Conservation of endangered marine species


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Conservation of Endangered Marine Species Media Advocacy and Social Marketing in Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao

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  • Natural capital degradation: major commercial fishing methods used to harvest various marine species. These methods have become so effective that many fish species have become commercially extinct.
  • Figure 56.9 Overexploitation
  • Conservation of endangered marine species

    1. 1. Conservation of Endangered Marine Species Media Advocacy and Social Marketing in Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao Tong Ka Io
    2. 2. Introduction
    3. 3. 2010 – United Nations International Year of Biodiversity
    4. 4. Biodiversity <ul><li>The wide variety of ecosystems and living organisms: animals, plants, their habitats and their genes </li></ul><ul><li>Is the foundation of life on Earth, being crucial for the functioning of ecosystems </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Creatures are interrelated and interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>No creature can live alone </li></ul>
    6. 6. Biodiversity crisis <ul><li>Due to human activities </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in biodiversity is more rapid in the last 100 years than at any time in human history </li></ul><ul><li>Many species seriously threatened with extinction </li></ul>
    7. 7. Extinction <ul><li>The end of an organism or of a group of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Natural extinction in balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New species emerge through speciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old species die out because they unable to survive or reproduce in its environment, and unable to move to a new environment </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. “ Modern extinctions” <ul><li>1500 to 2009, 875 extinctions documented </li></ul><ul><li>the current species extinction rate 100 to 1000 times higher than natural </li></ul><ul><li>If current rates of human destruction of the biosphere continue, one-half of all species on Earth will be extinct in 100 years </li></ul>
    9. 10. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
    10. 13. IUCN Red List (2010) <ul><li>Of 55926 evaluated species, at least 18351 species (33%) are known to be threatened (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable) with extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of invertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>68% of plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of fungi & protists </li></ul></ul>
    11. 14. IUCN Red List (2010) Species evaluated Threatened species % Mammals 5491 1131 21% Birds 10027 1240 12% Reptiles 2806 594 21% Amphibians 6296 1898 30% Fishes 8848 1851 21%
    12. 16. Implications <ul><li>The diversity of nature cannot support the current pressure that humanity is placing on the planet </li></ul><ul><li>We are witnessing the greatest extinction crisis </li></ul><ul><li>These extinctions pose a serious threat to our health and wellbeing </li></ul>
    13. 17. Why and how humans cause species extinctions? Human needs wants greed Species extinctions
    14. 18. The ocean is so big, but not as big as human greed!
    15. 19. Fisheries
    16. 20. <ul><li>Commercial fishing: </li></ul><ul><li>500 species regularly caught </li></ul><ul><li>employs 15 million people worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999: </li></ul><ul><li>137 million tons taken </li></ul><ul><li>$70 billion </li></ul>
    17. 21. Global Fish Catch
    18. 22. Fish farming in cage Trawler fishing Spotter airplane Sonar Trawl flap Trawl lines Purse-seine fishing Trawl bag Fish school Drift-net fishing Long line fishing Lines with hooks Fish caught by gills Deep sea aquaculture cage Float Buoy
    19. 23. Trawl midwater bottom
    20. 24. Fisheries mismanagement <ul><li>Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Bycatch (27 million metric tons annually) </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting smaller species on the low end of the food chain </li></ul>
    21. 25. Types of Pollution <ul><li>Major types of pollution in the ocean: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garbage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul></ul>
    22. 26. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 55.21
    23. 27. Fish over harvesting <ul><li>Many of the world’s fisheries have been over-exploited to near extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Example: bluefin tuna populations have dropped 90% since 1970 </li></ul>
    24. 28. 世界渔业利用强度与相对生物量关系
    25. 29. Shark Overfishing <ul><li>Slow growth </li></ul><ul><li>Low reproductive rate </li></ul><ul><li>Late sexual maturity </li></ul>
    26. 31. <ul><li>Overexploitation by the fishing industry has greatly reduced </li></ul><ul><li>populations of some game fish, such as bluefin tuna </li></ul><ul><li>World’s fish stocks have been reduced by 90% since the </li></ul><ul><li>start of industrial fishing </li></ul>
    27. 33. Hong Kong
    28. 34. Bluefin tuna and all tuna imported to Hong Kong (tons)
    29. 35. World Wide Fund – Hong Kong (WWF-HK)
    30. 36. WWF-HK’s Bluefin Saver Campaign <ul><li>Delivery of information on bluefin tuna in crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Production of educational and supporting materials on bluefin saver, sea food guide and sustainable seafood practices </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation policy advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted behavioral packages for hotel / restaurant, corporate consumer and individual consumer </li></ul>
    31. 37. WWF-HK’s Bluefin Saver Campaign <ul><li>Recruiting “ Bluefin Saver ” </li></ul><ul><li>Allying with restaurants and celebrities </li></ul><ul><li>Condemning adverse commercial activities </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobilization and social actions </li></ul>
    32. 38. WWF-HK “Bluefin Saver” campaign
    33. 39. Survival of bluefin tuna depends on your desire
    34. 43. Restaurants pledge to delete bluefin tuna from menu
    35. 44. Celebrities pledge not to eat bluefin tuna
    36. 45. Group condemns using endangered specie as promotion
    37. 46. Silence for bluefin tuna in front of restaurant
    38. 47. “ Say No To Bluefin” in front of restaurant
    39. 48. Protest in front of restaurant
    40. 49. Allies and other actors <ul><li>Other NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrities: legislators, food experts, artists, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul>
    41. 50. Group protests in front of restaurant
    42. 51. Group protests in front of restaurant
    43. 52. Legislator promotes marine conservation
    44. 53. Shark fins imported to Hong Kong (tons) and endangered sharks
    45. 54. Hong Kong the biggest shark fin consumer worldwide
