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  • 1. Crisis + Emergency Risk Communication - by Leaders for Leaders CDC
  • 2.  
  • 3. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 4. Communicating in a crisis is different
    • In a serious crisis, all affected people . . .
      • Take in information differently
      • Process information differently
      • Act on information differently
    • The public perceives the success of the operational response by the amount and speed of relevant information they receive from the emergency response officials
  • 5. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 6. What the public seeks from your communication
    • The public wants to know what you know
    • The public wants to accomplish 5 things
      • Gain the wanted facts needed to protect them, their families and their pets
      • Make well-informed decisions
      • Have an active, participatory role
      • Act as a “watch-guard” over resources
      • Recover or preserve well-being and normalcy
  • 7. Crisis communication
    • Pre-crisis funding invested to public communication planning ……………… 1%
    • Time in drills or exercises invested on public education component …………………. 10%
    • When the crisis occurred, time spent dealing with decisions about communicating to the public ……………………………………. 90%
  • 8. Leaders lead with goals in mind
    • Decrease illness, injury and deaths
    • Execute response and recovery plans with minimal resistance
    • Avoid misallocation of limited resources
    • Avoid wasting resources
  • 9. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 10. 5 communication failures that kill operational success
    • Mixed messages from multiple experts
    • Information released late
    • Paternalistic attitudes
    • Not countering rumors and myths in real-time
    • Public power struggles and confusion
  • 11. 1. Mixed messages
    • In a crisis, people don’t want to “just pick one” of many messages, they want the best one or the right one to follow
    • Unofficial experts will undoubtedly pop up to offer unsolicited advice
      • Be concerned about what the “official” officials are saying and whether these messages are consistent
      • Identify the unofficial experts in community and ensure they have early access to the recommendations you will be giving
  • 12. 2. Information released late
    • If the public expects an answer from your organization on something that is answerable and
    • you won’t provide it or direct them to someone who can,
    • they will be open to being taken advantage of by unscrupulous or fraudulent opportunists
  • 13. 3. Paternalistic attitudes
    • The worst thing you can do is to tell a frightened person they have no reason to be frightened
    • Never tell people “don’t worry”
    • Treat the public like intelligent adults
    • Tell them what you know that makes you less afraid
  • 14. 4. Not countering rumors in real-time
    • The media will report rumors or hoaxes unless you can answer quickly why it’s false
    • Have an open, quick channel to communicate to the media
    • Squash rumors fast, with facts
  • 15. 5. Public power struggles or confusion
    • All partners need to have clearly defined roles and responsibilities
    • Let the public perceive a united front with multiple jurisdictions working cooperatively for the good of their community
  • 16. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 17. 5 communication steps that boost operational success
    • Execute a solid communication plan
    • Be the first source for information
    • Express empathy early
    • Show competence and expertise
    • Remain honest and open
  • 18. 1. Execute a solid communication plan
    • The public judges the success of your operation, in great part, by the success of your communication
    • The difference perceived by media, stakeholders and partners was the speed and consistency of communication
  • 19. 2. Be the first source of information
    • The public uses the speed of information flow in a crisis as a marker for your preparedness
    • The first message they receive carries more weight
  • 20. 3. Express empathy early
    • Empathy is the ability to understand what another human being is feeling
    • The public won’t be open to you until you express empathy
    • Expression of empathy should be given in the first 30 seconds of starting your message
  • 21. 4. Show competence and expertise
    • If you have a title and are part of the official response to a crisis,
    • the public will assume you are competent
    • until you prove otherwise
  • 22. 5. Remain honest and open
    • The danger comes from
      • assuming you are protecting people or avoiding a bigger problem by keeping information away from the public
    • People believe that
      • any information is empowering,
      • uncertainty is more difficult to deal with than knowing a bad thing, and
      • they are prepared to go to multiple sources for information
  • 23. 5. Remain honest and open
    • The faster you give up bad news the better
    • In case that some information must be withheld
      • respectfully tell the public you are withholding information and why
  • 24. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 25. What Do People Feel Inside When a Disaster Looms or Occurs?
    • Fear, anxiety, confusion, dread
    • Hopelessness or helplessness
    • Panic?
    • Uncertainty
  • 26. Give people things to do
    • Anxiety is reduced by action and a restored sense of control
      • Symbolic
      • Preparatory: “if – then”
  • 27. What about panic?
    • People may revert to more instinctual “flight or fight” reasoning
    • However, the overwhelming majority of people do not engage in extreme behavior
  • 28. What about panic?
    • If you describe individual survival behaviors as “panic”, you’ve lost the very people you want to talk to
      • Acknowledge their desire to take steps and
      • redirect them to an action they can take and
      • explain why the unwanted behavior is not good for them or for the community
  • 29. Uncertainty
    • Tell people
      • What you know
      • What you don’t know
      • The process you’re using to try and get some answers
  • 30. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 31. Troublesome expected behaviors
    • Dependence on special relationships
    • Vicarious rehearsal
    • MUPS—Multiple Unexplained Physical Symptoms
    • Stigmatization
  • 32. Dependence on special relationships
    • People attempt to bypass official channels to get special treatment or access
    • If there is a perception that “special people get special help, it invites chaos in the grab for supplies”
    • Government officials should be more honest and open about what is available when and for whom
  • 33. What Is Vicarious Rehearsal?
