in jail.Stay in jail or not? In-jail solidarity uses our strength of numbers to raise the costs of keeping usin jail. It costs the authorities both economically and politically to keep largenumbers of people locked up after an action, especially if we can mobilize outside continued… 43
  • 44. pressure. Large numbers of people in jail can give us lots of leverage with thesystem. But stay-in-jail strategies are costly for us, as well. You will be charged$50/day for each day you are in jail ( to a maximum of $500). People may alsohave individual reasons for getting out of jail as fast as they can: family responsi-bilities, medical conditions that put them at risk in a jail situation, work responsi-bilities, etc. Stay-in-jail strategies work best with larger numbers, but they do not requireunanimity to work. We want to encourage people to do the action whether or notthey can stay in jail afterwards. However we would like folks who can do so toconsider staying in jail at least until their arraignment.How to Stay in Jail There are several ways to remain in jail. In some cases, using these tactics willaffect how you are treated while you are in jail. Refuse to sign or to post bail. Bail is one of the ways the poor are kept incarcer-ated and people with money get released. Some activists refuse to post bail as partof their moral or political stand. For others, the choice may depend upon thesituation. If this is your first arrest in Oak Ridge, you may be offered release on youown recognizance (meaning, you sign a paper assuring you will appear in court). Ifyou sign this, you will be released. We believe that if you refuse to sign, you will beheld in jail and given a bond amount for later release. Refuse to give names. Authorities are generally reluctant to free prisoners without knowing who they are. There has been one person in Oak Ridge actions in the past no giving his name. He was held until he provided ID. For this tactic to be effective, protesters should not carry identification to the action. This tactic also greatly interferes with the smooth running of the jail system, and is a tactic generally hated by the authorities. It can be apowerful bargaining point in solidarity negotiations. However, it’s a bargainingpoint we most often concede in the end. Protesters should not hold the illusion thatthey will be able to go through the entire system and be released without givingnames. On rare occasions this may happen, but they are rare. It has not happenedin Oak Ridge actions. Supporters should hold the ID of those arrested and be prepared to bring it tojail or court, if necessary. People who are withholding names should avoid discussing details that couldidentify you. Support people should know ahead of time what jail name you willuse, so they can be prepared to receive collect calls from ‘Muffie’. For some activists, giving their name is a matter of pride and principle, anintegral part of their understanding of nonviolence, and of being willing to standbehind their actions and fully accept the consequences. Protesters who needmedication may not be able to employ this tactic, as generally to receive meds youneed a name and a prescription. People not giving names may not be held with those giving names and identi-fication. Refuse to cooperate with other aspects of processing: not furnishing information,fingerprints, etc. We do not have experience with these tactics in Oak Ridge and donot know how the jail system will react. Refuse to voluntarily go to or cooperate with court appearances or to enter pleas. Thisstrategy can include simply being unresponsive, going limp; at times, resistershave stripped and refused to put on clothing, hampering efforts to bring them to 44
  • 45. court. Again, we do not have experience with these tactics in Oak Ridge. Webelieve that you will get to court, whether voluntarily or not. Authorities may usevery coercive or abusive tactics. We believe that in all these tactics the key issolidarity, not individual action. Remember, the more dramatic your noncooperation, the more difficult you aremaking your jailers’ lives, and the more likely you will face reprisals.Resistance in Jail In jail, many forms of resistance can be employed to protect other protestorsfrom being isolated, singled out, or physically hurt, to pressure the authorities toprovide physical necessities, medical care, interpreters , phone calls, access tolawyers, etc. They range from refusing to move voluntarily or cooperate with jailprocedures, singing, going limp, physically protecting individuals (‘puppy piling’),refusing to answer questions or to speak, fasting, etc. Resistance can be stressful and dangerous, and it’s wise to choose your battlesand conserve energy for issues that are truly important. Jailershave a wide range of “tools” at their disposal to coerce coop-eration or splinter the group. As you consider these tactics, beaware that these things may happen. Again: in all these situa-tions, the key is solidarity, not individual action. A liaison to the guards is often helpful in jail, as they willfeel more comfortable negotiating with one person. However,that role should rotate often so that individuals aren’t targetedas leaders. To organize in jail, keep a neutral profile and avoidconfronting the guards. Guards fear riots, and are always onthe lookout for potential instigators. They will often single outaggressive individuals. Whatever your views are on violenceand nonviolence, fighting the guards inside jail will simply getyou isolated, hurt, and possibly result in extra charges. Fasting (or a hunger-strike) can be a powerful strategictool, but it will rapidly cloud your judgment and make deci-sion-making extremely difficult. It’s most effective when thereis outside support and media attention. Consider appointing a‘designated eater’ to help care for and monitor the health offasters. Resistance inside jail can also be creative. We can use thetime to share skills, teach each other organizing tools, hold political discussions,plan the next action. We can also at times share songs, rituals, poems, jokes, stories,and many forms of mutual support and healing. And of course, to hold meetingsto decide upon our strategy. But don’t meet all the time: endless meetings can beexhausting and counterproductive. Remember that jail cells and phones aremonitored. Jail is not the place to regale your fellow protesters with tales of yourfifty-three previous arrests. Resistance inside jail is not a one-time decision, but rather an unfolding ofdaily choices and decisions. As with initial decisions about staying in jail or not,each individual will need to determine what they can do without coercion or guiltfrom fellow resisters.Solidarity demands There are many demands that we might make through solidarity, but generallythey involve pressure for equal and fair treatment in jail and in sentencing, fordropped or reduced charges or for a plea bargain we can accept that will not be a continued… 45
  • 46. deterrent to future actions. The legal system operates like a giant game in whichdeals are made every day for people’s lives. Most people caught in the system donot have the leverage and resources we do. As we negotiate our demands, we willhave many choices to make, and we should bear in mind that we may not be ableto achieve all of our demands. Pressure for equal treatment or sentencing is mosteffective when people have all done roughly the same thing. In most legal systems, there is a big divide between acts considered as freedomof expression and acts of property destruction or aggression. Often the authoritiesfalsely accuse people of violent acts, or charge a victim of their violence withassault on an officer. When they do not have a solid case, they can often be pres-sure d to drop or reduce charges. But if they actually have evidence against anindividual, they may be unwilling to reduce charges regardless of the strength ofour solidarity. If police have been injured or seriously lost face in an action, theymay close ranks in their own form of solidarity and become adamantly intent onpunishing somebody.Court and plea solidarity When we do not choose to use a stay-in-jail strategy, or when we agree tomove our solidarity out of jail and into the courts, there are still many strategies wecan use, but the details are more conditioned by the specific legal procedures ofeach province, state or country. The principles remain the same: strength in num-bers, respect for individual choices, coordination not coercion, raising the system’scost, and bringing to bear outside pressure. When individuals are singled out inspite of all our efforts, our solidarity can move to support for them as they facetrial, in the form of fundraising, political pressure, courtroom vigils, etc.Asking for a jury trial For the past several years, protesters in Oak Ridge actions have either pledguilty/no contest/best interest without a trial or had a bench trial in front of ajudge. In order to forgo a trial, you must enter a guilty/no contest/best interestplea and forfeit your right to a trial and appeals—along with that, you also give up your chance to make a statement in court about what you did or why you did it. A bench trial is a trial before the judge only, with no jury. A bench trial allows defendants to call witnesses and put on a defense* before the judge. Bench trials speed up the legal process—the entire case can usually be completed within a couple weeks of the action. If you request a bench trial, you will be required to sign a waiver giving up your right to a jury trial and your right to appeal the judge’s decision. While we can not ruleout miracles, no judge in Oak Ridge has ever found any group of defendants notguilty. In the past, consequences have escalated after a guilty verdict in bench trials—the first offense carries a penalty of fines and court costs; the second, 48 hours injail and costs; the third, 5 days in jail and costs; ten days in jail and costs after thefourth. You can see where this leads. The prosecutor has usually agreed to ask forless than 30 days if we agree to a bench trial and therefore waive our right toappeal. continued… * You may be prohibited from saying anything and everything you want to say in your“defense.” It depends on the patience and consideration of the judge. Technically, onlycertain defenses (“necessity,” for instance) that are defined in the law are presentable incourt. It would be a mistake to think you will be able to stage a grand made-for-TV trial tobring the government to its knees in open court. The judge may or may not permit you tocall expert witnesses, and certain types of testimony are likely to be prohibited altogether. 46
