Teaching Referencing And Citation at De Montfort University

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Plagiarism and bad academic practice is a growing concern in the academic community. At De Montfort University, Library Services are increasingly teaching referencing skills to students in an effort to raise awareness of the importance of referencing and reduce incidents of plagiarism and poor academic practice. This presentation was presented at a UC&R event on teaching by Amanda Poulton, outlining the approach to teaching referencing at DMU in the context of the literature on learning, in particular peer learning and interaction.

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Teaching Referencing And Citation at De Montfort University

  1. 1. Teaching Referencing and Citation at DMU Amanda Poulton Academic Team Manager: Learning and Skills Development De Montfort University apoulton@dmu.ac.uk
  2. 2. Outline • DMU Context – Plagiarism and bad academic practice – Collaborative approaches • The DMU approach to teaching referencing • Theoretical context
  3. 3. DMU Context
  4. 4. Plagiarism vs Bad Academic Practice • “Plagiarism can be defined as the significant use of other people's work and the submission of it as though it were one's own in assessed coursework” • “Bad Academic Practice can be: – low level duplication without citation for example errors made through carelessness or misunderstanding or – passing off ideas, data or other information as if originally discovered by the student.” Taken from DMU Academic Regulations - http://www.dmu.ac.uk/aboutdmu/services/registry/aro_plagiarism.jsp and http://www.dmu.ac.uk/aboutdmu/services/registry/aro_badacademicpractice.jsp
  5. 5. Referencing “You must reference ALL sources that you use in your work at University. You must reference BOTH direct quotations AND at points where you may have re-phrased ideas you have read” Taken from DMU Academic Regulations - http://www.dmu.ac.uk/aboutdmu/services/registry/aro_badacademicpractice.jsp
  6. 6. Addressing bad academic practice • Why use referencing and consequences of poor referencing • Clarification on differing referencing styles • Creating bibliographies • Citing within the text
  7. 7. Collaborative approach • CLASS – Centre for Learning and Study Support • Complete study process supported
  8. 8. The Study Process Searching Reading & evaluating Exploring & defining Writing & reviewing Referencing
  9. 9. Collaborative approach • CLASS – Centre for Learning and Study Support • Complete study process supported • CLASS – Using references – Paraphrasing and summarising • Library – Citation – Creating bibliographies – In-text citations
  10. 10. The DMU Approach to teaching referencing
  11. 11. DMU approach • Presentation on principles of referencing – Why reference – Key elements of a reference • Contextualised examples • Practical exercise in groups
  12. 12. Extracts from the presentation
  13. 13. Why use referencing • Acknowledges other people‟s ideas • Enables readers to see what sources you have used • Gives authority • Shows scope and breadth of research • Avoids plagiarism and adds marks – Plagiarism is a serious academic offence
  14. 14. Referencing A reference consists of five essential elements: • author details – individual, company or organization • the title of the item, document or page • the publisher or the source (e.g. the name of a journal) • the date of publication or when the website or resource was created, last amended or accessed • the place of publication, the full web address (URL) or the type of resource if it is not a web site (e.g. an email) or page numbers if it is a journal
  15. 15. Citing and writing example During this decade, China will have 2 million smoking-related deaths each year; 900,000 of them will stem from lung cancer alone (Zhu et al. 1996) quot;Osteoporosis, with the attendant hazard of fractures, is probably one of the main limitations to long-term glucocorticoid therapy“ (Rang et al 1999: 423)
  16. 16. Journal article citation information Author Title of article Page Issue Volume Title of journal Year
  17. 17. Journal article • HALL, W. D. (2006) Cannabis use and the mental health of young people. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 40(2): 105-113 • If the journal has a month instead of an issue number use name of month in reference e.g. 40 (Feb) • May also use Vol. 40 (2) and/or p. or pp. for page numbers • Use this format even if you find the article on the Internet. Do not include the web address.
  18. 18. Journal abbreviations • Handbook for PHCO3304 states that you must use journal title abbreviations from index medicus • A-Z list available from: http://www2.bg.am.poznan.pl/czasopisma/m edicus.php?lang=eng • Search for abbreviation using PubMed Journals database: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db =Journals&itool=toolbar
  19. 19. Exercise • Working in small groups (up to 4) and using the examples provided, write out the reference for each putting them in the correct format and order for a bibliography using the Harvard system
  20. 20. Referencing Exercises ALBERTS, B. et al ______ ______________________. 2nd ed. ___________________ __________________ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ______________ (2001) The supply and consumption of over the counter drugs. In: _______________________. eds. ____________________. London: Taylor & Francis, ________. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ______________________ (2007) ___________________________ __________________ Available from: __________________________ _____________________________________ __________________
  21. 21. Theoretical Context
  22. 22. Advantages of peer learning approach Students retention rates for group interactivity rises to 70% and 80% for doing real-life tasks compared to 10% for reading Glassner as quoted by Biggs and Tang (2007)
  23. 23. The Learning Pyramid Taken from: http://www.tcde.tehama.k12.ca.us/pyramid.pdf
  24. 24. Advantages of peer learning approach „A high degree of learner activity‟ (p.17) and peer interaction are critical factors in encouraging a deep approach to learning. Biggs as quoted by Toohey (1999)
  25. 25. Deep vs surface learning • Surface approach to learning – Learning as memorising – Learning as the acquisition of facts – Focus on discrete elements without integration Entwhistle (1981) and Marton and Säljö (1976) as cited by Savin-Baden and Major (2004, p.26)
  26. 26. Deep vs surface learning • Deep approach to learning – Learning as an interpretive process aimed at understanding reality – Vigorous interaction with content – Relate concepts to everyday experience • Entwhistle (1981) and Marton and Säljö (1976) as cited by Savin-Baden and Major (2004, p.26)
  27. 27. Addressing cultural differences • Individualist cultures – E.g. UK, Canada, USA – Respond well to whole class discussion/activity • Collectivist cultures – E.g. Asia – Favour small group discussion/activity Hofstede (2001)
  28. 28. Teaching referencing • Talk to the lecturer – ensure you are teaching the correct referencing style • Include any variations for the particular programme • Include examples for bibliography and citing within the text to demonstrate application • Contextualise the session – use examples from the appropriate discipline • Use an exercise to put the technique into practice • Encourage students to work in groups
  29. 29. References • BIGGS, J. and TANG, C. (2007) Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does, 3rd ed. Maidenhead: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press. • HOFSTEDE, G. H. (2001) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organizations across nations. 2nd ed. London: Sage. • SAVIN-BADEN, M. and MAJOR, C. (2004) Foundations of Problem-based learning. Maidenhead: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press. • TOOHEY, S. (1999) Designing courses for Higher Education. Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.

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