    • The communication age gives national audiences the experience of local crises. These armchair victims mentally rehearse recommended courses of actions.
    • The worried well can heavily tax response and recovery.
  • 34. MUPS—Multiple Unexplained Physical Symptoms
    • Stress caused by a crisis situation will make some people actually physically ill with headaches, muscle aches, stomach upsets and low fever, etc.
    • This will challenge the capacity of health delivery system in a crisis
    • Communication, deep-breathing exercises, physical exercises, talk therapy with friends and relatives may help
  • 35. Stigmatization
    • Victims may be stigmatized by their communities and refused services or public access
    • Fear and isolation of a group perceived to be contaminated or risky to associate with will hamper community recovery and affect evacuation and relocation efforts
  • 36. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 37.   Perception of risks
    • All risks are not accepted equally
    • Voluntary vs. involuntary
    • Personally controlled vs. controlled by others
    • Familiar vs. exotic
    • Natural origin vs. manmade
    • Reversible vs. permanent
  • 38.   Perception of risks
    • Statistical vs. anecdotal
    • Endemic vs. epidemic (catastrophic)
    • Fairly distributed vs. unfairly distributed
    • Generated by trusted vs. mistrusted institution
    • Adults vs. children
    • Understood benefit vs. questionable benefit
  • 39.  
  • 40. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 41. First message in a crisis
    • An expression of empathy
    • Confirmed facts and action steps
    • What you don’t know about the situation
    • What’s the process
    • Statement of commitment
    • Where people can get more information
  • 42. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 43. Audience judgments about your message Accuracy of Information __________ Speed of Release Empathy + Openness CREDIBILITY Successful Communication = + TRUST
  • 44. Speed of communication
    • The speed with which you respond to the public is an indicator to the public of
      • How prepared you are to respond to the emergency
      • Is there a system in place
      • Is needed action being taken
  • 45. 5 Key Elements To Build Trust
    • Empathy and caring
    • Competence and expertise
    • Honesty and openness
    • Commitment
    • Accountability
  • 46. Empathy and caring
    • Should be expressed within the first 30 seconds
    • Acknowledge fear, pain, suffering, uncertainty
  • 47. Competence and expertise
    • Education, position title, organizational roles and missions
    • Previous experience, demonstrated abilities in the current situation
    • Established relationship with audiences
    • Support from a third party who has the confidence of the audience
  • 48. Honesty and openness
    • Give people enough information to make appropriate decisions
    • Tell the public why the information isn’t available for release at the time
  • 49. Commitment
    • Show dedication by sharing in the sacrifices
    • Not leaving the emergency until the community is recovered
  • 50. Accountability
    • “ Keeping the books open” – to whom government or non-profit money or resources are being distributed
  • 51. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 52. Initial communication
    • Should
    • Present a short, concise, focused message (6 th -grade level), get the bottom line out first
    • Cut to the chase – relevant information only
    • Give action steps in positives, not negatives
    • Repeat the message
    • Create action steps in threes or rhyme, or create an acronym
    • Use personal pronouns for the organization
  • 53. Initial communication
    • Avoid
    • Jargon – imply insecurity and lack of honesty
    • Judgmental phrases – insult the audience
    • Attacks
    • Promises that can’t be kept
    • Discussion of money
    • Humor
  • 54. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 55. The STARCC Principle
    • Your public messages in a crisis must be:
          • S imple
          • T imely
          • A ccurate
          • R elevant
          • C redible
          • C onsistent
  • 56. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 57. Crisis Communication Plan
    • Integrated into its overall disaster
    • Developed with partners
    • Questions about logistics and who owns what information answered
    • Simple and flexible
    • Updated regularly
  • 58. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 59. 2 good reasons to cooperate with media during a crisis
    • They are your primary tool to get public safety messages to your community in a hurry
    • They know their audiences better than you do
  • 60. Early mistakes with the media
    • Play favorites or hold grudges against some media
    • Attempt to set arbitrary new rules about how media can interact with the official response group
    • Attempt to tell the media how to do their job
    • Discount local media
  • 61. What reporters want
    • They want more than you can ever give
    • What they expect
      • Equal access to information
      • Honestly answer their questions
      • Timely release of information
      • Squash rumors quickly
      • Commit to a schedule for media availabilities and updates
      • Provide subject matter experts
  • 62. What reporters want
    • What they expect
      • Their calls to be returned
      • What you tell them is accurate or you’ll tell them that the information is preliminary and could change
      • Tell them if you do not have an answer and explain the process you’re using to get it
      • Understanding about how the news business works
      • Be treated with respect
  • 63. Media are affected by crises too
    • The way they do their job changes
      • Verification of facts goes down
      • Abandon their adversarial role early in the crisis
      • Many of them will lack scientific expertise
  • 64. Verification
    • 90% of first reports following a major new event contain errors
    • Instead of reporting, what reporters do in a crisis has been “news gathering” – they report what they’ve gathered and correct or change it as more information comes in
  • 65. Adversarial role
    • Media have a slightly adversarial perspective toward officials
    • In a crisis, the early uncertainty about what is happening causes great anxiety
    • The media will don their “public safety” hats and be ready to report every word from the command post
  • 66. Contents
    • Communicating in a crisis is different
    • What the public seeks from its leader
    • Five communication failures
    • Five communication steps for success
    • During a disaster, what people feel?