  • 47. We anticipate that at least some defendants will seek a jury trial this year. Wefeel that this process will give us more opportunities to keep the issue of nuclearweapons production before the public in the local community for a longer periodof time—giving more opportunity for witness. The court process will take longer—it could take months for the trial to be scheduled and held rather than weeks. TheDistrict Attorney has indicated that if defendants elect to exercise their right to ajury trial, he will ask the court for a sentence of 30 days and maximum fines andcosts, regardless of one’s past record. We invite you to consider what you want to do with regard to trial possibili-ties. It is not a decision you have to make at the time of your arrest. We will bepleased to have conversations with people who are willing to consider this path.JAIL ANDERSON COUNTY STYLE This information is based on past experience. There are no guarantees; jail is anexercise in loss of control and the rules are constantly changing. We offer this hereto try to help you in your own preparation. We also have copies of the AndersonCounty jail handbook/policies. If you would like a copy, call or email us and we’llsend it. If large numbers of people are arrested and detained they may be kept in alocation other than the county detention facility. Jail personnel tend to live an unhurried life. On your transport to the jail, yousit in the van a long time. Once there, you wait a long time. There are individualpat downs. You will be interviewed by booking/intake officer(s)—he or she willask for your name, address, religious preference, tatoos,medical information, etc. You will also be asked for identifi-cation such as your driver’s license. You will relinquish shoes, jewelry (including weddingrings, which will be cut off if they can not be removed),money—these get put in an envelope with your name andinto a property box. You will be fingerprinted, photographed, and yourvery own wrist ban will be put on your arm. Depending on the number of people arrested, thenumber of people working at the jail, and the level ofcriminal activity in the county, it may take hours or evendays for processing. Usually, you are initially held in a detox cell with other typical Unit in Anderson County Jailpeople being processed, including the people arrested withyou (separated by gender). You may get a thin foam mattress and blanket for nighttime (if many peopleare arrested, you may be denied a pad). This area is quite cold. You will be mostcomfortable if you are wearing layers of clothes and pants. Shoes with socks aregood to wear to be arrested in as well, because the socks will help keep your feetwarm. If you are moved to the general population you will be dressed out—you get ashort sleeve shirt, pants, socks, shoes, and underwear (if there is any). If you arenot wearing an underwire bra and they are out of underwear, you may get to keepyours. Also, some people have had success in keeping white long-sleeve under-shirts [with no writing on them to wear] under their uniform. All of this dependson who is on duty and whether they will allow you to keep underwear, etc. All your clothes go in your property box. continued… 47
  • 48. You are given a towel, soap, toothbrush and toothpaste. Women who arehaving their period get pads. If you have a medical condition that requires medication or special equipment,it can be arranged. Medication must be in its original prescription container (nonprescription meds are generally not allowed from outside sources). If the medica-tion is liquid (or things like contact lens solution) the bottles must be unopened,the seal unbroken. You might want to take a small quantity of your medicationwith you and have your support person on the outside prepared to deliver anyadditional medication to the jail. The Detox cell is a small room with a concrete bench running on one wall ofthe room. There is a toilet/water fountain/sink unit in one corner. There is noprivacy. If the jail is very crowded, (which is usually the case even without a bigdemonstration), or if they just decide not to send you to general population, youmay spend all your time in the small detox cell. In detox you are on a 23 hours/day lockdown. You get one hour out of the cell—usually given sometime between1-4am. This is your only access to the shower and phone. There are no windows.Lights are turned on and off at the discretion of your jailer. If you are staying for an undetermined amount of time, you may go to generalpopulation. It is a large room with cells off of it. Each cell has 2 bunks, a toilet and a sink. For women, you should expect therewill also be a third person on the floor in each cell. Overflow (a constant state inthe women’s unit) means 8-10 people sleep on the floor in the dayroom. There is commissary (store) where inmates can buy stuff like snacks, coffee, shampoo, comb, paper, stamps, envelopes, etc. When you are arrested, any money you have with you is put in your commissary account.* Commissary is available only 1 time a week. You are given a list of items available on Monday or Tuesday and you order what you want— you have to have money in your account to order— and your purchases are delivered at the end of the week. As you can see, unless you are in jail for more than a week, you should not count on using the commissary. The process is lengthy and often takes a while to get your account set up. When you are released from jail, make sure that you get your money back from your commissary account. Access to phone There are phones in the dayroom in general population which can be used except during lockdown. Some phone numbers may be blocked from being able to accept calls from the jail (not bythe jail, by the recipient). If you are in detox cell, your access to a phone is totally atthe guard’s whim or during your one wee- hour-of-the-morning hour out. Phone calls are collect; if the recipient in local, the charge is a flat $1. We do nothave information on long-distance calls.Visitation (This section is from the Jail Handbook; in practice, it may not work exactly as it islaid out here. Different information, much more restrictive, is posted on the bulletin boardat the jail.) Visitation is permitted on Saturday and Sunday—only one hour each day. Twovisitors at a time; kids can come one at a time accompanied by parent or guardian. * If you don’t have money with you, someone on the outside can bring money to putinto your account. Money is accepted at the jail Monday-Friday between 9:00am - 3:00pm.Times are subject to change at the discretion of jail personnel. 48
  • 49. You may have one visit per day. Visitors must have photo ID. Inmate (you) musthave filled out a visitor request form; each person who visits must be on the list. Ifthe jail experiences a lock-down during regular visitation time, there will be novisits. If more people want to visit than can be accommodated, visits may bereduced in time. Visits take place in small visiting areas—they are non-contact;three or four visitors at a time sit in a small room and speak on the phone toinmates on the other side of a glass wall. Phone performance is erratic. We have had limited success in clergy visits—you will need to specify yourreligious preference when you are booked. If you will want a clergy visit, talk to usabout local clergy willing to make visits.Noise If you like noise, and lots of it, jail is heaven. Lots of TV noise. Plenty ofnighttime noise. In the past, men’s units have been reported as louder than thewomen’s unit.Mail No photos allowed. All mail will be opened and read; mail with photos will bereturned to sender. Mail call happens once a day; it can take several days for aletter to make its way through the system. No money or stamps can be sentthrough the mail.Books There are some books at the jail, and you can read them. The fare is mostlyromance, thrillers, romantic thrillers or thrilling romances. Books are available inday rooms. You can sometimes bring in paperback books to jail when you come—this depends on who is on duty. Books of a religious nature are more likely to beacceptable to jail personnel.Other services available Except for a Bible study led by local volunteers, there are virtually no otherprograms available at the Anderson County jail.Communicating with people in jail You can not talk to an inmate unless they call you. Except for visiting hours,when the desk in the main lobby is staffed, communication with the jail usuallyhappens through the small intercom speakers located near the doors in the brickwalls of the jail, or by telephone. 49
  • 50. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners, Exercises••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worship for CenteringTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to and Closing • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- CENTERING EXERCISES A centering exercise provides an opportunity for individuals and the group to spend some time in reflection and/or on a quiet focused activity which builds on their personal life experience. These quieting activities are often used at transition times during a gathering. Some ideas are listed and you may have other creative ideas that would be ideal for your group. Peace Energy Support Materials Needed: candle and matches Directions: Participants sit in a circle of 8-15 people. A lighted candle arranged in the middle of the circle. Participants will be invited to pass the candle slowly around the circle in a reflective mode while focusing positive peace energy on the person holding the candle. Violence in Vocabulary Materials Needed: None Directions: Invite participants to reflect on violence expressed in words or phrases we use. Then invite participants to share in groups of four. Music Materials Needed: Music player and reflective selection(s) Directions: Invite participants to relax during the music. 50
