SKELETAL SYSTEMS
Two Major Sections of the Skeleton2       Axial Skeleton         Used to protect fragile tissue that is held          un...
Variations of Bones3       Total number of bones vary by species and        even within a species         Example:      ...
Bones of the Axial Skeleton4       Cranium         Made   mostly of flat bones (50 bones in a dog)           Shape   var...
Bones of the Axial Skeleton5       The Vertebral Column         Extends  the length of the body from the skull         ...
Bones of the Axial Skeleton6       The Vertebral Column         Broken   down into anatomical divisions          Cervic...
Bones of the Axial Skeleton7       The Vertebral Column          Cervical   Vertebrae – neck               Mammals have...
Bones of the Axial Skeleton8       The Vertebral Column          Lumbar  Vertebrae – lower back between thoracic        ...
Bones of the Axial Skeleton9       The Vertebral Column          Coccygeal    Vertebrae – Tail               Vary by sp...
Bones of the Axial Skeleton10                         10/13/10
Create it!11        Congrats…you have graduated from the         school of vertebral engineering! Lets put         that e...
Bone of the Axial Skeleton12        Cranial – PECTORAL LIMBS          Scapula          Humerus          Radius        ...
Bones of the Appendicular13        Scapula          Joins the humerus through a shallow ball and           socket joint....
Bones of the Appendicular14        Humerus          Upperbone of the forelimb.          Connects scapula to the elbow
Bones of the Appendicular15        Radius and Ulna - Forearm          Ulna runs to the point of the elbow and           ...
Bones of the Appendicular16        Carpus - Wrist          Radiusand ulna continue to the carpus.          Group of bon...
Bones of the Appendicular17        Metacarpus - Hand          Long  Bones          Lots of differences in species.     ...
Bones of the Appendicular18        Phalanges – fingers and toes          Number   of toes corresponds to the number of   ...
Bones of the Appendicular19        Caudal End – PELVIC LIMBS:          Pelvis                   Femur          Tibia  ...
Bones of the Appendicular20        Pelvis            3 fused bones.                Pubis                Ischium       ...
Pelvis21              10/13/10
Bones of the Appendicular22        Femur – Leg Bone          Ball              and socket joint to the pelvis.         ...
Bones of the Appendicular23        Patella – Knee Cap
Bones of the Appendicular24        Tibia and Fibula          Similar   to Ulna and Radius in forearm
Bones of the Appendicular25        Tarsus - Ankle
Bones of the Appendicular26        Metatarsus – Top of foot
Bones of the Appendicular27        Phalanges - Toes
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Skeletal System Introduction

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Animal Anatomy and Physiology

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  • Skeletal System Introduction