    • Expected behaviors that must be confronted
    • Perception of risk
    • First message in a crisis
    • Audience judgments about your message
    • Make the facts work in your message
    • Employ the STARCC principle
    • Crisis Communication Plan
    • Working with the media
    • Successful press conferences
    • Writing for the media during a crisis
    • The leader as a spokesperson
    • Grief and your role as spokesperson
    • Know the needs of your stakeholders
    • The dreaded town hall meeting
    • Media law
    • Definitions and processes
    • Keeping fit for duty in a crisis
    • CERC tools
  • 67.  
  • 68.  
  • 69. What the Public Will Ask First
    • Are my family and I safe?
    • What have you found that may affect me?
    • What can I do to protect myself and my family?
    • Who caused this?
    • Can you fix it?
  • 70. What the Media Will Ask First
    • What happened?
    • Who is in charge?
    • Has this been contained?
    • Are victims being helped?
    • What can we expect?
    • What should we do?
    • Why did this happen?
    • Did you have forewarning?
  • 71.  
  • 72. Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies
    • Don’t overreassure
    • Considered controversial by some.
    • A high estimate of harm modified downward is much more acceptable to the public than a low estimate of harm modified upward.
  • 73.   Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies
    • State continued concern before stating reassuring updates
      • “ Although we’re not out of the woods yet, we have seen a declining number of cases each day this week.”
  • 74. Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies  
    • Confidence vs. uncertainty
    Instead of making promises about outcomes, express the uncertainty of the situation and a confident belief in the “process” to fix the problem and address public safety concerns.
  • 75.   Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies
    • Give people things to do - Anxiety is reduced by action and a restored sense of control
    • Symbolic behaviors (e.g., going to a candlelight vigil)
    • Preparatory behaviors (e.g., buying water and batteries)
    • Contingent “if, then” behaviors (e.g., creating an emergency family communication plan)
  • 76.   Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies
    • Give people things to do - Anxiety is reduced by action and a restored sense of control
    • Single most important action for self-protection
    • Recommend a 3-part action plan
      • You must do X
      • You should do Y
      • You can do Z
  • 77.   Risk Communication Principles for Emergencies
    • Allow people the right to feel fear
    • Don’t pretend they’re not afraid, and don’t tell them they shouldn’t be.
    • Acknowledge the fear, and give contextual information.
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
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  • 87.  
  • 88.  
  • 89.  
  • 90.  
  • 91.  
  • 92.  
  • 93.  
  • 94.  
  • 95. Psychology in a Crisis
    • Vicarious rehearsal
    • Denial
    • Stigmatization
    • Fear and avoidance
    • Withdrawal and feelings of hopelessness
    • Heightened anxiety, public confusion and stress
    • (Barbara Reynolds, CDC)
  • 96. How People Perceive Risk
  • 97.  
  • 98. Bad Communication Adds to Crisis
    • Mixed messages from multiple “experts”
    • Late information “overcome by events”
    • Over-reassuring messages
    • No reality check on recommendations
    • Myths, rumors, doomsayers not countered
    • Improper modeling of behavior, lack of affect, bad humor by spokesperson/leader
    • Public power struggles and confusion
    • (Barbara Reynolds, CDC)
  • 99. Pre-crisis phase
    • Be prepared
      • Go-kit (backgrounders, key messages)
      • JIS/JIC/Virtual JIC
      • Shadow Web site
    • Foster alliances, share information
      • Critical for consistent messages
    • Develop consensus recommendations
    • Develop and test plan and messages
  • 100. Initial phase
    • Acknowledge the event with empathy
      • “ I understand.”
    • Explain and inform the public, in the simplest terms, about the risks involved
    • Establish org/spokesperson credibility
    • Provide emergency courses of action (how/where to get more information)
    • Commit to continued and open communication
  • 101. Crisis maintenance
    • Help public and stakeholders more accurately understand their own risks
    • Provide backgrounders to those who need it
    • Gain understanding and support for response and recovery plans
    • Listen to feedback and aggressively correct misinformation
    • Explain emergency recommendations
    • Empower risk/benefit decision making
  • 102. Crisis resolution
    • Improve appropriate response in future emergencies through education
    • Honestly examine problems/successes
    • Persuade public to support public policy and resource allocation
    • Tell your story to everyone! Promote your activities and capabilities…reinforce your corporate identity both externally and internally.
