The Progressive Era Reform shifts from the farm to the    city and climbs the ladder ofgovernment from the local to the st...
I. The Problems of the 1890’s               • Huge Gap between                 rich and poor               • Tremendous ec...
I. Problems of the 1890’s (cont.)                 • Industrial workers                   hideously poor, living           ...
II. Progressive Reformers
A. Streams of Reform          • The “Social Gospel”            movement            --Walter Rauschenbusch:            Chri...
A. Streams of Reform (cont.)              • Young, socially-                conscious lawyers              • Investigative...
B. Features of Progressive         Reform             • Desire to remedy               problems through               gove...
B. Features of Progressive     Reform (cont.)             • Want to bring order out of               chaos               -...
B. Features of Progressive     Reform (cont.)             • Desire to make society               more moral and more just ...
B. Features of Progressive     Reform (cont.)             • Infiltrated both               political parties              ...
III. Sample Progressive Reforms
A. Political Reforms• Tried to put more power into the hands of the  people• Innovative changes in city government  --city...
B. Social Reforms         • Child labor laws         • Ten-hour work days           --The “Brandeis brief”           --Mul...
B. Social Reforms (cont.)             • Minimum safety standards               on the job             • Minimum standards ...
IV. Progressive Amendments to       the Constitution               • Progressive reliance on                 the law      ...
V. Presidential Progressivism:    Theodore Roosevelt               • Great drive, energy and                 exciting pers...
A. First Term as President       (1901-1904)             • McKinley’s assassination             • Offered energetic nation...
B. “Trust-Buster”?         • TR’s attitude toward Big           Business         • Wants to regulate in order           to...
C. Second Term as President       (1905-1909)              • More vigorous                progressivism              • Hep...
VI. “A Tough Act to Follow”: ThePresidency of William Howard Taft           (1909-1913)                 • The Election of ...
VI. Presidency of Taft (cont.)               • Controversy over the                 Tariff               • More conservati...
VII. The Election of 1912             • Growing split within the               Republican Party             • Creation of ...
VIII. Democratic Progressivism: The  Presidency of Woodrow Wilson           (1913-1921)                  • Wilson’s early ...
A. “New Freedom”        • Wilson’s brand of          progressivism        • Wants to recreate the          “golden age” of...
B. Key Wilsonian Legislation              • Underwood Tariff Act                (1913)              • Federal Reserve Act ...
C. Congressional Progressivism         After 1914               • Wilson was not a strong                 progressive when...
IX. The Waning of the       Progressive Movement• Progressive movement peaks by 1917• Success of the movement led to its d...
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Progresssive movement ppp