    1. 1. SKELETAL SYSTEMS
    2. 2. Two Major Sections of the Skeleton2  Axial Skeleton  Used to protect fragile tissue that is held underneath  Vertebrae, ribs, skull sternum  Appendicular Skeleton  These bones allow for movement  Bones of the limbs
    3. 3. Variations of Bones3  Total number of bones vary by species and even within a species  Example:  Horse – 205 bones  Dog – average - 320 bones  Some dogs are born with short tails and others have long tails which change the number of vertebrate present  Dewclaws  some are born with some are born without changing the number of digits present
    4. 4. Bones of the Axial Skeleton4  Cranium  Made mostly of flat bones (50 bones in a dog)  Shape varies between species and breed  Used for protection of the brain and other sense organs (taste, smell, hearing, sight,)  Lower jaw – mandible, is moveable allowing an animal to obtain and chew food
    5. 5. Bones of the Axial Skeleton5  The Vertebral Column  Extends the length of the body from the skull  Protects the spinal cord and allows for movement  Anatomy of the Vertebral Disk  Covered with bony arch - protects spinal cord  Intervertebral disks can be found between vertebrae. add cushion between the disks (not found between C1 and C2)
    6. 6. Bones of the Axial Skeleton6  The Vertebral Column  Broken down into anatomical divisions  Cervical(7)  Thoratic (13)  Lumbar (7)  Sacrum (3)  Coccygeal (14-23)
    7. 7. Bones of the Axial Skeleton7  The Vertebral Column  Cervical Vertebrae – neck  Mammals have 7 Cervical Vertebrae  C1 – Atlas – allows for up and down movement of head  C2 – Axis – allows for side to side movement  Thoracic Vertebrae – have attached ribs  Help to protect the heart and lungs, allow for respiration
    8. 8. Bones of the Axial Skeleton8  The Vertebral Column  Lumbar Vertebrae – lower back between thoracic vertebra and pelvis  Flexes and extends as an animal moves  Provide support for organs in the abdomen  Sacrum Vertebrae  Fuse with the pelvis allowing support of the hind end of the animal
    9. 9. Bones of the Axial Skeleton9  The Vertebral Column  Coccygeal Vertebrae – Tail  Vary by species and within the species  Dogs typically have 20 Coccygeal vertebrae but can range from 6-23!
    10. 10. Bones of the Axial Skeleton10 10/13/10
    11. 11. Create it!11  Congrats…you have graduated from the school of vertebral engineering! Lets put that education to good use!
    12. 12. Bone of the Axial Skeleton12  Cranial – PECTORAL LIMBS  Scapula  Humerus  Radius  Ulna  Carpus  Metacarpal  Phlanges
    13. 13. Bones of the Appendicular13  Scapula  Joins the humerus through a shallow ball and socket joint.  Flat bone with a spine to attach tendons and ligaments
    14. 14. Bones of the Appendicular14  Humerus  Upperbone of the forelimb.  Connects scapula to the elbow
    15. 15. Bones of the Appendicular15  Radius and Ulna - Forearm  Ulna runs to the point of the elbow and accepts the end of the humerus.  Radius closely connects to the ulna and forms the remainder of the elbow joint.  The elbow joint is a hinge joint and the reason that we can twist our forearm is because of the movement between the radius and ulna, not the elbow joint.
    16. 16. Bones of the Appendicular16  Carpus - Wrist  Radiusand ulna continue to the carpus.  Group of bones arranged in two rows.  Number of bones vary among species.  Dog –7  Ruminants – 6  Horse – 7 or 8
    17. 17. Bones of the Appendicular17  Metacarpus - Hand  Long Bones  Lots of differences in species.  Dogs and cats have four long and one much smaller one (dewclaw)  Horses have only one major bone, corresponds to the third one in other species, but has two smaller ones as well.  Ruminants only have one very large metacarpal bone. As the ruminant embryo develops, the third and fourth one fuse together.
    18. 18. Bones of the Appendicular18  Phalanges – fingers and toes  Number of toes corresponds to the number of metacarpal bones.  Singular form is phalanx.  The last phalanx is covered by the nail or hoof.
    19. 19. Bones of the Appendicular19  Caudal End – PELVIC LIMBS:  Pelvis  Femur  Tibia  Fibula  Tarsus  Metatarsus  Phalanges
    20. 20. Bones of the Appendicular20  Pelvis  3 fused bones.  Pubis  Ischium  Ilium  Sacrum supports the pelvis.  Connection can be damaged, and may split away.  Pelvis is made of two halves.  Each half divides into regions: ilium, ischium, pubis.  Ilium joins to the sacrum.
    21. 21. Pelvis21 10/13/10
    22. 22. Bones of the Appendicular22  Femur – Leg Bone  Ball and socket joint to the pelvis.  Goes to the knee.
    23. 23. Bones of the Appendicular23  Patella – Knee Cap
    24. 24. Bones of the Appendicular24  Tibia and Fibula  Similar to Ulna and Radius in forearm
    25. 25. Bones of the Appendicular25  Tarsus - Ankle
    26. 26. Bones of the Appendicular26  Metatarsus – Top of foot
    27. 27. Bones of the Appendicular27  Phalanges - Toes
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