  • 103. Evaluation
    • Evaluate communication plan performance
    • Document lessons learned
    • Determine specific actions to improve crisis system and/or crisis plan
    • Seek feedback from partners and other organizations involved— yes, even the media.
  • 104. Principles of Crisis Communication Be First Be Right Be Credible
  • 105. Targeting Communication
    • Public information
    • Targeted distribution
    • Open access
    • Limited distribution
    • Limited access
    • Extremely limited distribution
    • Limited access
    • Confidential
  • 106. What Can You Expect? At the Higher Level
    • Immediate and intense concern.
    • Community will be focus of worry.
    • Community and national health agency will be flooded with media.
    • Flooded area hospitals and health departments.
    • Reactions, responses, messages, and actions rapidly will come from everywhere.
  • 107.
    • Press and media are everywhere.
    • Inaccurate news stories.
    • Politician statements are inconsistent or contradictory.
    • Government and public health responses are being severely criticized.
    What Can You Expect? At the Local Level
  • 108. Communication Reality
    • Demand for information will quickly exceed capacity.
  • 109. The General Approach
    • Start in planning and preparation phases.
    • Develop—and test—now.
    • Identify and train spokespeople now.
    • Risk and crisis communication.
    • Develop contacts and connections before a crisis.
  • 110. Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication
    • To provide accurate and timely information as well as essential coordination during a crisis or emergency
    • To inform the public of potential risks and steps being taken during a crisis or emergency
    • To aid individuals, stakeholders, or communities to accept the imperfect nature of choices and to make best possible decisions during a crisis or emergency
  • 111. Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication
    • Crisis Communication Lifecycle*
    • To facilitate and anticipate the needs of the public, the media, and partners at different stages
    • Each stage has unique communications and information requirements
    Maintenance Resolution Evaluation Initial Pre-crisis
  • 112. Pre-Crisis Communication
    • Be prepared
    • Foster alliances
    • Develop recommendations through consensus
    • Test audience messages
    Pre-crisis
  • 113. Emergency Risk Communication Principles
    • Don’t over-reassure
    • State continued concern before stating updates
    • Acknowledge uncertainty
    • Emphasize a process in place
    • Give people things to do
    • Don’t try to allay panic
    • Acknowledge people’s fears
  • 114. Crisis and Emergency Communication
    • Credibility
    • Successful
    • + =
    • Communication
    • Trust
    Accuracy of Information + Speed of Release Empathy + Openness
  • 115. Lessons Learned
    • Communication: Integral part of response across CDC – various audiences
    • Get News Out Quickly: Don’t Speculate
    • Timelines: Accuracy
    • Trusted Spokespersons
    • Stay in your Niche
    • Daily Updates Essential
  • 116. RISK COMMUNICATION
    • Don’t over reassure
    • Acknowledge uncertainty
    • Emphasize the process and next steps
    • Give anticipatory guidance
    • Be regretful, not defensive
    • Acknowledge people’s fears
    • Express through “wishes”
    • Give people things to do
  • 117. Public Perception of Risk
  • 118. Public Perception of Risk
    • Dealing with public outrage is as is important as dealing with the hazard itself.
    • Feelings have an effect on how people respond to a crisis or emergency.
    • People’s responses to a disaster are usually not dependent just on the actual seriousness of the risk.
    • Outrage may increase the public’s perception of how serious an event is.
  • 119. Equation for Risk Acceptance Risk = Hazard + Outrage
  • 120. Low Outrage vs. High Outrage Low Outrage High Outrage Affects children Affects adults Unfair Fair Permanent Reversible Manmade Natural Unfamiliar Familiar Controlled by others Individual control Involuntary Voluntary
  • 121. Your Organization’s Communication Goals vs. The Public’s Communication Goals
    • Minimize illness, death,
    • suffering, loss
    • Multiply resources
    • Mitigate negative
    • behaviors
    • Response and recovery
    • Correct rumors
    • Provide instructions
    • Inform decision-makers
    • Safety for themselves and
    • their family
    • Are the authorities are
    • listening- do they care?
    • Being involved in response –
    • “ what can I do to help?”