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Progresssive movement ppp

  1. 1. The Progressive Era Reform shifts from the farm to the city and climbs the ladder ofgovernment from the local to the state and then to the national level.
  2. 2. I. The Problems of the 1890’s • Huge Gap between rich and poor • Tremendous economic and political power of the rich • Wealthy were insensitively flaunting their wealth before a poorer public
  3. 3. I. Problems of the 1890’s (cont.) • Industrial workers hideously poor, living in squalor and working in dangerous conditions • Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives (1890) • Little concern for Black America
  4. 4. II. Progressive Reformers
  5. 5. A. Streams of Reform • The “Social Gospel” movement --Walter Rauschenbusch: Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907) • Settlement House Workers --Jane Addams, Hull House in Chicago (1889) • Americans of “Old Wealth”
  6. 6. A. Streams of Reform (cont.) • Young, socially- conscious lawyers • Investigative Journalists -- “Muckrakers” --Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, and Upton Sinclair • Small businessmen
  7. 7. B. Features of Progressive Reform • Desire to remedy problems through government initiative • Reliance on “experts” -- Robert Lafollette’s “Wisconsin Idea” • Wanted reform not revolution • Stressed the importance of efficiency in reform --Frederick W. Taylor
  8. 8. B. Features of Progressive Reform (cont.) • Want to bring order out of chaos --Creation of NCAA in 1910 --Federal Budget (1921) • Desire to make politics more democratic • Desire to make businessmen more responsible for problems
  9. 9. B. Features of Progressive Reform (cont.) • Desire to make society more moral and more just • Desire to distribute income more equitably • Desire to broaden opportunities for individual advancement • Women were active in progressivism --Suffragettes like Susan B. Anthony
  10. 10. B. Features of Progressive Reform (cont.) • Infiltrated both political parties -- Republican “insurgents” • Middle-class reform movement • Operated on all three levels of government
  11. 11. III. Sample Progressive Reforms
  12. 12. A. Political Reforms• Tried to put more power into the hands of the people• Innovative changes in city government --city managers and commission model• The Direct Primary• Initiative, Referendum and Recall• The Secret Ballot• Direct Election of Senators and the Vote for Women
  13. 13. B. Social Reforms • Child labor laws • Ten-hour work days --The “Brandeis brief” --Muller v. Oregon (1908) --Bunting v. Oregon (1917) • Prohibition initiatives • Moral Purity campaigns --Mann Act (1910)
  14. 14. B. Social Reforms (cont.) • Minimum safety standards on the job • Minimum standards for housing codes • “City Beautification” movement • Immigration Restriction • Eugenics --Buck v. Bell (1927) • Little Help for Blacks --NAACP (1909) -- “Birth of a Nation”
  15. 15. IV. Progressive Amendments to the Constitution • Progressive reliance on the law • 16th Amendment (1913)— federal income tax • 17th Amendment (1913)— direct election of senators • 18th Amendment (1919)— prohibition • 19th Amendment (1920)— vote for women
  16. 16. V. Presidential Progressivism: Theodore Roosevelt • Great drive, energy and exciting personality • TR’s interests and early years • NYC police commissioner • Spanish-American War experience -- “Rough Riders” • Political Rise from NY Governor to Vice- President
  17. 17. A. First Term as President (1901-1904) • McKinley’s assassination • Offered energetic national leadership • Cast every issue in moral and patriotic terms --The “Bully Pulpit” • Master Politician • Modest goals for his “accidental” presidency
  18. 18. B. “Trust-Buster”? • TR’s attitude toward Big Business • Wants to regulate in order to get businesses to act right • The “Square Deal” (1902) • Making an example of the Northern Securities Co. • The Elkins Act (1903) and the Bureau of Corporations
  19. 19. C. Second Term as President (1905-1909) • More vigorous progressivism • Hepburn Act (1906) • Federal Meat Inspection Act (1906) • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) • Conservation Policy --Preservation vs. Conservation
  20. 20. VI. “A Tough Act to Follow”: ThePresidency of William Howard Taft (1909-1913) • The Election of 1908 • Taft’s political experience • Taft’s weight • Not a dynamic politician • Never completely comfortable as President
  21. 21. VI. Presidency of Taft (cont.) • Controversy over the Tariff • More conservative than TR, but also more trust suits • The “Ballinger- Pinchot” Affair • Growing tension with Teddy Roosevelt
  22. 22. VII. The Election of 1912 • Growing split within the Republican Party • Creation of the “Bull Moose” Party • Progressive Party Platform: “New Nationalism” • Democrats drafted Woodrow Wilson • Results of the Election
  23. 23. VIII. Democratic Progressivism: The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) • Wilson’s early life and political career • True progressive and dynamic speaker • Sympathetic to small businessmen • Could be a stubborn, moral crusader and ideologue
  24. 24. A. “New Freedom” • Wilson’s brand of progressivism • Wants to recreate the “golden age” of small American businesses • Wilson wants to open channels for free and fair competition • Historic Jeffersonian approach to federal power
  25. 25. B. Key Wilsonian Legislation • Underwood Tariff Act (1913) • Federal Reserve Act (1913) • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) • Federal Trade Commission (1914)
  26. 26. C. Congressional Progressivism After 1914 • Wilson was not a strong progressive when it came to social reform • Congress takes over the progressive agenda • Appointment of Brandeis to Supreme Court • Examples of congressional progressive legislation after 1914 --Federal Highways Act (1916)
  27. 27. IX. The Waning of the Progressive Movement• Progressive movement peaks by 1917• Success of the movement led to its decline• Advent of World War I also hurt progressive activism• Progressives themselves began to weary of their reform zeal—as did the nation as a whole• Ironically, voter participation has steadily declined since the election of 1912

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