First Questions• What is knowledge? What types of knowledge can we use?• What types of researchers are there? How do they choose knowledge types?• What is the best way to get it?• Who controls it? Who changes it?• What is the ideal world for knowledge?
What sort of researcher are you?•Answer the followingquestions with your topicin mind…
Why do we want to know about your topic?1. To discover laws to predict and control events2. To understand and describe meaningful social action for the people involved3. To expose myths and misunderstanding and empower people to change
Isn‟t common sense knowing?1. No, it is not valid unless tested those who already know2. Yes, it is a collection of powerful everyday theories used by common people, and there are many truths3. No, it is a collection of false beliefs created by hidden interests that hide behind the majority belief
What are human beings?1. Rational individuals who can drive and can be shaped by external forces2. Social beings who create their world through their own interpretations3. Creative people with untapped potential, trapped by exploitation
What is reality?1. Stable pre-existing patterns or orders that can be discovered2. Fluid definitions of a situation created by human interaction3. Conflict–filled and governed by hidden structures
What is the truth?1. Logically connected to laws and facts2. Resonate or feels right to those who are being studied3. Supplies peoples with tools needed to change the world
There is little agreement on KNOWING Especially on the biggest questions… Coming up: the three perspectives on some of the biggest questions… These perspectives are generally known as… • Scientific or empirical or rational • Interpretative or interactional • Critical and radical
What is Education? Is it giving access into aIs it knowing special groupand giving of knowers?the truth? Is it helping a person to Is it teaching uncover their facts or reality? interpretation or power?
Framework for Inquiry: Education Qualitative Quantitative Theory Praxis
Our Year of Praxis CuriosityResearch Engagement with critical thinking Reflection Worldview of Knowledge Synopsis – Formal Question Literature Review Ethics Methodology Engagements in community as participant observer Interviews – understanding their narratives Narrative Essay / case study Data Organisation Analysis and Interpretation Findings Presentation / Paper Research Article
Theory and Praxis• Theory = Heavens: stable, fixed, certain, contemplative• Praxis = Earth: unpredictable, changeable, situational, lived Platonic way: knowledge is theory to be applied to life Isocratic / Aristotelian and situations way: Knowledge is experiential, in the world and lived.
Praxis means you are…• In the situational context• Can have access to the knowledge providers• Can BE a knowledge provider• Can organise your experiences according to rules• Engage in the active change of your context• Why is it important to teachers?• What is an example in the current research questions?
Worldview of knowledge Findings • Description Research Approach • Analysis • Scientific - Causality • Action • Social / Interpretive • Critique • Praxis • Generative • Critical / Action • Feminist • MarxistResearch techniques / QualitativeActions in the Field • Descriptive• Observation • Grounded Theory• Cases • Visual Ethnography• Text analysis • Discourse Analysis• Interviews• Focus group Quantitative• Survey• Participant • Statistical analysis Observation • Behaviour Coding• Conversation • Content Coding Analysis
The Synopsis for a Research Project• Formally defined vocabulary• Clear meta-commentary• Speaking from the point of view of a researcher – academic• Question forms turned into statements (if, whether)
Introduction• The aim of the proposed ………………………..research and ensuing report is to investigate / describe / evaluate whether …• This research draws on ….• For the purposes of this report, a personal mobile phone is a personally funded phone for private calls as opposed to an employer funded phone that directly relates to carrying out a particular job.• Employee attitudes include but are not limited to...• Staff and team meeting refer to...• Negative effect is assumed to be...
Background• There has been an increase in the use of personal mobile phones over the past five years and there is every indication that this will continue. According to Black (2002) by 2008 almost 100% of working people in Australia will carry personal mobile phones. Black describes this phenomenon as „serious in the extreme, potentially undermining the foundations of communication in our society‟ (2002, p 167). Recently members of the public have complained about the use of personal mobile phones in corporate meetings (The Australian, 12/5/10). Nevertheless, at present there is no official nationwide or union policy regarding phone use at work. Individual companies have expectations of conventional methods of courtesy or when failing, overt signs and directives (Drake, 2009). The research will attempt to ascertain if negativity towards phone usage conventions and or rules produces employee and employer discontent, and what types of negativity this presents in the workplace. The report will also outline whether there are exceptions to this perception.