    • Interruption of normal life
    • activities
    • Getting the facts
    • Making own choices for action
  • 122. Risk Communication Do’s and Don’ts
    • Provide all the facts you have-
    • when you have them
    • Say “I don’t know, but I can find
    • out”
    • Be empathic within the first 30
    • seconds of your message
    • Be trustworthy and honest
    • Provide people multiple choices
    • for action
    • Make a statement of
    • commitment
    • Over-reassure
    • Tell people not to be afraid
    • Use jargon
    • Speculate on the facts
    • Use humor
    • Make promises you can’t keep
    • Provide mixed or inaccurate
    • messages
    • Repeat or ignore rumors
    DO DON’T
  • 123. Effective Communication
      • SIMPLE
      • TIMELY
      • ACCURATE
      • EMPATHIC
      • CREDIBLE
      • REPEATED
      • CONSISTENT
  • 124. Key Elements to Build Trust
        • Express empathy
        • Demonstrate competence
        • Be honest
        • Keep your commitments
        • Be accountable
  • 125. Ineffective Communication
      • Inaccurate and mixed messages
      • Late information
      • Over-reassurance
      • Jargon
      • Humor
      • Promises you can’t keep
      • Speculation
      • Discussion about money
      • Repeating or ignoring rumors
      • Paternalistic attitude
      • Public power struggles
      • Public power struggles
  • 126. BE FIRST • BE RIGHT • BE CREDIBLE Communication Objectives
  • 127.
    • Single Overriding Communication Objective
    • What do you want to hear and see on TV tonight or read in the newspaper tomorrow?
    • What are the numbers and facts to support your objective?
    • Who is your primary audience? Who is secondary?
    • What is the take-home message?
    • Is this objective consistent with the exercise goals and what your leadership expects?
    Identify Your SOCO
  • 128. Spokespersons… The Role of a Spokesperson
    • Give your organization human form.
    • Connect with their audience.
    • Are made; few are born.
    • Don’t just read a statement… they ARE the statement.
  • 129. Spokespersons… The Role of a Spokesperson
    • Are authorized to speak to the public and the media on behalf of the entire organization.
    • Have a position of authority in their organization, either as a person in the agency’s leadership or as a subject matter expert.
    • Are not public information officers.
  • 130. HIV/AIDS SIDS Melanoma in Colorado Laser eye surgery Breast implants West Nile virus Bioterror event
  • 131. Ten Deadly Sins of Communication
    • Appearing unprepared.
    • Handling questions improperly.
    • Apologizing for yourself or the organization.
    • Not knowing knowable information.
    • Unprofessional use of audiovisual aids.
  • 132. Ten Deadly Sins of Communication
    • Seeming to be off schedule.
    • Not involving participants.
    • Not establishing rapport.
    • Appearing disorganized.
    • Providing the wrong content.
  • 133. Seven Cardinal Rules of Risk Communication
    • (Covello and Allen 1988)
    • Accept and involve the public as a partner.
    • Plan carefully and evaluate your efforts.
    • Listen to the public's specific concerns.
    • Be honest, frank, and open.
    • Work with other credible sources.
    • Meet the needs of the media.
    • Speak clearly and with compassion.
  • 134. Managing hostile situations
    • Acknowledge the existence of hostility.
    • Practice self-management.
    • Be prepared.
    • Communicate empathy and caring.
    • Track your messages.
  • 135. The media perspective
    • In general, the media is interested in:
    • Human interest stories
    • Bad news more than good news
    • People’s perspectives
    • Yes or no; safe or unsafe answers
    • Front-page news stories
  • 136. Before the interview
    • (Donovan and Covello 1989)
    • Do:
      • Ask who will be conducting the interview.
      • Ask which subjects they want to cover.
      • Caution them when you are not the correct person to interview.
      • Inquire about the format and duration.
      • Ask who else will be interviewed.
      • Prepare and practice.
  • 137. Before the interview
    • Don't :
      • Tell the news organization which reporter you prefer.
      • Ask for specific questions in advance.
      • Insist they do not ask about certain subjects.
      • Demand your remarks not be edited.
      • Insist an adversary not be interviewed closeup.
      • Assume it will be easy.
  • 138. During the interview
    • Do:
      • Be honest and accurate; stress the facts.
      • Stick to your key message(s).
      • Conclusions first, then supporting data.
      • Determine in advance how forthcoming you can be.
      • Offer to get information you don't have.
      • Explain the subject and content.
      • Give a reason if you can't discuss a subject.
      • Correct mistakes by stating you would like an opportunity to clarify.
  • 139. During the interview
    • Don't:
      • Lie or try to cloud the truth.
      • Improvise or dwell on negative allegations.
      • Raise issues you don't want in the story.
      • Fail to think it through ahead of time.
      • Guess.
      • Use jargon or make assumptions.
      • Speculate, discuss hypothetical situations.
      • Say, "No comment."
      • Demand an answer not be used.
  • 140. After the interview
    • Do:
      • Remember you are still on the record.
      • Be helpful. Volunteer to get information. Make yourself available. Respect deadlines.
      • Watch for and read the resulting report.
      • Call the reporter to politely point out inaccuracies, if any.
  • 141. After the interview
    • Don't:
      • Assume the interview is over or the equipment is off.
      • Refuse to talk further.
      • Ask, "How did I do?"
      • Ask to review the story before publication or broadcast.
      • Complain to the reporter's boss first.
  • 142. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Jargon
      • Do: Define all technical terms and acronyms.