  • 51. Community Materials Needed: Enough Crayons so each person might have about 3 andsheets of paper with this verse. We could learn a lot from crayons. Some are sharp, some are pretty and some are dull. Some have weird names, and all are different colors, but they all have to live in the same box. Directions: Take some time to reflect on this verse and what communitymeans to you. Then use the crayons to illustrate an idea of community. Mayborrow crayons from others. Papers may be posted.Peace Materials Needed: A large poster with these phrases arranged on it. SEEK PEACE CREATE PEACE BE PEACE Directions: Invite participants to reflect on what each of these statementsmeans to them and how they could give expression in their life. Then inviteparticipants to share some of their reflections with a person next to them. Sharingcould be done in pairs or trios.Poetry Materials Needed: Poetry selection(s)—some samples are included.Person(s) with good interpretive poetry reading skill Directions: Invite participants to listen. Reflect and share ideas.Describing a nonviolent person Materials Needed: Pieces of paper about 4 inches square (Sheet of paper cut in4). Markers or crayons. Each person will need 3 pieces of paper and 1 marker. Directions: 1) Invite participants to reflect on 3 words that could be used to describe anonviolent person. 2) Then write each of these words on aseparate piece of paper. 3) Place the papers on the floor in a largecircle. 4) Invite participants to quietly movearound the circle of descriptive words andreflect on which words might describe them.Need for World Peace Materials Needed: Globes and/or worldmaps placed in center of a circle. Directions: Invite participants to reflectwhere violence is happening now and why.May invite to share in small or large group. 51
  • 52. IMAGINING EXERCISE Time: 15-20 minutes I invite you to join me in a creative visual exercise. Find a place to lie down and be comfortable (If you can’t lie down, find a place to sit comfortably) Close your eyes—let your breathing become slower and deeper Take your time to relax your breathing and be aware of it Notice any places of tension in your body and breathe right into those places Allow them to let go and relax Formerly the future was simply given to us; now it must be achieved. We must becomethe agriculturists of time. If we do not plant and cultivate the future years of human life,we will never reap them. The nuclear peril makes all of us, whether we happen to havechildren of our own or not, the parents of all future generations. ~ Jonathan Schell, The Fate of the Earth This exercise will touch the core of our resolve to ensure a future for humanity.It will challenge us to re-establish our ties to the future—ties that have been brokenby our anticipation of nuclear holocaust. We do this by engaging in imaginativedialogue with a child in the future. Put yourself forward in time. It is a day just like this, but thirty years fromnow. The year on the calendar has a different number, but you are still you, samename, same gestures and feelings and skin, same action of heart and lungs. Someof us may be pretty ancient by then, but let’s assume you are still around and inone of your favorite spots. …Don’t worry about figuring out how the world haschanged, just know that there is one key difference. And that is: all weapons havebeen dismantled, the world is disarmed.… It may have happened back in the firstpart of the century: by now you have become so accustomed to the idea, you takeit for granted. Now a child approaches you, about 8 or 9 years old. She has heard,perhaps from the songs and stories about those times, what you and your co-workers did back then to save the world from disaster. She approaches timidly, but with great curiosity. “Were there really bombs that could blow up the whole world?” Listen to her questions and hear how you answer them.… “Were there really millions and millions of people who were sick and hungry?”… “What was it like to be alive in a time like that?… Weren’t you frightened?”… And lastly she asks, “What did you do to get through that scary time, and not be discouraged? What helped you to stay strong, so you could know what to do?” And listen now to your answers. 52
  • 53. CLOSING EXERCISES It is important at the end of the day to do some closing activity together,honoring the journey that people have taken with each other. We have oftencreated simple rituals together with readings, poetry, peace cranes, or other sym-bols. As you think of this time, you might ask people to write or share with eachother something that they have learned or experienced during their time together.We have used peace cranes and asked people to write down a hope for their actionor a prayer on the crane and then invited each person to hang the crane on a “tree”or other object that we would then take with us to the action. Meanwhile, there canbe singing or music during this time. On the next page is an affirmation that works nicely as a closing. Another closing exercise is a group spiral. To do this, have people form a circle,holding hands. One person drops hands, becoming the “head” of a line. Slowlythis person begins walking on the inside of the circle (everyone else is still linkedwith hands) walking a spiral that goes tighter and tighter to the middle. Once inthe middle, the person stands still, with everyone stopping as they get to the centeruntil you have created one giant spiral. Then the last person gradually unwindsthe spiral until everyone ends back up in the original circle. This is also nice to dowith music or singing. “Gonna Keep on Walking Forward, Never Turning Back” isa great song with this exercise. Use your creativity and imagination and create a small space at the close of theday for people to just pause and honor their day’s work before going back into theworld. 53
  • 54. Community Affirmation: read togetherWe who live in the shadow of the mushroom cloud and the dangers of bullets on our streetsToday declare our hope in the future.From the diversity of our religious traditions,We have come to renew our belief in the holiness of the earth and the sanctity of all life.We declare we are at peace with all people of good will.We need no leader to define for us an enemyNor tell us we need weapons for security.Instead, we affirm that our earth’s security rests not in armaments, butIn the justice of adequate housing and food,In the justice of meaningful education and work,In the justice of an economic order that gives everyone access to our earth’s abundance,In the justice of human relationships nourished by cooperation,In the justice of safe, clean and renewable energy instead of the perils of nuclear power.We affirm people over poverty, community over privatism,Respect for others regardless of sex, race or class.We choose struggle rather than indifference,We choose to be friends of the earth and of one another rather than exploiters,We choose to be citizens rather than subjects,We choose to be peacemakers rather than peacekeepers,We choose a weapons-free future,And we will settle for nothing less.We unite ourselves with sisters and brothers the world overTo join together in communities of resistance to the threat of weapons.We unite ourselves with trust in the Spirit of Life.Justice and love can overcome the machines of destruction.Before us today are set life and death.We choose lifeThat we and our children may live.Let it be so.The International Religious Convocation for the Second UN Special Session on Disarmament, June 1982 54
  • 55. Public speeches • Letters of opposition or support • Declarations • GroupSilence ••Renouncing•honors • Lysistratic Prisoners’ strikeExcommunication embargo Protest strike Farm workers’ strike • nonaction • • Sympathetic strike or mass petitions • Slogans, caricatures, and symbols • Banners,••Student strike strike • Withholding orsocial institutions • Stay-at-home • Working to rule • Withdrawal from withdrawal of allegiance • Literature and posters, leaflets, pamphlets, and books • Picketing • Prayer and worship AppendixTotal personal noncooperation • Sanctuary • Consumers’ boycott • speeches advocating resistance • Boycott of elections • Refusal of assistance to • Paint as protest • Vigils • Performances of plays and music • Singing •Lockout • Refusal • Sitdown • Civil disobedience•of “illegitimate” laws • Mutiny enforcement agents of industrial assistance Refusal to pay debts or Marches • Pilgrimages • Motorcades • Mock funerals • Teach-ins • Walk- On the pages that follow are resource pieces you may want to use as handouts. We have put them here so they are easy to remove and copy. The Appendices include: Martin Luther King, Jr’s principles of nonviolence OREPA’s nonviolence guidelines for Oak Ridge actions Discussion questions for nonviolence training Placards highlighting International Law arguments International law brochure Communication/consensus booklet Nonviolent civil resister ID card Songsheets 55
  • 56. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR’sPRINCIPLES OF NONVIOLENCE1) Nonviolence is a way of life for courageous people. It is active nonviolent resistance to evil. It is aggressive spiritually, mentally and emotionally. It is always persuading the opponent of the righteousness of your cause.2) Nonviolence seeks to win friendship and understanding. The end result of nonviolence is redemption and reconciliation. The purpose of nonviolence is the creation of the Beloved Community.3) Nonviolence seeks to defeat injustice, not people. Nonviolence holds that evil doers are also victims. The nonviolent resister seeks to defeat evil, not people.4) Nonviolence holds that suffering can educate and transform. Nonviolence accepts suffering without retaliation. Nonviolence accepts violence if necessary, but will never inflict it. Nonviolence willingly accepts the consequences of its acts. Unearned suffering is redemptive and has tremendous educational and transforming possibilities. Suffering can have the power to convert the enemy when reason fails.5) Nonviolence chooses love instead of hate. Nonviolence resists violence of the spirit as well as the body. Nonviolent love is spontaneous, unmotivated, unselfish and creative. Nonviolent love gives willingly, knowing that the return might be hostility. Nonviolent love is active, not passive. Nonviolent love is unending in its ability to forgive in order to restore community. Nonviolent love does not sink to the level of the hater. Love for the enemy is how we demonstrate love for ourselves. Love restores community and resists injustice. Nonviolence recognizes the fact that all life is interrelated.6) Nonviolence believes that the universe is on the side of justice. The nonviolent resister has deep faith that justice will eventually win. Nonviolence believes that God is a God of justice and love.