Methods of Research• An annotated review of related literature and will include views surrounding the use of mobile phones in a socio- cultural theoretical perspective. A staff Likart-scale survey on attitudes towards the use of mobile phones in the staff / team meetings will be conducted after the review of literature. Group cohesive behaviour and the idea of Gemienshaften will underpin the formulation and analysis of respondent surveys. Participant opinion will be gathered and analysed according to schematisation of the respondent perspectives.
Possible Outcomes of ResearchThe results may indicate that employees believe thatmobile phone use is a conventional interruption in staffmeetings. The employer perspective may show thatpersonal mobile phones are disruptive and counter-productive in meetings in that they create ill-will aboutemployee status
JustificationPending the results of the research, it may berecommended that companies develop a company policybased on consensus and consultation for the use of mobilephones except in exceptional circumstances.
CORE VALUES OFTHE UNIVERSITYWhy the Academy is different from all otherInstitutions?
All societies have Core Values that allowpeople to live together.• What are some of the core PUBLIC values of a Western society?• Where are these values promoted or expressed?
If the Universityhad aconstitution...EIGHT COREVALUESwould becentral to itssovereignty.
Number ONE Academic Freedom• To pursue the truth “without fear or favour”• Freedom from outside interferences such as those interested in research for profit or following a political/religious view• Freedom also from internal interferences such as the Scholars/Researchers own bundle of needs and mental habits.• Freedom from the bureaucracy of the university itself
Number TWO Autonomy• Autonomy: “following only the rules we give to ourselves”• Similar to: in a democratic society the laws and guiding ideas that citizens will happily follow will be those that they freely determine for themselves.• Therefore in a free society people will try to devise laws and follow ways based on knowledge that is gained through free-enquiry.
Number THREE Scholastic Rigor• Scholars follow strict rules - enhances rather than constrains academic freedomWhat are some rules you know of?• Academics typically place a lot of emphasis of emotional control – faith, bias, belief and emotion• Famous scholars are famous for the quality and scope and depth of their work and self-discipline
Number Four Intellectual Curiosity• Intense curiosity to think / not to assume knowledge but to question own knowledge• Desire to know something for its own sake• Desire to improve human condition, rather than their own
Number FIVE Intellectual Honesty• It is the commitment to getting the truth of the matter• One must give the most truthful account that one can• To report knowledge even if it may conflict with their own personal opinions, benefits and beliefs
Number SIX Critical Dialogue• Even when scholars are working alone, they are always engaging with ideas of others• Even in our private thoughts we are always in critical dialogue with significant others• In a scholar‟s efforts to work out answers to questions. They will engage in critical dialogue with other scholars who are the most important of these significant others.• Engaging in critical dialogue is one of the more important ways of understanding a question or topic
Number SEVEN Self-examination• Careful critical self-reflection – science (Bacon)• Reflect on what – how – why we pursue the truth• Examine conflicting motivations for knowing
Number EIGHT Respect for divergent values• To extent boundaries – encounter different ways of seeing the world• Re-examining beliefs of oneself• Quest for knowledge includes respect for other values
These lecturenotes come forfree...But it‟s the onlything in your essaythat you do nothave toREFERENCE
To provide people with skills forknowledge based jobsTo increase the capacity for highly skilledeconomic developmentTo give the working class upward mobility
• To serve as the institution of research for the benefit of all in society• To allow the individual to express their intellectual curiosity• To provide those who have gifted intellect with an outlet
• To teach the skills that are required for a critical citizen in a vibrant democracy• To be an autonomous entity of protest and dissent in the face of authority• To be a place where morality and the significance of human life is debated and disseminated