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2006 Risk Communication Case Study Ch ppt
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2006 Risk Communication Case Study Ch ppt

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  • 1. Crisis / Emergency Risk Communication Case study
  • 2. 蘇丹紅的故事 第三集
  • 3.  
  • 4. 事件回顧
  • 5. 2006 年 11 月 12 日
    • 亞洲電視本港台: 河北發現有人將致癌的工業用料,混入飼料餵養鴨隻,令鴨蛋黃呈鮮紅色
  • 6.  
  • 7. 11 月 13 日 東方日報
  • 8. 11 月 13 日 星島日報
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. 11 月 14 日 經濟日報
  • 12. 11 月 15 日 明報
  • 13. 11 月 15 日 星島日報
  • 14. 11 月 16 日 太陽報
  • 15. 11 月 19 日 成報
  • 16. 2006 年 11 月 19 日
    • 福建發現蘇丹紅雞蛋
  • 17. 11 月 20 日 經濟日報
  • 18. 11 月 20 日 大公報
  • 19. 2006 年 11 月 20 日
    • 國家質檢總局局長李長江: 通過正規途徑供應香港的雞蛋和鴨蛋都無問題
  • 20. 11 月 21 日 明報
  • 21. 11 月 21 日 經濟日報
  • 22. 2006 年 11 月 21 日
    • 食物安全中心: 市民毋須恐慌,放心食蛋
  • 23. 11 月 21 日 頭條新聞
  • 24. 11 月 21 日 新報
  • 25. 2006 年 11 月 21 日
    • 衛生副利及食物局局長: 現時香港的雞蛋是安全的
  • 26. 11 月 22 日 星島日報
  • 27. 2006 年 11 月 22 日
    • 食物及環境衛生署證實一個神丹鴨蛋樣本和一個來自湖北的雞蛋樣本檢出蘇丹紅
  • 28. 11 月 23 日 am730
  • 29. 11 月 23 日 文匯報
  • 30. 11 月 23 日 明報
  • 31. 11 月 23 日 大公報
  • 32. 11 月 23 日 明報
  • 33. 2006 年 11 月 22 日
    • 衛生副利及食物局局長: 根據專家的分析,這些蛋內蘇丹紅的含量不高,對健康的影響不大。每個市民亦應衡量是否願意承受這些風險
  • 34. 11 月 15 日 人民網
  • 35. Communications are as critical to outbreak control as laboratory analyses or epidemiology Dr. Jong-wook Lee
  • 36. 溝通失當?
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39. Principles of Crisis Communication Be First Be Right Be Credible
  • 40. Emergency Risk Communication: Success Factors
    • Be Empathetic: embody sincere caring
    • Be First: speedy communication
      • First messages are lasting messages
      • Being first indicates preparedness and competence
    • Be Right: accurate content
    • Be Credible: be honest and build trust
  • 41. Bad Communication Adds to Crisis
    • Mixed messages from multiple “experts”
    • Late information “overcome by events”
    • Over-reassuring messages
    • No reality check on recommendations
    • Myths, rumors, doomsayers not countered
    • Improper modeling of behavior, lack of affect, bad humor by spokesperson/leader
    • Public power struggles and confusion
    • (Barbara Reynolds, CDC)
  • 42. 1) Risk perception
  • 43. 11 月 23 日 星島日報
  • 44. Proposition 1 “ When people are stressed and upset, they want to know that you care before they care what you know.”
  • 45. Equation of risk acceptance Risk = Hazard + Outrage
  • 46. Proposition 2 “Facts about risk appear to play little or no role in determining public perceptions and concerns about risks .”
  • 47.   Perception of risks
    • All risks are not accepted equally
    • Voluntary vs. involuntary
    • Personally controlled vs. controlled by others
    • Familiar vs. exotic
    • Natural origin vs. manmade
    • Reversible vs. permanent
  • 48.   Perception of risks
    • Statistical vs. anecdotal
    • Endemic vs. epidemic (catastrophic)
    • Fairly distributed vs. unfairly distributed
    • Generated by trusted vs. mistrusted institution
    • Adults vs. children
    • Understood benefit vs. questionable benefit
  • 49.  
  • 50. Be Careful With Risk Comparisons
    • Are they similarly accepted based on
      • high/low hazard (property/people measure)
      • high/low outrage (emotional measure)
    A. High hazard B. High outrage C. Low hazard D. Low outrage
  • 51. 11 月 25 日 明報
  • 52. 2) Information released late
  • 53. 神丹日誌
    • 11 月 17 日,食環署獲悉裕華國貨有出售神丹健康食品有限公司的鴨蛋,但沒詳細資料,也沒有公布
    • 11 月 18 日,內地驗出神丹公司的蛋類產品含蘇丹紅,國家質檢局局長籲港人注意有關品牌
    • 11 月 20 日,食環署稱神丹公司含蘇丹紅的鴨蛋及雞蛋並無供港;同日取得裕華的鴨蛋化驗
  • 54. 神丹日誌
    • 11 月 21 日,(衛福局局長表示毒蛋沒進口香港,市面雞蛋安全後)食環署於深夜發出新聞稿,公告裕華曾展銷神丹蛋,並售出逾 1000 隻
    • 11 月 22 日,食環署證實一個神丹鴨蛋樣本檢出蘇丹紅
  • 55. Timing is key!