      • Don't: Use language that may not be understood by even a portion of your audience.
    • Pitfall: Humor
      • Do: If used, direct it at yourself.
      • Don't: Use it in relation to safety, health, or environmental issues.
  • 143. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Negative allegations
      • Do: Refute the allegation without repeating it.
      • Don't: Repeat or refer to them.
    • Pitfall: Negative words and phrases
      • Do: Use positive or neutral terms.
      • Don't: Refer to national problems, i.e., "This is not Love Canal."
  • 144. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Reliance on words
      • Do: Use visuals to emphasize key points.
      • Don't: Rely entirely on words.
    • Pitfall: Temper
      • Do: Remain calm. Use a question or allegation as a springboard to say something positive.
      • Don't: Let your feelings interfere with your ability to communicate positively.
  • 145. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Clarity
      • Do: Ask whether you have made yourself clear.
      • Don't: Assume you have been understood.
    • Pitfall: Abstractions
      • Do: Use examples, stories, and analogies to establish a common understanding.
      • Don’t : Assume that your experiences will be familiar to your audience – choose accordingly.
  • 146. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Nonverbal messages
      • Do: Be sensitive to nonverbal messages you are communicating. Make them consistent with what you are saying.
      • Don't: Allow your body language, your position in the room, or your dress to be inconsistent with your message.
    • Pitfall: Attacks
      • Do: Attack the issue.
      • Don't: Attack the person or organization.
  • 147. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Promises
      • Do: Promise only what you can deliver. Set and follow strict orders.
      • Don't: Make promises you can't keep or fail to follow up.
    • Pitfall: Guarantees
      • Do: Emphasize achievements made and ongoing efforts.
      • Don't: Say there are no guarantees.
  • 148. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Speculation
      • Do: Provide information on what is being done.
      • Don't: Speculate about worst cases.
    • Pitfall: Money
      • Do: Refer to the importance you attach to health, safety, and environmental issues; your moral obligation to public health outweighs financial considerations.
      • Don't: Refer to the amount of money spent as a representation of your concern.
  • 149. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Organizational identity
      • Do: Use personal pronouns ("I," "we").
      • Don't: Take on the identity of a large organization.
    • Pitfall: Blame
      • Do: Take responsibility for your share of the problem.
      • Don't: Try to shift blame or responsibility to others.
  • 150. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: “Off the record”
      • Do: Assume everything you say and do is part of the public record.
      • Don't: Make side comments or “confidential” remarks.
    • Pitfall: Risk/benefit/cost comparisons
      • Do: Discuss risks and benefits in separate communications.
      • Don't: Discuss your costs along with risk levels.
  • 151. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Risk comparison
      • Do: Use them to help put risks in perspective.
      • Don't: Compare unrelated risks.
    • Pitfall: Health risk numbers
      • Do: Stress that true risk is between zero and the worst-case estimate. Base actions on federal and state standards rather than risk numbers.
      • Don't: State absolutes or expect the lay public to understand risk numbers.
  • 152. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Numbers
      • Do: Emphasize performance, trends, and achievements.
      • Don't: Mention or repeat large negative numbers.
    • Pitfall: Technical details and debates
      • Do: Focus your remarks on empathy, competence, honesty, and dedication.
      • Don't: Provide too much detail or take part in protracted technical debates.
  • 153. Avoiding pitfalls
    • Pitfall: Length of presentations
      • Do: Limit presentations to 15 minutes.
      • Don't: Ramble or fail to plan the time well.
  • 154. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • Pre-Crisis Planning
    • Prepare.
    • Foster alliances.
    • Develop consensus recommendations.
    • Create and test messages.
    • Evaluate and update plans.
  • 155. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • Potential No-Plan Problems
    • Mixed messages from multiple experts.
    • Information released late.
    • Paternalistic attitudes.
    • No reality check on recommendations.
    • Not countering rumors and myths in real-time.
    • Public power struggles and confusion.
  • 156. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • Steps to Success
    • Execute a solid communication plan.
    • Be the first source for information.
    • Express empathy early.
    • Show competence and expertise.
    • Remain honest and open.
  • 157. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • During a crisis, communication is different
    • Psychological barriers of audience s :
    • Fear, anxiety, confusion, dread, anger
    • Hopelessness or helplessness but seldom panic
    • Denial
    • Fight or flight
    • Vicarious rehearsal
  • 158. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • Vicarious Rehearsal
    • The communication age gives national audiences the experience of local crises.
    • These “armchair victims” mentally rehearse recommended courses of actions.
  • 159. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • All risks are not accepted equally
    Involuntary Controlled by others Exotic Manmade Permanent Anecdotal Unfairly distributed Affecting children vs. Voluntary Controlled personally Familiar Natural Reversible Statistical Fairly distributed Affecting adults
  • 160. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • During a crisis, decision making is different
    • People simplify.
    • Cling to current beliefs.