    46. 55. Saving shark initiative <ul><li>Divulgating information on shark conservation status and shark finning </li></ul><ul><li>Calling on individual consumers, corporations and restaurants not to consume or sell shark fins </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting shark-free menu and shark-free wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Condemning TV show that promoted shark fin consumption </li></ul>
    47. 56. Shark finning, shark fin consumption, TV show
    48. 59. Shark-free wedding
    49. 60. Group condemns TV show
    50. 61. Media play active and crucial role <ul><li>Divulgating critical information </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting benevolent values </li></ul><ul><li>Advocating for conservation policy </li></ul><ul><li>Providing practical behavioral guides </li></ul><ul><li>Countering anti-conservation practices </li></ul>
    51. 62. Eating with conscience
    52. 63. High level of mercury in bluefin tuna harms fetus
    53. 64. Endangered wild animals to be eaten
    54. 65. Banning urgently needed to avert extinction
    55. 66. Government conservation is all mouth
    56. 67. Human greed
    57. 68. Eating shark fin damages one’s good deed
    58. 69. Doing good deed not to eat endangered species
    59. 71. To save bluefin, change your choice
    60. 72. Alternatives for your choice
    61. 73. Bidding endangered tuna damages HK image
    62. 74. Legislator irresponsible to next generation
    63. 75. Taiwan
    64. 76. Matsu’s Fish Conservation Union
    65. 77. 濁水溪 外傘頂洲 七股 彰化市 Multiple development projects destroy white dolphin habitat
    66. 78. White dolphin conservation initiative <ul><li>Information , education and on-site visits </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking and fund raising </li></ul><ul><li>Action researches </li></ul><ul><li>Advocating government to set and implement real conservation plans </li></ul><ul><li>Protest actions </li></ul>
    67. 79. Defend mouth of Jhuoshuei River the last wetland
    68. 80. Goodbye, white dolphins!
    69. 81. Community cultural event
    70. 82. Thousand scientists against petrochemical park
    71. 83. Artists united against development
    72. 84. Ten thousand people protest against petrochemical park
    73. 85. Confrontation of pro and against
    74. 86. What are the alarms white dolphins bring us?
    75. 87. Sacrifice people for giant corporate profit
    76. 88. Creative approach: “Environment trust”
    77. 89. Whole people subscribe to conserve white dolphins
    78. 90. 15 thousands people subscribed
    79. 91. People’s subscription submitted to authority
    80. 92. Taiwan civil society mature
    81. 93. Mainland China
    82. 94. Human activities make extinction rate up 1000 times
    83. 95. Sharks die of finning
    84. 96. Protect biodiversity, not to eat wild animals
    85. 97. Fishing suspension and releasing festival
    86. 98. Macau
    87. 99. Groups advocate for marine conservation
    88. 100. Businessman: bidding tuna is legal business! Legislator
    89. 101. Analysis and comparison
    90. 102. Primary focus Mean Outcome Media advocacy Cause, principles or interest Mass media Social policy or decisions Social marketing Social good Marketing techniques Personal behaviors
    91. 104. The actors
    92. 105. The media <ul><li>Traditional mass media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>
    93. 106. Internet <ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Forums </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>…… </li></ul><ul><li>Open to individual and small group actors </li></ul><ul><li>Effective and efficient tools </li></ul><ul><li>Fast and far reaching </li></ul><ul><li>Less limited by spatial boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Less controlled by dominant social powers </li></ul><ul><li>Impact can be great </li></ul>
    94. 107. Facebook – Support Bluefin tuna ban
    95. 108. YouTube – Blufin Saver
    96. 109. YouTube – Shark finning
    97. 110. YouTube – White dolphin
    98. 111. Media advocacy strategies <ul><li>Allying </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Creating newsworthy stories </li></ul><ul><li>Making sense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researching and supporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing / reframing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolizing </li></ul></ul>
    99. 112. <ul><li>Working with different media </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging public involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Providing possible solution </li></ul><ul><li>Advancing policy </li></ul>
    100. 113. Hong Kong Bluefin tuna case Taiwan White dolphin case Allying NGOs, restaurants, celebrities…… NGOs, scientists, politicians…… Coping with resistance Negotiate with and condemn corporate Challenge government and corporate Creating newsworthy stories “ Social marketing confronts with commercial marketing” Mass demonstration; whole people to subscribe Researching and supporting Present international scientific evidence Develop ecological research Setting agenda Bring up media and social debate Bring up media, social and political debate Framing / reframing Desire vs life Greed vs conscience Corporate profit vs people’s well-being Symbolizing “ Bluefin Saver” Polluting development mapping Working with different media Get coverage in newspapers and television; Mobilize through Internet Get coverage in newspapers and television; Mobilize through Internet Encouraging public involvement Recruit Bluefin Saver Involve local residents, teachers, parents and children; Whole people subscribe Providing possible solution Trade banning Conservation plan Advancing policy Media pressure backed up with social actions Media pressure backed up with mass demonstration
    101. 114. Social marketing strategies <ul><li>Market segmentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul></ul>
    102. 115. <ul><li>Marketing mix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product (Consumer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price (Cost) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place (Convenience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion (Communication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publicity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    103. 116. Hong Kong Bluefin tuna case Taiwan White dolphin case Market segmentation Hotel / restaurant; corporate consumer; individual consumer Whole people (teachers and students, parents and children……) Product (Consumer) Differentiated behavior package as a way to save the nature and life, and to do good deed Subscription as a way to save the land and life, and safeguard people’s well-being Price (Cost) Practical substitutes NT$ 119 per share Place (Convenience) Guide and substitutes are accessible everywhere Collect in schools and streets, and on Internet Publicity See table 2 See table 2
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