  • 57. Nonviolent Guidelines Nonviolent GuidelinesBe nonviolent in tone as well as action. Be nonviolent in tone as well as action.Show respect for all people; each person has a piece of the Show respect for all people; each person has a piece of the truth. truth.Always leave the other a face-saving way out. Always leave the other a face-saving way out.In difficult moments, behave as a disciple of nonviolence. In difficult moments, behave as a disciple of nonviolence.Try to make human contact with your antagonist, meeting Try to make human contact with your antagonist, meeting them on the level of your common humanity. them on the level of your common humanity.Do not hide anything, Tell the truth. Do not hide anything, Tell the truth.Be firm and unyielding in your commitment to nonvio- Be firm and unyielding in your commitment to nonvio- lence and your action for peace. lence and your action for peace.Be courageous. Choose to love. Be courageous. Choose to love. Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance derived from Gandhi’s principles of satyagraha, King’s Prin- derived from Gandhi’s principles of satyagraha, King’s Prin- ciples of Nonviolence, and the guidelines of base Christian ciples of Nonviolence, and the guidelines of base Christian communities in Latin America. communities in Latin America.
  • 58. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. In efforts to achieve peace and justice, history is full of both violent and nonviolent revolutions. Isviolent resistance to injustice ever justified? Can you bring about justice and peace through violent means?Can you support revolutionary struggles for liberation without supporting the means? “I do not believe in short-violent-cuts to success. settling things by violence, and at least to get intoHowever much I may sympathize with and admire the knee breeches of honestly seeking and tryingworthy motives, I am an uncompromising opponent ways more fitted to our state as humans.”of violent methods even to serve the noblest causes. ~ Juanita NelsonExperience convinces me that permanent good cannever be the outcome of untruth and violence.” “I have little hope of the freedom of the slave by ~ Gandhi peaceful means. A long course of peaceful slaveholding has placed the slaveholders beyond the “What difference does it make to the dead, the reach of moral and humane considerations—Theorphans and the homeless, whether the mad de- only penetrable point of a tyrant is the fear ofstruction is wrought under the name of totalitarian- death.”ism or the holy name of liberty or democracy?” ~ Frederick Douglass ~ Gandhi “I do not wish to kill or be killed, but I can “One pinpoint of clarity was that it was time for foresee circumstances in which both of these thingsus to grow out of the short pants of barbarism, of would be by me unavoidable.” ~ Henry David Thoreau 3. Nonviolent practitioners contend that the strength of nonviolence comes from taking on suffering.How do we absorb pain and suffering when we create social disorder so great that something must yield. Forexample, what good do we accomplish by taking actions that get us arrested? “You [the eight fellow clergymen who opposed “Somehow we must be able to stand up beforethe civil rights action] are quite right in calling for our most bitter opponents and say: ‘We shall matchnegotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct your capacity to inflict suffering by our capacity toaction. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such endure suffering. We will meet your physical forcea crisis and foster such a tension that a community with soul force. Do to us what you will and we willwhich has constantly refused to negotiate is forced still love you.’”to confront the issue.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. ~ Martin Luther King, Jr. 58
  • 59. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS (cont’d) 2. Nonviolence has been used by those who believe in it as a way of life and those that see it only as astrategy for political action. Can nonviolence be used effectively as only a tactic? Must it be a way of life? Foreveryone practicing it? For only the leaders? “One of the reasons so many people have don’t have any philosophical problem with it. On adeveloped strong reservations about the peace level of strategy it’s quite obvious that you have tomovement is precisely that they do not see the peace try and work out ways of creating social changethey seek in the peacemakers themselves. Often which avoid coming into violent conflict with thatwhat they see are fearful and angry people trying to power of the state.”convince others of the urgency of their protest. The ~ Myles Hortontragedy is that peacemakers often reveal more of thedemons they are fighting than the peace they want “I don’t think any one event, or any one day, orto bring about.” any one action, or any one confrontation wins or ~ Henri Nouwen loses a battle. You keep that in mind and be practical about it. It’s foolish then to try and gamble every- “The essence of nonviolence is love. Out of love thing on one roll of the dice—which is what violenceand the willingness to act selflessly, strategies, tactics really gets down to. I think the practical person has aand techniques for a nonviolent struggle arise better chance of dealing with nonviolence thannaturally. Nonviolence is not a dogma, it is a pro- people who tend to be dreamers or who are imprac-cess.” tical. We’re not nonviolent because we want to save ~ Thich Nhat Hahn our souls. We’re nonviolent because we want to get some social justice for the workers. If all you’re “We live in a violent society, a violent world; interested in is going around being nonviolent andthat is, a world in which force is a vital mechanism so concerned about saving yourself, at some pointused to keep the economic and social system intact. the whole thing breaks down—you say to yourself,The laws of the land are supported by the use of ‘Well, let them be violent, as long as I’m nonviolent.’violence; that is, the use of physical force to make Or you begin to think it’s okay to lose the battle aspeople obey the law. This is the premise you have to long as you remain nonviolent, the idea is that youstart with. If you oppose things in that system, then have to win and be nonviolent. That’s extremelyall those powers of violence can be used to force you important! You’ve got to be nonviolent—and you’veinto line. As part of a minority group, you shouldn’t got to win with nonviolence! What do the poor carethink in terms of playing the game by their rules, of about strange philosophies of nonviolence if itusing violence to get what you want, even if you doesn’t mean bread for them?” ~ Cesar Chavez 4. What are the limits of nonviolence? One of OREPA’s nonviolence guidelines is “Be nonviolent in toneas well as action.” Does this apply to people only? Also to property? Are there cases where property damageis necessary or justified? “Sabotage, resulting in impairing the traffic or “In all the riots, taken together, the propertyproperty of a railway system, is always ‘immoral’ damage reached colossal proportions (exceeding afrom a capitalist’s standpoint because it is opposed billion dollars). Yet the physical injury inflicted byto his [her] interests. On the other hand, discharging the Negroes upon white people was inconsequentialand blacklisting 3,000 railway employees for their by comparison. The bruising edge of the weapon ofactivity in a strike is ‘immoral’ from the workers’ violence in Negro hands was employed almoststandpoint; and sabotage becomes a ‘moral weapon’ exclusively against property—not persons.”to remedy that condition. Sabotage as a weapon of ~ Martin Luther King, Jr.warfare against the employers is no more ‘immoral’than taking the first of May as a holiday withoutasking the bosses for it.” ~ Ben Williams, IWW organizer 59
  • 60. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS (cont’d) 5. What are the limits of nonviolence? Who are acceptable targets? What amount of suffering for others isokay? Is it justifiable for OREPA to take actions in the Oak Ridge community that inconvenience communitymembers, not just workers at Y12? “[The workers] were on strike for three days. It which has constantly refused to negotiate is forcedwas a general strike as far as the railroads were to confront the issue.”concerned. It tied up transportation and communi- ~ Martin Luther King, Jr.cation from Paris to all the seaport towns. The strikehad been on three days when the government “We will have to repent in this generation notgranted every demand of the workers.” merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad ~ William Haywood, on a strike in France in 1911 people, but for the appalling silence of the good people.” “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a ~ Martin Luther King, Jr.crisis and foster such a tension that a community 6. One of the principles of nonviolence is that everyone has a piece of the truth. What does that mean forhow we treat people as individuals and as political figures? Is there a difference? “The nonviolent approach does not immediatelychange the heart of the oppressor. It first doessomething to the hearts and souls of those commit-ted to it. It gives them new self-respect; it calls upresources of strength and courage that they did notknow they had. Finally it reaches the opponent andso stirs his [her] conscience that reconciliationbecomes a reality.” ~ Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • 61. The Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty Article VI “All parties to the treaty undertake to pursue negotiations ingood faith on effective measures relating to the cessation of thenuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament,and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strictand effective international control.” Signed by the United States of America July 21, 1968 Ratified by the United States Senate March 13, 1969 Entered into force March 5, 1970
  • 62. Article VI Constitution The United States of America “This Constitution and the Laws of the United States which shallbe made in pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or whichshall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall bethe supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shallbe bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of anyState to the Contrary notwithstanding.”
