Emotions v2
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Emotions v2

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    Emotions v2 Emotions v2 Presentation Transcript

    • Emotions as a way of ‘KNOWING’
    • Emotions...Mmmmm!!!
      Traditional view that emotions are an obstacle rather than a source of knowledge???
      Role of emotions in our mental lives helping us make sense of the world???
      The notion or idea that beliefs are a matter of the heart rather than rational matters of the head???
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis
    • So... Let’s consider!
      Emotions as an OBSTACLE to knowledge
      Emotions as a SOURCE of knowledge
      Process of reasoning & the role of emotion – is there a balance? What is the balance?
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis
    • EMOTIONS as an obstacle to Knowledge
      Emotions can influence the way we see and think about the world.
      Strong emotions may distort the ‘ways of knowing’
      ( Ways of knowing: Perception / Knowing / Language )
      Emotions may undermine our ability to think clearly
    • EMOTIONS as an obstacle to Knowledge...
      When we are in the grip of strong emotions, we tend notto reasonin an objective way but to rationalise our pre – existing prejudices.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis
    • EMOTIONS as an obstacle to Knowledge...
      If we have a particular emotional attitude about something we may manufacture bad reasons to justify it!
      The tendency to rationalise can lead a person to an illusionary but self – confirming belief system.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis
    • Imagine John had emotional prejudice against immigrants. His prejudice will probably lead to the following...
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis, Pg 96
    • EMOTIONS as an obstacle to Knowledge...
      Biased perception - he notices only lazy immigrants and overlooks hard – working ones.
      Fallacious reasoning – makes hasty generalisations from his own limited experience.
      Emotive language – concludes that immigrants are ‘bone idle’ and don’t know the meaning of ‘hard work’
      HENCE making objectivity difficult!
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • EMOTIONS as an obstacle to Knowledge...Irrational Behaviour
      Emotions can lead us to make poor decisions because they can distort our beliefs.
      Emotions can blind us to longer term consequences of our actions.
      “I can resist everything! Except temptation.”
      Oscar Wilde
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • What if we did not have any emotions at all and could look at the world in a balanced and objective way?
      “Stoics” advocate a state of mind called apathy! – Without Passion!
      In which the mind could mirror reality in a calm and untroubled way!
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis
    • Emotion....
      Emotion may provide us with the ENERGY (MOTIVATION) to PURSUE Knowledge but it is far from clear that they are infallible guides to the truth!!!
      Who said this??? And What do they mean?
      (find this in your reading material)
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis
    • EMOTIONS as a source of Knowledge...
      Despite the “stoic” ideal! It is difficult to imagine a meaningful human life without any human emotions.
      You might think that “Spock’... ½ human ½ Vulcan (Star Trek) comes close to having no emotion .
      Stephen Pinker points out: - “Spock is not so much lacking in emotion as he is in control of his emotions’.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • EMOTIONS as a source of Knowledge...
      Antonio De Masio, (Psychologist) says emotions help us to make rational decisions about things by narrowing down our options so we canchoose between a manageable number of them.
      And... that there is a risk of mental paralysis by relying on reason alone.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • EMOTIONS as a source of Knowledge...
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wup_K2WN0I&feature=player_embedded
    • The relation between Emotion & Reason...
      In practice reason & emotion are closely related to one another and it is difficult to make a clear distinction between them.
      Rather than think of reason as completely different “either or” things... think of a “more or less” continuum of mental activity running from the very rational to the very emotional.
      There is a mixture of thoughts and feelings running around in your head.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • Emotion & Reason...
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JStrcfHr8AY&playnext=1&list=PLE0706E993D473708
    • The relation between Emotion & Reason...
      Our ‘emotions’ themselves can be ‘more or less’ rational.
      A change in our beliefs can lead to a change to the corresponding emotion.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • The relation between Emotion & Reason...
      An emotion that is sensitive to the real nature of a situation is more rational than one that is not.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • The relation between Emotion & Reason...
      Aristotle suggests: emotions can be more rational or less rational!
      In speaking of anger he observes... “Anyone can be angry – that is easy. But to be angry with the right person to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, in the right way – that is not easy. ”
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • The relation between Emotion & Reason...
      Allowing that our emotions can be more or less rational, there is still the problem that we may be able to see a particular emotion as rational, and yet find it difficult to change it!
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • The relation between Emotion & Reason...
      We all experience irrational emotions, but since it is difficult to switch them off, we may find it easier to adjust our beliefs to our emotions than bring our emotions into line with reason.
      ( back to rationalisation problem! )
      The object of our irrational disgust can have severe consequences eg; if your object of disgust has to do with a minority group.
      Tomkinson, J.L, 2008 ‘The Enterprise of Knowledge: A Resource Book for Theory of Knowledge, 3rd Edition Anagnosis,
    • Why do so many people go along with the crowd and fail to stand up for what they truly believe? Partly because they are too easily swayed by other peoples opinions and partly because they don’t know when to have confidence in their own.
      http://ridgeandtheuntold.multiply.com/journal/item/122/Philosophy_The_Classical_Self-Help_Guide_to_Happiness
    • Roman philosopher LuciousAnnaeus Seneca (4BCE-65CE), the most famous and popular philosopher of his day, took the subject of anger seriously enough to dedicate a whole book to the subject. Seneca refused to see anger as an irrational outburst over which we have no control. Instead he saw it as a philosophical problem and amenable to treatment by philosophical argument. He thought anger arose from certain rationally held ideas about the world, and the problem with these ideas is that they are far too optimistic. Certain things are a predictable feature of life, and to get angry about them is to have unrealistic expectations.
      http://ridgeandtheuntold.multiply.com/journal/item/122/Philosophy_The_Classical_Self-Help_Guide_to_Happiness
    • How can we acquire knowledge through emotion only?
      Smith, N.D 2007, Emotion, Knowledge “Ask Philosophers”
      “It really depends upon what it is that one is supposed to come to know this way – and it will also depend upon just what one takes the requirements of knowledge to consist in.”
      http://www.askphilosophers.org/question/1517
    • Smith, N.D 2007, Emotion, Knowledge “Ask Philosophers”
      Some philosophers argue that at least one sort of knowledge we could attain through emotions was knowledge of those emotions themselves. Knowledge that we were in such and such a state at a given time.
      Others argue that we do not necessarily know our own states in any privileged way eg; think we are not angry when we really are!
      Knowledge of the world outside our consciousness - Smith thinks we cannot acquire knowledge through emotion only.
      As important as emotions are... “I do not think they are very reliable or clearly informative as a source of cognition”
    • Peter S. Fosl, Jan 2007 Emotion, Knowledge “Ask Philosophers”
      Knowledge might be divided into 4 types:
      Theoretical Knowledge – Knowing that X
      Practical Knowledge - Know wow
      Familiarity – Knowing someone
      Moral Knowledge – Knowing what’s right
      What does ‘Fosl’ say about these 4 areas of knowledge and emotion?
    • Mirander Fisher , Feb 2007 Emotion, Knowledge “Ask Philosophers”
      Emotions can be an obstacle to knowledge, but it is important not to underestimate their positive cognitive power.
      The idea that emotions can have not only intentional content (it is directed to the world, it is about the world) but also as cognitive content (it represents the world as being a certain way)
      Emotions provide us with evidence , if suitably reliable, can provide for empirical knowledge of others psychology ( intentions, attitudes)
      Emotions can themselves constitute the knowledge. Emotions as a cognitive grasp of the relevant facts.
    • Thinking makes my head hurt!