    • We remember what we see or previously experience (first messages carry more weight).
    • People limit intake of new information (3-7 bits).
  • 161. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • During a crisis releasing information is different
    • The pressure will be tremendous from all quarters.
    • It must be fast and accurate.
    • It’s like cooking a turkey when people are starving.
    • If information isn’t finalized, explain the process.
  • 162. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • Five Key Elements To Build Trust
    • Expressed empathy
    • Competence
    • Honesty
    • Commitment
    • Accountability
  • 163. Health and Healthy Communication During a Crisis
    • Ways to Maintain Trust
    • Don’t overreassure.
    • Acknowledge there is a process in place.
    • Give people things to do.
  • 164. Emergency Risk Communication
    • Goal: individuals, stakeholders, an entire community or a nation in crisis will make the best possible decisions about their well being
    • Urgent time frame
    • Acceptance of the imperfect nature of the available choices for action
    • Success requires:
      • skillful use of risk communication theory
      • understanding of human psychology
  • 165. Emergency Risk Communication: Success Factors
    • Be Empathetic: embody sincere caring
    • Be First: speedy communication
      • First messages are lasting messages
      • Being first indicates preparedness and competence
    • Be Right: accurate content
    • Be Credible: be honest and build trust
  • 166. Psychology of Crisis
    • Vicarious rehearsal – people away from the threat “try on” the courses of action (“worried well”)
    • Denial – discredit the threat; avoid warnings or action steps
    • Fear
    • Anger
    • Agitation
    • Stigmatization of affected groups
    • Withdrawal, hopelessness, and helplessness
  • 167. What the Public Will Ask First
    • Are my family and I safe?
    • What have you found that may affect me?
    • What can I do to protect myself and my family?
    • Who caused this?
    • Can you fix it?
  • 168. What the Media Will Ask First
    • What happened?
    • Who is in charge?
    • Has this been contained?
    • Are victims being helped?
    • What can we expect?
    • What should we do?
    • Why did this happen?
    • Did you have forewarning?
  • 169. Rule #1: Be Empathetic: Determinants of Trust in High Stake Situations Listening/Caring/ Empathy 50% Adapted from V. Covello Competence/ Expertise 15-20% Honesty/ Openness 15-20% Dedication/ Commitment 15-20%
  • 170. Rule # 2: Be First CDC Emergency Operation Center for Incident Command and Communication CDC SARS Investigation
  • 171. Be Credible: CDC Emergency Communication System Web Clinicians Information Content Policy Research Public Health Health Educators Media Hotline Press Briefings Health Alerts Secure Network Veterinarians Laboratorians Academia Business Transportation Industry Conference Calls Communication Team
  • 172. Trust in Spokespersons October 28, 2001
    • ---TOTAL---a great deal---quite a lot----
    • CDC Director (J. Koplan) 48 26 22
    • Surgeon General (D. Satcher) 44 21 23
    • AMA President (Richard Corlin) 42 20 22
    • Secretary DHHS (T. Thompson) 38 19 19
    • DHS Secretary (T. Ridge) 33 18 15
    • FBI Director (R. Mueller) 33 15 18
    R. Blendon, Harvard Program on Public Opinion and Health and Social Policy International Communications Research of Media, PA
  • 173. Trust in Spokespersons October 28, 2001
    • ---TOTAL---a great deal---quite a lot----
    • Your own doctor 77 50 27
    • Fire department official 61 32 29
    • Police department official 53 24 29
    • Local hospital official 53 28 25
    • Health department leader 52 25 27
    • Your Governor 48 23 25
    • Local religious leader 46 27 19
    R. Blendon, Harvard Program on Public Opinion and Health and Social Policy International Communications Research of Media, PA
  • 174. Spokesperson: Roles
    • Take your organization from an "it" to "we"
    • Build trust and credibility
    • Remove the psychological barriers within the audience
    • Gain support for the public health response.
    • Ultimately, reduce the incidence of illness, injury, and death by getting it right
  • 175. Spokesperson: Rules
    • Don’t over reassure; acknowledge uncertainty
    • State steps that are in progress to learn more
    • Give anticipatory guidance
    • Be regretful, not defensive
    • Acknowledge people's fears and the shared misery
    • Express wishes - "I wish we knew more."
    • Stop trying to allay panic – panic is rare
  • 176. Facing Fear
    • Rx action steps — action binds anxiety.
    • Rx things to decide — decision-making enhances control
    • Encourage appropriate anger
    • Encourage love / camaraderie — soldiers fight for their friends and family
    • Provide candid leadership — trust reduces fear
    • Show your own fear and show you can bear it — “fearless” leaders are little help to a fearful public
  • 177. Target Audience Psychology in Risk Communication
    • 1n = 3p
    • (one negative equals three positives)
    • Balance negative messages with positive constructive / solution oriented messages
    • Take care in using words like no, not, never, nothing, none – they can be misheard, misperceived, and misunderstood
    Vincent T. Covello, Ph.D . Director of the Center for Risk Communication
  • 178. Successful Communications
  • 179. Crisis/Risk Communications
    • Panic comes from mixed messages
    • Short, concise, focussed
    • Give action steps in positives
    • Repeat the message
  • 180.  