  • 63. Findings of the International Court of Justice July “The threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be con-trary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict,and in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law.” “There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to aconclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all itsaspects under strict and effective international control.”
  • 64. Treaties and Obligations of the United States relating to Nuclear Weapons The United Nations Charter and the International Court of Justice (under Article92 of the UN Charter) The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (1970) The Geneva Conventions of 1949 [governing the conduct of war, proportionality and protection of civilians] 1977 Additional Protocol 1 to the Geneva Conventions, Articles 35 §3, 55 [widespread, long-term, severe damage to environment prohibited in war] International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights, Article 6 [No one arbitrarily deprived of life] Nuremberg Charter, August 8, 1945 [responsibility of individuals for actions of government]
  • 65. of the US Constitution asserts that the have led to a series of agreements to reduce elimination of warheads, only their retirementConstitution and “all Treaties made, or which nuclear arsenals. from active deployment—the US currentlyshall be made, under the Authority of the These activities, which conform (excepting maintains a significant “strategic reserve” ofUnited States, shall be the supreme Law of the the “at an early date” clause) with the spirit of warheads, warhead components, and specialLand; and the Judges in every state shall be the NPT, have been undermined recently by nuclear materials.bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution action of the US government.or Laws of any State to the Contrary In 1997, the US announced its “Stockpile Other US treaty obligationsnotwithstanding.” Life Extension Program,” under which aging The Constitution is explicit. International nuclear warheads are “refurbished” and Nuclear weapons by nature are covered bytreaties are not one obligation to be balanced “upgraded” so that they can be certified additional treaties.by other obligations or interests—they are the reliable for 100-120 years. The Geneva Gas Protocol of 1925 forbadesupreme Law of the Land. In 1999, the US announced its decision to the use of weapons which could not be The Nuclear Nonproliferation entered into produce tritium for nuclear weapons in a contained in the theatre of battle and whichforce on March 6, 1970.2 civilian nuclear power reactor (Watts Bar I, in would by nature fail to distinguish between The NPT has two complementary goals. Tennessee), undermining the long-standing combatants and noncombatants, specificallyFirst, to stop the lateral spread of nuclear international prohibition against “dual use” prohibiting “poisonous or other gases and allweapons materials and technology— technologies. analogous liquids, materials, or devices.” Thenonproliferation. And second, to reduce the In 2001, the US and Russia concluded an US did not sign the Gas Protocol until 1975.nuclear arsenals of current nuclear weapons informal Strategic Offensive Reduction Treaty Nuclear weapons production also violatesstates to zero—disarmament. (SORT, aka Moscow Treaty) to reduce nuclear the 1949 Geneva Convention and the 1997 The chief leverage the NPT exercises in its arsenals to 1,700-2,200 warheads by 2012 on a Protocol I to the Geneva Convention (“makingefforts to stem the spread of nuclear weapons voluntary basis, with no verifiable the civilian population or individual civiliansis twofold: the promise of assistance in the transparency or enforcement mechanisms. the object of attack”), the 1945 Nuremburgdevelopment of civilian nuclear energy US President George Bush announced Charter3, plus scores of human rights and(while restricting access to weapons there would be no further negotiations on environmental laws.technology and the production of highly arsenal reduction with Russia.enriched uranium, plutonium, or tritium) On June 14, 2002, the United States At Y12 Todayand the promise of nuclear weapons formally withdrew from the Anti-Ballisticstates to disarm. Missile (ABM) Treaty. In response, as it had At the Y12 National Security Complex, the Central to the latter is Article VI of the forewarned, Russia declared the START II Department of Energy refurbishesNPT which reads: Treaty null and void. thermonuclear weapons as part of the All parties to the treaty undertake to pursue In 2003, the US Congress lifted a 10-year Stockpile Life Extension Program. negotiations in good faith on effective old ban on the design and development of Y12 has produced the thermonuclear part measures relating to the cessation of the new nuclear weapons; funding was allocated of every nuclear weapon in the US arsenal. [A nuclear arms race at an early date and to under the heading “Advanced Concept nuclear weapon gets its destructive power nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on Initiatives” for new design nuclear weapons from two explosions. A relatively small fission general and complete disarmament under (including “mini-nukes,” referred to as explosion (the plutonium/tritium pit) is strict and effective international control. “usable”) and for modifications to old triggered by the use of high explosives. This weapons to introduce new capabilities to the atomic explosion triggers the thermonuclearUS compliance and the NPT arsenal (the Robust Nuclear Earth Pentrator, secondary (highly enriched uranium, depleted also called “bunker buster.”) uranium, lithium, beryllium) which explodes Since signing the NPT, the US has entered Currently, the US arsenal contains between with devastating force.]into a series of two-party negotiations with the 6,000 and 9,000 active thermonuclear US thermonuclear weapons were initiallySoviet Union, and now with Russia, which warheads, most on hair-trigger alert. The 2001 designed to have a shelf life of 20-30 years. In Moscow Treaty does not require the 1997, DOE began to “refurbish” aging
  • 66. warheads. Beginning with the W87 (MX law applicable in armed conflict, and in particular themissile) warhead, and continuing now with principles and rules of humanitarian law.”the W76 (Trident) warhead, the thermonuclear The Court unanimously found that: “There exists ansecondary from each bomb is returned to Y12 obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a International Lawwhere it is given a life extension upgrade— conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmamentaging parts are replaced, refurbished, or in all its aspects under strict and effective international control.”upgraded—and the bomb is certified reliablefor 100-120 years. Judge Bedjaoui, president of the Court, said the & Nuclear Weapons “very existence of nuclear weapons constitutes a great This activity contradicts the US obligation defiance (challenge) to humanitarian law itself.... Nuclearunder the NPT to pursue complete war and humanitarian law seem, consequently, twodisarmament in good faith at an early date. antithesis which radically exclude each other, theRather than progressing toward the existence of one necessarily supposing the non-elimination of nuclear weapons, the US is existence of the other.”actively working to maintain a large nucleararsenal in virtual perpetuity. Stockpile life 2. The Treaty was signed in Washington, DC, London and Moscow on July 1, 1968. It was ratified by the USextension, combined with the cessation of Senate on March 13, 1969. Since that date, thisarms control talks with other nations, violates commitment has been the law of the land. The Treatythe letter and the spirit of the NPT. officially entered into force on March 6, 1970. I N JULY 1996, THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (WORLD COURT) ISSUEDThe US and the NPT 3. The Nuremberg Charter defines war crimes as AN ADVISORY OPINION THAT HELD THAT “THE violations of the customs or laws of war, including but not limited to: “wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, THREAT OR USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS WOULD The United States has two responses to or devastation not justified by military necessity.” Crimes GENERALLY BE CONTRARY TO THE RULES OFcharges that it violates the law and the NPT by against humanity are also defined in the Nurembergits activities at Oak Ridge. The first is to assert INTERNATIONAL LAW APPLICABLE IN ARMED Charter, the definition includes “inhumane actscompliance in the face of contradictory committed against any civilian population.” CONFLICT, AND IN PARTICULAR THEevidence.4 PRINCIPLES AND RULES OF HUMANITARIAN The second is to seek to undermine the 4. Mohammed El Baradei, chief UN weapons inspector: LAW.”1NPT by insisting that further review “The U.S. government insists that other countries do not possess nuclear weapons. On the other hand they are The World Court further declared theconferences on the Treaty (one begins May 2, perfecting their own arsenal. I do not think that maintenance and building of nuclear weapons2005) “de-link” nonproliferation and corresponds with the treaty they signed.” Financial to be a violation of Article VI of the Nucleardisarmament. In other words, no new Review, September 5, 2003. Nonproliferation Treaty which imposes “anmembers of the nuclear club, but those that obligation to achieve a precise result—Nuclearhave bombs can keep them. This strategy, disarmament in all its aspects, by adopting adescribed as “pulling up the ladder,” has met particular course of conduct, namely, thewith almost universal dismay and is widely pursuit of negotiations on the matter in goodrecognized as a strategy that seeks the faith.” In the Court’s view, “elimination ofeventual demise of the treaty. nuclear weapons is the only adequate response to the dilemma and risks posed by 1. On December 15, 1994, the General Assembly of the nuclear age.”the United Nations, in resolution 49/75K asked the worldcourt: “Is the threat or the use of nuclear weapons in anycircumstances permitted under international law?” The US Law and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty OAK RIDGE ENVIRONMENTAL PEACE ALLIANCECourt found “...the threat or use of nuclear weapons P O BOX • OAK RIDGE TNwould generally be contrary to the rules of international • www stopthebombs org International treaties and agreements have the force of law in the United States. Article six