    • “ First out” sets the agenda, shapes the message
    • Don’t avoid communication - even if you have nothing specific to say
    • Establish a presence with your spokesperson
    • Set a schedule for communications - and stick to it !
  • 56. Give the public what you have when you have it
    • The mistake response officials make is waiting to release information until all the facts are in
    • Your speed at releasing information is a marker for your preparedness
      • Release what you know, acknowledge what you don’t yet know and tell them how you’re getting answers
  • 57. 3) Over-reassurance
  • 58. 11 月 23 日 文匯報
  • 59.  
  • 60. Uncertainty
    • Tell people
      • What you know
      • What you don’t know
      • The process you’re using to try and get some answers
  • 61. Uncertainty
    • Don’t over-reassure
      • A high estimate of harm modified downward is much more acceptable to the public than a low estimate of harm modified upward.
  • 62. Uncertainty
    • Confidence vs. uncertainty
      • Instead of making promises about outcomes, express the uncertainty of the situation and a confident belief in the “process” to fix the problem and address public safety concerns.
  • 63.  
  • 64. 4) Paternalistic attitude
  • 65. 11 月 16 日 中國新聞網
  • 66. (3) Paternalistic attitudes
    • The worst thing you can do is to tell a frightened person they have no reason to be frightened
    • Never tell people “don’t worry”
    • Treat the public like intelligent adults
    • Tell them what you know that makes you less afraid
  • 67.  
  • 68. 5) Action steps
  • 69. Give people things to do
    • Anxiety is reduced by action and a restored sense of control
      • Symbolic behaviors (e.g., going to a candlelight vigil)
      • Preparatory behaviors (e.g., buying water and batteries)
      • Contingent “if, then” behaviors (e.g., creating an emergency family communication plan)
  • 70. Give people things to do
    • Recommend a 3-part action plan
      • You must do X
      • You should do Y
      • You can do Z
  • 71. 6) Public power struggle
  • 72. 11 月 23 日 太陽報
  • 73. 11 月 23 日 東方日報
  • 74. 11 月 24 日 成報
  • 75. 11 月 26 日 蘋果日報
  • 76. (5) Public power struggles or confusion
    • All partners need to have clearly defined roles and responsibilities
    • Let the public perceive a united front with multiple jurisdictions working cooperatively for the good of their community
  • 77. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Organizational identity
      • Do: Use personal pronouns ("I," "we").
      • Don't: Take on the identity of a large organization.
    • Pitfall: Blame
      • Do: Take responsibility for your share of the problem.
      • Don't: Try to shift blame or responsibility to others.
  • 78. What does the world want to see?
    • Acceptance of responsibility
    • Willingness to take positive steps
  • 79. Audience judgments about your message Accuracy of Information __________ Speed of Release Empathy + Openness CREDIBILITY Successful Communication = + TRUST
  • 80. 影響
  • 81. 11 月 25 日 蘋果日報
  • 82. 11 月 24 日 東方日報
  • 83. 11 月 23 日 經濟日報
  • 84. 11 月 24 日 太陽報
  • 85. 11 月 23 日 太陽報
  • 86. 11 月 22 日 蘋果日報
  • 87. 11 月 26 日 新報
  • 88. Costs of Ineffective Health Risk Communication
    • High level of public outrage
    • Irreplaceable loss of trust
    • Loss of credibility
    • Difficulty in reaching resolution on a public health issue
    • Does not result in desired behaviour changes
    • Unnecessary human suffering due to high levels of anxiety, fear, worry and outrage
  • 89. 討論
  • 90. It could have been better if …
    • Communication objectives
    • First message
    • Key messages
    • Spokesperson
    • Sensitive questions
  • 91. Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication
    • To provide accurate and timely information as well as essential coordination during a crisis or emergency
    • To inform the public of potential risks and steps being taken during a crisis or emergency
    • To aid individuals, stakeholders, or communities to accept the imperfect nature of choices and to make best possible decisions during a crisis or emergency
  • 92. What the public seeks from your communication
    • The public wants to know what you know
    • The public wants to accomplish 5 things
      • Gain the wanted facts needed to protect them, their families and their pets
      • Make well-informed decisions
      • Have an active, participatory role
      • Act as a “watch-guard” over resources
      • Recover or preserve well-being and normalcy
  • 93. First message in a crisis
    • An expression of empathy
    • Confirmed facts and action steps
    • What you don’t know about the situation
    • What’s the process
    • Statement of commitment
    • Where people can get more information
  • 94. Key Word Message Map 1 Message Map Stakeholder: Question/Concern Key Message/Fact 1. Key Message/Fact 2. Key Message/Fact 3. Keywords: Supporting Fact 1.1 Keywords: Supporting Fact 1.3 Keywords: Supporting Fact 1.2 Keywords: Supporting Fact 2.1 Keywords: Supporting Fact 2.2 Keywords: Supporting Fact 2.3 Keywords: Supporting Fact 3.1 Keywords: Supporting Fact 3.2 Keywords: Supporting Fact 3.3
  • 95. The leader as a spokesperson
    • Take the EOC or agency from an “it” to a “we”
    • Express empathy and then give directions for action
    • Rally the community in a crisis
  • 96.  
  • 97. Frequently asked questions
    • How certain are you that the situation is under control?
    • Why wasn’t this prevented from happening?
    • What else can go wrong?
    • What are you not telling us?
    • Do you accept responsibility for what happened?
    • What would you like to say to those who have been harmed and to their families?
  • 98. 11 月 23 日 商報