  • 181. Interviews
  • 182. Dos and Don’ts
    • Do: Prepare!
    • Don’t: Allow yourself to be ambushed
    • Do: Anticipate questions
    • Don’t: Speak before listening and thinking
  • 183. Dos and Don’ts
    • Do: Be honest
    • Don’t: Speculate, speak for other agencies or give your opinion
    • Do: Say “I don’t know”
    • Don’t: Say “No comment”
  • 184. Dos and Don’ts
    • Do: Control the interview
    • Don’t: Use jargon or acronyms
    • Do: Say only what you want quoted
  • 185. How the Public Reacts to a Crisis
    • People simplify
    • Cling to current beliefs
    • Remember what we see or previously experienced
    • Thirst for knowledge
    • What can be done, what do I do?
  • 186. Communicating in a Crisis
    • Be careful with comparisons - hazard vs. outrage
    • Don’t over-reassure/tell exactly the way it is
    • Good news in subordinate clauses
  • 187. Communicating in a Crisis
    • Acknowledge uncertainty
    • Give people things to do
    • Stop trying to allay public
    • Acknowledge people’s fears
  • 188. Contributors to Poor Public Response
    • Mixed messages from multiple experts
    • Information released late
    • No reality check on recommendations
    • Not countering rumors and myths in real-time
    • Perceived uncertainty of who is in charge
  • 189. The Upside of News Media in a Crisis
    • Disasters/Incidents are media events – we need them there
    • Give important protective actions to the public
    • Media know how to reach audience and what the audience wants
  • 190. The Upside of News Media in a Crisis
    • Difficult to serve our public unless we assist the news media
    • If you give easy access and timely and accurate information you get desired outcomes
  • 191. Psychology Before a Crisis
    • A disaster will not happen . . .
    • A disaster will not happen to me . . .
    • A disaster will not be that bad . . .
    • If it happens and it is that bad, there is nothing I can do about it
    • (Barbara Reynolds, CDC)
  • 192. Psychology in a Crisis
    • Vicarious rehearsal
    • Denial
    • Stigmatization
    • Fear and avoidance
    • Withdrawal and feelings of hopelessness
    • Heightened anxiety, public confusion and stress
    • (Barbara Reynolds, CDC)
  • 193. How People Perceive Risk
  • 194.  
  • 195. Bad Communication Adds to Crisis
    • Mixed messages from multiple “experts”
    • Late information “overcome by events”
    • Over-reassuring messages
    • No reality check on recommendations
    • Myths, rumors, doomsayers not countered
    • Improper modeling of behavior, lack of affect, bad humor by spokesperson/leader
    • Public power struggles and confusion
    • (Barbara Reynolds, CDC)
  • 196. Good communication can…
    • Reduce public’s exposure to risk
    • Mobilize coordinated responses among health & safety workers
    • Improve public’s response to crises
  • 197. Timing is key!
    • “ First out” sets the agenda, shapes the message
    • Don’t avoid communication - even if you have nothing specific to say
    • Establish a presence with your spokesperson
    • Set a schedule for communications - and stick to it !
  • 198. Style is Often as Important as Content! Image = Credibility
  • 199. Take the right approach:
    • Demonstrate awareness
    • Take responsibility
    • Acknowledge your role
    • Respond to all inquiries
    • Don’t “hide” from the issue
  • 200. Take the right approach: (cont’d)
    • Maintain consistency:
      • define key messages
      • appoint a spokesperson
      • stick to the plan
    • Stick to the facts
      • don’t speculate or “invent” information
      • don’t be afraid to say “I don’t know”
  • 201. Follow-up is Critical!
    • Deliver any promised information
    • Keep communicating after the immediate crisis is resolved
    • Don’t forget your clients!
    • Analyze impacts and plan “repairs”
    • Don’t “pretend it never happened”
  • 202. How about the media?
    • Primary source of community information, but
    • They shape the news as well as report it
    • Media relations is a necessary skill
    • Need to remember they’re doing their own job, not yours:
      • They’re not out to “get” you, but
      • They’re not there to help you either!
  • 203. How do you deal with the media?
    • Take time to prepare before responding
    • Have your own agenda, messages
    • You control the content!
    • Don’t invent, improvise or speculate
    • Don’t “lose it”
    • Follow up promptly;
      • supply requested information
      • contact others who may be next!
  • 204. What does the world want to see?
    • Acceptance of responsibility
    • Willingness to take positive steps
  • 205. The ideal spokesperson:
    • Polite and patient
    • Well-informed and authoritative
    • Accurate and reliable
    • Articulate
    • Available
    • Trustworthy
    • Evidently committed to the process
  • 206.  
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