  • 67. Condescension and paternalism—“Now, do any of you women have something to add?”Being on the make—using sexuality to manipulate peopleDividing the group—seeking support and attention from one group (gender, race, or some other caucus) while competing with anotherRunning the show—continually taking charge of tasks before others have a chance to volunteerPackratitis—protectively saving key information for one’s own use and benefitSpeaking for others—“A lot of people think that we should…” or “What she was trying to say was…” + + + + +MALE DOMINANCE PATTERNS establish and thrive in a competitiveatmosphere. Consensus decision-making is the opposite of that. We don’twant to cut off discussion and ideas; we want to encourage them. We needeveryone’s piece of the truth in order to have the whole truth.Addressing many of these behavior patterns consciously, openly, in a spiritof growth and learning, can free men, women, and other groups from theconditioning that we’ve been put through. + + + + + Never turning back We’re gonna keep on walking forward, Keep on walking forward Keep on walking forward Never turning back, never turning back. We’re gonna keep on singing loudly… Building a Nonviolent Community We’re gonna shut down all the bomb plants… consensus and communication We’re gonna build a world of peace… We’re gonna weave our lives with shining thread…Material for this handbook drawn from ¡Basta! No Mandate For War, A Pledge ofResistance Handbook © 1986, The Emergency Response Network. Published byNew Society Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 68. consensus communication roadblocksTHE PROCESS IS AS IMPORTANT AS THE RESULT—we won’t get to our goalof a nonviolent community if we communicate, make decisions, and treat Hogging the show—talking too much, too long, or too loudeach other in the ways our culture has taught us. Consensus decision-making is different than voting and different than “Robert’s Rules” or other Problem solver—continually giving the answer or solution before others have hadparliamentary procedures. Because it is not what we are used to, we are a chance to contributemore likely to think in new ways about how to talk and make decisionstogether—what our patterns of speech and our group process say about Speaking in capital letters—presenting your own solutions/opinions aswho we are. THE final word, often aggravated by tone of voice or body languageConsensus is a process for group decision-making that seeks to Defensiveness—responding to different opinions as though they are personal • include everyone in the process attacks • come to an agreement • encourage community growth and trust Nitpicking—pointing out minor flaws, stating the exception to every generalityPeople talk about “building” consensus or “reaching” consensus. These aregood words—making a good consensus decision is work. Each idea or Restating—especially what has just been said by a non-dominant personcomment is an important part of the decision; like a builder, we are puttingthe pieces together to complete the decision. Consensus is also something Attention seeking—using dramatics to get the spotlight (including leavingwe reach for. The way forward is rarely self-evident; it’s out there in front the room!)of us and we have to reach out and grasp it. Task and content focus—to the exclusion of nurturing individuals or the group ○ VOTING CONSENSUS through attention to process ○ ○ we choose one option we synthesize diverse ○ Putdowns and one-upmanship—“I use to believe that, but now…” or ○ over other alternatives elements into one plan “How can you possibly say that?” ○ ○ someone wins works to create ○ Negativism—finding fault with every idea ○ someone loses mutually satisfying decisions ○ Focus transfer—changing the subject to your pet issues in order to make your favorite speechConsensus does not mean everyone thinks the decision is the bestpossible or even that everyone is sure it will work. But consensus tries to Residual office holder—hanging on to powerful positionsmake sure everyone was heard and understood and that no one’sfundamental moral values are violated. Self-listening/not listening—formulating a response after the first few words or sentences, not listening to anything after than, and then HOW IT WORKS jumping in at the first pauseUsually the process begins with a discussion about an issue or a decision Inflexibility and dogmatism—taking a last stand, delivering an ultimatum, evenbecause on little issues • it’s on the agenda • someone raises a concern Avoiding feelings—intellectualizing, going passive, making inappropriate • the group faces a question jokes • we need a plan 7
  • 69. Facilitator. A skilled facilitator is important. The facilitator doesn’t drivethe process, she tries to be a shepherd, keeping the discussion moving, Q. Does consensus mean everyone agrees?seeing that everyone has a chance to participate, trying to balancediscussion, making sure questions are answered, working for clarity. A Ideally, yes. In the movement to build a nonviolent community, weFacilitators should focus on process, not try to control the content of the seek unanimous consent—that’s a perfect consensus. But we might have todiscussion. settle for less. Our commitment is to hear each person and to work hard to incorporate all concerns into the final decision. We give the power to blockVibes-watcher. It is helpful to assign one person the job of watching for to each individual because it is very important to us that we respect thegroup feelings or patterns of participation. “I sense things are getting really conscience of each person.tense and on the verge of polarizing. I wonder if we could take a minute Of course, that places a great responsibility on each person to be infor some silence and centering,” or “We’re hearing lots of good things from touch with his or her conscience and to be disciplined about exercising thea few people, but it feels like we need to make room for some other right to block.voices,” or “I am sensing some things are really unresolved and wonder if In its popular usage, consensus is often used to mean the majority ofwe could take a second to check that out.” The vibes watcher should be people (or the majority of people we talked to or the majority of people liketuning in to the fundamental power dynamics of the discussion, watching us or the majority of people in power), or the conventional wisdom, or thefor sexism or other oppressive systems playing themselves out. common understanding. We hear, “There is a growing consensus in favor of school vouchers.” It doesn’t mean every single person agrees we oughtTime-keeper. The facilitator should be aware of time, but it is helpful to to undermine public schools.have a back-up to remind the group, gently, about the time limits it has set A group should settle on a common understanding of what consensusfor itself: “We said we had five minutes to devote to this and we’re at four means to them before they jump into a decision-making process. There isminutes right now,” or “We need to have this decision by 3:00 and I want no right answer, but it is important for everyone to be on the same page.to note that it is 2:45 right now.”Recorder. Even if the group is a short-term affinity group, it is helpful tohave someone actually writing down group decisions—capturing the ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS WHICH HELP BUILD CONSENSUSdecision in writing when it is made gives everyone a common referencepoint should questions come up later. Responsibility. Each person has to voice her or his own opinion, participate in the discussion, and take part in carrying the agreementSpokesperson. In actions which have several affinity groups working forward. Speak for yourself and own your opinions.separately but together, each group identifies a spokesperson. Picture a tirewith a hub in the middle and spokes going out to points on the rim. Each Self-discipline. Blocking consensus should only be done for principledgroup is a point on the rim. When a group makes a decision, its objections. Objections should be voiced clearly, to the point, without put-spokesperson goes into the middle hub, the spokescouncil—eventually all downs or excessive speech-making. Participate in finding an alternativethe spokes are together in the middle and they share information and try to solution.coordinate plans so that the action is effective and works. Thespokesperson may have to go back and forth from hub to group as things Respect. Respect others and trust them to make responsible comments.develop. Cooperation. Look for areas of agreement and common ground and build on them. Avoid competitive, right/wrong, win/lose thinking. Making the decision is only the first step. Following through on the decision brings it to life. Struggle. Use clear means of disagreement—no put-downs. Use disagreements to learn, grow and change. Work hard to build unity in the group, but not at the expense of members.4 5
