Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a fast-growingemergent technology, in which researchers aim to build adirect channel between the human brain and the computer. A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a collaboration inwhich a brain accepts and controls a mechanical device asa natural part of its representation of the body. Computer-brain interfaces are designed to restoresensory function, transmit sensory information to thebrain, or stimulate the brain through artiﬁcially generatedelectrical signals
Algorithms to reconstruct movements frommotor cortex neurons, which controlmovement, were developed in 1970s. The first Intra-Cortical Brain-ComputerInterface was built by implanting electrodes intomonkeys. After conducting initial studies in rats during the1990s, researchers developed Brain ComputerInterfaces that decoded brain activity in monkeysand used the devices to reproduce movements inmonkeys and used the devices to reproducemonkey movements in robotic arms.
• Invasive BCIs are implanted directly into thegrey matter of the brain during neurosurgery.• As they rest in the grey matter, invasivedevices produce the highest quality signals ofBCI devices but are prone to scar- tissue build-up, causing the signal to become weaker oreven lost as the body reacts to a foreign objectin the brain.
• Electroencephalography In conventional scalpEEG, the recording is obtained by placing electrodeson the scalp with a conductive gel or paste, usuallyafter preparing the scalp area by light abrasion toreduce impedance due to dead skin cells. Manysystems typically use electrodes, each of which isattached to an individual wire.•Electrocorticography (ECoG) measures the electricalactivity of the brain taken from beneath the skull in asimilar way to non-invasive electroencephalographybut the electrodes are embedded in a thin plastic padthat is placed above the cortex, beneath the Duramater.
• fMRI = Functional Magnetic ResonanceImaging fMRI exploits the changes in themagnetic properties of hemoglobin as it carriesoxygen. Activation of a part of the brainincreases oxygen levels there increasing theratio of ox hemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin.• Magnetoencephalography (MEG) MEG detectsthe tiny magnetic fields created as individualneurons "fire" within the brain. It can pinpoint theactive region with a millimeter, and can follow themovement of brain activity as it travels fromregion to region within the brain.
• Provide disabled people with communication,environment control, and movement restoration.• Provide enhanced control of devices such aswheel chairs, vehicles, or assistance robots for peoplewith disabilities.• Provide additional channel of control in computergames.• Monitor attention in long-distance drivers or aircraftpilots, send out alert and warning for aircraft pilots.• Develop intelligent relaxation devices.
• Control robots that function in dangerous orinhospitable situations (e.g., underwater or inextreme heat or cold).• Create a feedback loop to enhance the benefits ofcertain therapeutic methods.• Develop passive devices for monitoring function,such as monitoring long-term drug effects,evaluating psychological state, etc.• Monitor stages of sleep
• Bionics/Cybernetics• Memory Upload/Download• Dream Capture• Brain as a Computer• “Google Search” through brain
• BrainGate• BCI2000• Bionic Eye• Honda Asimo Control• Kevin Warwick – The First Human Cyborg• Gaming Control• Many Others….
The sensor, which isimplanted intothe brain, monitorsbrain activity in thepatient and convertsthe intention of theuser into computercommands.
Researchers havedeveloped an interfacefor Hondas Asimo robotthat allows individualsto control it simply bythinking.
Gaming control using awearable and wirelessEEG-based brain-computer interfacedevice with novel dryfoam-based sensors.
A visualprosthesis, oftenreferred to as a bioniceye, is an experimentalvisual device intendedto restore functionalvision in those sufferingfrom partial or totalblindness
• Allow paralyzed people to control prosthetic limbs withtheir mind• Transmit visual images to the mind of a blindperson, allowing them to see• Transmit auditory data to the mind of a deafperson, allowing them to hear• Allow gamers to control video games with their minds• Allow a mute person to have their thoughts displayed andspoken by a computer
• Research is still in beginning stages• The current technology is crude• Ethical issues may prevent its development• Electrodes outside of the skull can detect very fewelectric signals from the brain• Electrodes placed inside the skull create scar tissue inthe brain
• A potential therapeutic tool.• BCI is an advancing technology promising paradigm shift inareas like Machine Control, Human Enhancement, Virtualreality and etc. So, it’s potentially high impact technology.• Several potential applications of BCI hold promise forrehabilitation and improving performance, such as treatingemotional disorders (for example, depression or anxiety),easing chronic pain, and overcoming movement disabilitiesdue to stroke.• Will enable us to achieve singularity very soon.• Intense R&D in future to attain intuitive efficiency.
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