  • 70. As the discussion develops people come to understand the issue, raisecommunication skills questions, get a sense of the group. When the group is ready (it may have to be fairly quickly, depending on circumstances) a proposal is put forward. Objections and concerns should be voiced.*JUST BECAUSE WE ARE WORKING TO SAVE THE WORLD from nuclearweapon does not free us from other behavior patterns that are less noble. The proposal is discussed, modified if necessary, or withdrawn if it seems aFair and respectful communication is not something we are taught. We are dead end.taught, in subtle and not-so-subtle ways, to try to win. To change thoseingrained habits, we have to think about how we communicate, plan to do The facilitator watches the group. When it appears all concerns have beenit differently than we have been taught, and work hard at it. heard and addressed and the proposal has been shaped, the facilitator calls for consensus. If there are no objections, you have your decision.We are also taught, at almost every point in our society, that certain ways of (Sometimes, there is just silence, because no one objects. It helps to have andominating are okay for certain kinds of people at certain times. Traditional male/ affirmation). The facilitator should state the decision so everyone is clear.female roles play out in front of us again and again, and even if we don’t buy intothem, elements of them are imprinted on our brains. Discussion ProposalA “masculine behavior pattern—” not that women don’t ever do it, but Modificationsmen do it most often and often do it—tries to shape the future with Proposal statedauthority, usually fairly heavy-handed. Consensus call DecisionHere are some ways we can be responsible to ourselves and others in groups: Re-state decision Do itDon’t interrupt others—maybe even leave a moment of silence after aspeaker finishes. * What if I have concerns or objections? Concerns and objections should be considered carefully by the wholeBecome a good listener—don’t withdraw if you aren’t talking. group. In the end, it may not be entirely possible to satisfy every concern of every person. You are responsible to voice your concerns or objections soGet and give support. Be aware of patterns of domination and address the group can seek to satisfy them. If you have unresolved concerns whenthem. Men should challenge and support each other. the call for consensus is made you have three options: 1. Stand aside (“I can live with it,” or “I don’t think it’s needed, but I’llAvoid answers and solutions. Voice your opinion in a way that says you go along.”)believe your idea is valuable, but not more important than others’ ideas. 2. Block (“I believe this is immoral; it violates my conscience and I need to exercise my right to block.”)Relax. The group will do fine without anxiety attacks. And it just might 3. Withdraw from group (“I don’t fit here, and I don’t want tosurvive if we weren’t even there! continue working with this group.”)Give everyone a break. You don’t have to speak on every single subject, and SPECIFIC ROLES in the PROCESSyou don’t have to share every single idea you have with the entire group. EACH INDIVIDUAL HAS THE RESPONSIBILITY to participate—to offer ideasDon’t put others down. Check yourself when you’re about to “one-up” and to voice concerns. Don’t hope others will read your mind. Each individualsomeone else. “Why am I doing this? What do I need?” also has the responsibility to make space for others to speak, to listen carefully and respectfully to what others say, and to consider the concernsInterrupt others’ oppressive behavior. If someone is oppressive to others and of others. Don’t try to read minds or speak for someone else.inhibiting his/her own growth, we have a responsibility to interrupt in acaring and direct way. Which we probably need to learn.6 3
  • 71. NONVIOLENT CIVIL RESISTANCE RECORD DATE OF ACTION: This information will help OREPA and you maximize the effectiveness of your action.NAMECurrent address Permanent address (if different)telephone e-mail:Name/phone number of support person:Are there friends/parents/others you would like to receive the OREPA newsletter covering this action?Name NameAddress AddressIs there a local newspaper we should send our press release to? A reporter you know?SPECIAL NOTE: Please use the back of this card to write your thoughts expressing your reason forundertaking this act of civil resistance at Y12. You can use more space if you want. We can use this quote inpress statements, newsletters, etc. Thanks for all you are doing for peace!NONVIOLENT CIVIL RESISTANCE RECORD DATE OF ACTION: This information will help OREPA and you maximize the effectiveness of your action.NAMECurrent address Permanent address (if different)telephone e-mail:Name/phone number of support person:Are there friends/parents/others you would like to receive the OREPA newsletter covering this action?Name NameAddress AddressIs there a local newspaper we should send our press release to? A reporter you know?SPECIAL NOTE: Please use the back of this card to write your thoughts expressing your reason forundertaking this act of civil resistance at Y12. You can use more space if you want. We can use this quote inpress statements, newsletters, etc. Thanks for all you are doing for peace!
  • 72. S O N G S : : FOR RESISTANCE : : S O N G SIf I Had a Hammer Last night I had the strangest dreamIf I had a hammer I’d hammer in the morning Last night I had the strangest dream CI’d hammer in the evening all over this land I’d ever dreamed before F CI’d hammer out danger; I’d hammer out warning I dreamed the world had all agreed G Em AmI’d hammer out love between To put an end to war Dm G C my brothers and my sisters all over this land… I dreamed I saw a mighty room F CIf I had a bell I’d ring it in the morning… All filled with women and men G C And the papers they were signing saidIf I had a song I’d sing it in the morning… They’d never fight againWell I got a hammer and I got a bell And when the papers all were signedAnd I got a song to sing all over this land And a million copies madeIt’s the hammer of justice it’s the bell of freedom They all joined hands and bowed their headsIt’s a song about love between And grateful prayers were prayed my brothers and my sisters all over this land… And the people in the streets belowC Em F G C Em F G Were dancing round and roundC Em F G While guns and swords and uniformsAm F Am F G Were scattered on the ground Last night I had the strangest dream…ImagineImagine there’s no heaven, it’s easy if you try GCGCNo hell below us, above us only sky GCGC Ain’t You Got A RightImagine all the people, living for today C D Ain’t you got a right (ain’t you got a right) DG Ain’t you got a right (ain’t you got a right) DImagine there’s no countries, it isn’t hard to do Ain’t you got a right (ain’t you got a right) Em AGNothing to kill or die for, and no religions, too To the tree of life (to the tree of life)? DImagine all the people living life in peace You can tell all my sistersYou may say I’m a dreamer, C D G B7 You can tell all my brothersbut I’m not the only one C D G B7 You can tell it to the worldI hope someday you’ll join us C D G B7 ‘Bout the tree of lifeAnd the world will live as one C D G So rocky was the road And dangerous was the journeyImagine no possessions, I wonder if you can But we all got a rightNo need for greed or hunger nor folks with empty hands To the tree of lifeImagine all the people sharing all the world Ain’t you got a right…You may say I’m a dreamer,but I’m not the only oneI hope someday you’ll join usAnd the world will live as one. 72
  • 73. This Little Light of MineThis little light of mine, I’m gonna let it shineThis little light of mine, I’m gonna let it shineThis little light of mine, I’m gonna let it shine D G D D Bm 2 SIYAHAMBA Si-ya-hamb’ e-ku-kha-nyen’kwen-khos (4x) Si-ya’ ham-ba, ham-ba, si-ya-ham-ba-ham-ba Si-ya-hamb’ e-ku-kha-nyen’kwen-khos (2x)Let it shine, let it shine, let it shine D A DG D We are marching in the light of God (4x)All around the neighborhood, I’m gonna let it shine… We are marching, marching; we are marching, marching We are marching in the light of God (2x)Shine it all around the world, I’m gonna let it shine…Won’t let George Bush put it out, I’m gonna let it shine… Caminamos en la luz Dio… We are marching to say never again… Paz y libertad Paz queremos paz G C G Hoy queremos decir nunca mas… Y libertad en este mundo C G D G (repeat) Down by the Riverside Para los niños de todo el mundo G Queremos paz y libertad ( x) G D G Gonna lay down my sword and shield, Down by the riverside Down by the riverside Down by the riverside Ya no mas hambre ya no mas guerra Gonna lay down my sword and shield, Down by the riverside Queremos paz en esta tierra ( x) Ain’t gonna study war no more Peace we hope for peace I ain’t gonna study war no more And liberty in this world Ain’t gonna study war no more, Ain’t gonna study war no more For all the children in all the world I ain’t gonna study war no more We want peace and liberty Ain’t gonna study war no more, Ain’t gonna study war no more No more hunger no more war We want peace on this earth Gonna shut down the Y12 plant…TURN, TURN, TURN Gonna join hands around the world…To everything—turn, turn, turn C FCG We’re gonna keep on walking forwardThere is a season—turn, turn, turn C FCGAnd a time to every purpose under heaven F Em G7 C We’re gonna keep on walking forward We’re gonna keep on walking forwardA time to be born, a time to die C G7 C We’re gonna keep on walking forwardA time to plant, a time to reap C G7 C Never turning back never turning backA time to kill, a time to heal C G7 CA time to laugh, a time to weep C F G7 C We’re gonna build a world of peaceA time to build up, a time to break down We’re gonna weave our lives a shining threadA time to dance, a time to mournA time to cast away stonesA time to gather stones together Ain’t gonna let nobody turn me aroundA time to love, a time to hate Ain’t gonna let nobody turn me around EmA time of war, a time of peace turn me around turn me around B EmA time you may embrace Ain’t gonna let nobody turn me around EmA time to refrain from embracing Gonna keep on talkin’ keep on walkin’ BA time to gain, a time to lose Marching to the Promised Land B EmA time to rend, a time to sewA time of love, a time of hate Ain’t gonna let no bomb plant turn me around…A time for peace, I swear it’s not too late. Ain’t gonna let no police turn me around… 73
  • 74. Peace TrainNow I’ve been happy lately 3 Your Flag Decal Won’t Get You Into Heaven Anymorethinking about the good things to comeand I believe it could be While digesting Readers’ Digest in the back of a dirty bookstore D-Gsomething good has begun A plastic flag with gum on the back fell out on the floor A--Doh I’ve been smiling lately Well I picked it up and I ran outside and slapped it on my window shield ---Gdeaming about the world as one And if I could see old Betsy Ross, I’d tell her how good I feel A--Dand I believe it could besome day it’s going to come But your flag decal won’t get you into heaven anymore G–D- They’re already overcrowded from your dirty little war A–D-cause out on the edge of darknessthere rides a peace train And Jesus don’t like killing, no matter what the reason’s for G–D-oh peace train—take this country And your flag decal won’t get you into heaven anymore A--Dcome take me home again Well I went to the bank this morning and the teller said to menow I’ve been smiling lately If you join our Christmas Club, we’ll give you ten of them flags for freethinking about the good things to come Well I didn’t mess around a bit, I took him up on what he saidand I believe it could be And I stuck them flags all over my car and one on my wife’s foreheadsomething good has begunoh peace train sounding louder But your flag decal…glide on the peace train ooo aah eee ah ooo ah come on now peace train Well I got my windowshield so full of them flags I couldn’t seeyes peace train holy roller So I ran the car upside a curb and right into a treeeveryone jump on the peace train By the time they got a doctor down, I was already dead ooo aah eee ah ooo ah And I’ll never understand why the man standing at the Pearly Gate said: come on now peace train But your flag decal…get your bags togethergo bring your good friends toocause it’s getting nearerit soon will be with youcome and join the livingit’s not so far from you Bread and Rosesand it’s getting nearersoon it will all be true As we go marching marching in the beauty of the day C–FG A million darkened kitchens, a thousand mill lots gray C–DGoh peace train sounding louder Are touched with all the radiance that a sudden sun discloses C–FGglide on the peace train For the people hear us singing: bread and roses, bread and roses. C Am F G C ooo aah eee ah ooo ah come on now peace train As we go marching marching, we battle too for mennow I’ve been crying lately For men can ne’er be free until our slavery’s at endthinking about the world as it is Our lives shall not be sweated from birth until life closeswhy must we go on hating Hearts starve as well as bodies, give us bread but give us roseswhy can’t we live in bliss As we go marching marching, unnumbered women deadcause out on the edge of darkness Go crying through our singing their ancient call for breadthere rides a peace train Small art and love and beauty their drudging spirits knewpeace train take this countrycome take me home again Yes, it is bread we fight for, but we fight for roses, toooh peace train sounding louderglide on the peace train As we go marching marching, we bring the greater days ooo aah eee ah ooo ah The rising of the women means the rising of the race come on the peace train… No more the drudge and idler, ten toil where one reposes But a sharing of life’s glories, bread and roses, bread and roses!Cat Stevens© Irving Music Inc 74
  • 75. Joe HillI dreamed I saw Joe Hill last night alive as you and me 4 C–FC Which Side Are You On?Says I "But Joe you’re ten years dead" F GC Come all of you good workers, good news to you I’ll tell Am – Em Am"I never died " says he DG Of how the good old Union has come in here to dwell Em Am E Am"I never died " says he GC Which side are you on? Am – E Am Which side are you on? Am – E Am"In Salt Lake Joe " I said to him standing by my bed"They framed you on a murder charge "Says Joe "But I ain’t dead " My daddy was a miner, he’s now in the air and sunSays Joe "But I ain’t dead " And I’ll stick with the union ‘til every battle’s won Which side are you on? Which side are you on?"The Copper Bosses shot you Joe they killed you Joe " says I"Takes more than guns to kill a man " They say in Harlan County, there are no neutrals thereSays Joe "I didn’t die " You’re either with the union, or a thug for J. H. Blair.Says Joe "I didn’t die " Which side…And standing there as big as life and smiling with his eyes O workers can you stand it, O tell me how you can?Joe says "What they could never kill Will be a crummy scab, or lend us all a handWent on to organize Which side…Went on to organize " Which side…From San Diego up to Maine in every mine and millWhen workers stand up for their rightsIt’s there you’ll find Joe HillIt’s there you’ll find Joe HillDe ColoresDe colores, de colores se visten los campos en la primavera C - - - G7De colores, de colores son los pajaritos que vienen de afuera ----C-De colores, de colores es el arco iris que vemos lucir C---F-Y por eso los grandes amores de muchos colores me gustan a mî F C G CY por eso los grandes amores de muchos colores me gustan a mî F C G CCanta el gallo, canta el gallo con el quiri quiri quiri quiri quiriLa gallina, la gallina con el cara cara cara cara caraLos polluelos, los polluelos con el pio pio pio pio piY por eso los grandes amores de muchos colores me gustan a mîY por eso los grandes amores de muchos colores me gustan a mîWoke Up This Morning Walkin’ and talkin’ with my mind stayed on freedom…Woke up this morning with my mind G stayed on freedom Singin’ and shoutin’ with my mindWoke up this morning with my mind C G stayed on freedom… stayed on freedomWoke up this morning with my mind G GB Em Laughin’ and dancin’ with my mind stayed on freedom stayed on freedom…Hallelu Hallelu Hallelujah! 75
  • 76. Going up on that mountain 5 Keep your eyes on the prizeGoing up on that mountain Paul and Silas was bound in jail Em DAnd I ain’t comin’ down ‘til morning; Had nobody for to go their bailGoing up on that mountain, Keep your eyes on the prize, hold onAnd I ain’t comin’ down in chains. Hold on, Hold on Keep your eyes on the prize, hold on.Freedom walks beside meAnd I ain’t comin’ down ‘til morning; The very moment that all seemed lostFreedom walks beside me, The dungeon shook and the chains fell offAnd I ain’t comin’ down in chains. Keep your eyes on the prize, hold on Hold on, Hold onHand in hand with my sister Keep your eyes on the prize, hold on.And I ain’t comin’ down ‘til morning;Hand in hand with my sister, Paul and Silas began to shoutAnd I ain’t comin’ down in chains. Jail doors opened and they walked out…Hand in hand with my brother The only thing that we did wrongAnd I ain’t comin’ down ‘til morning; Was staying in the wilderness too long…Hand in hand with my brother,And I ain’t comin’ down in chains. Well, the first thing we did right Was the day we begun to fight… The only chain that we can standBright morning stars are shining Is the chain of hand in hand…Bright morning stars are shiningBright morning stars are shining Welcome TableBright morning stars are shiningDay is a breaking in my soul We’re gonna sit at the welcome table We’re gonna sit at the welcome table one of these daysOh, where are your dear mothers? We’re gonna sit at the welcome tableOh, where … We’re gonna sit at the welcome table one of these daysThey’ve gone to Y12 marching We’re gonna feast on peace and justice…They’ve gone … We’re gonna shut down that old bomb plant…We’re building peace and justice We’re gonna sit at the welcome table…We’re building…Find the cost of freedomFind the cost of freedomBuried in the groundMother earth will cover youLay your body down…Find the cost of freedomBuried in the groundMother earth will cover youLay your body down… 76