Surfing!

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Surfing!

  1. 1. Index Surfing............................................................................. 1. Surfing history.............................................................. 2. Bethany Hamilton´s history....................................... 3. ASP(Association of Surfing Professionals)............ 4. Surfing records............................................................. 5.
  2. 2. Surfers & Surfing culture.......................................... 6. Parts of the surf board............................................... 7. Surfing Surfing is a sport that involves sliding over the waves standing on a table, directing it through one or more fins located on the back of the table. This sport can be risky due to physical exertion and possible injuries caused by not taking the necessary precautions.It is good to note that this sport requires qualities such as balance, skill, agility and coordination. Surfing´s history The art of surfing, called he'enalu in the Hawaiian language, was first
  3. 3. observed by Europeans in 1767, by the crewmembers of the Dolphin at Tahiti; however, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture and predates European contact. The chief was the most skilled wave rider in the community with the best board made from the best tree. The ruling class had the best beaches and the best boards, and the commoners were not allowed on the same beaches, but they could gain prestige by their ability to ride the surf on their extremely heavy boards. The sport was also recorded in print by Augustin Kramer and other European residents and visitors who wrote about and photographed Samoans surfing on planks and single canoe hulls; Samoans referred to surf riding as fa'ase'e or se'egalu. Edward Treager also confirmed Samoan terminology for surfing and surfboards in Samoa. Oral tradition also confirms that surfing was also practiced in Tonga, where the late king, Taufa'ahau Tupou IV was the foremost Tongan surfer of his time. When the missionaries from Scotland and Germany arrived in 1821, they forbade or discouraged many Polynesian traditions and cultural practices, including, on Hawaii, leisure sports such as surfing and holua sledding. By the 20th century, surfing, along with other traditional practices, had all but disappeared. Only a small number of Hawaiians continued to practice the sport and the art of crafting boards. Bethany Hamilton´s history The surf can also cause many accidents, such as Bethany Hamilton: O n October 31, 2003, Hamilton went for a morning surf along Tunnels she was lying sideways on her surfboard with her left arm dangling in the water, fashioned a tourniquet out of a surfboard leash around what was left of her arm Beach, Kauai with friend when a 14 ft tiger shark before rushing her to Alana Blanchard, and attacked her, ripping her Wilcox Memorial Hospital. left arm off just below the Her dad was supposed to shoulder. If the shark had have a knee surgery that bitten two inches further morning but she took his in, the attack would have place in the operating room. been fatal. Hamilton had She then spent six more lost almost 60% of her days in recovery at the blood that morning. Her hospital. Blanchard's father and friends helped paddle her brother. Around 7:30 a.m., back to shore, and Despite the trauma of the
  4. 4. incident, Hamilton was surfing. Just three weeks returned to her board and determined to return to after the incident, she went surfing again. Association of Surfing Professionals The Association of Surfing Professionals or ASP was formed in 1982 to protect the interests of professional Surfers. The association organises the six professional surfing circuits including the World Championship Tour or WCT, which was renamed to the ASP World Tour in 2007. The ASP's Head Offices are located in Coolangatta, Australia. Year Name Points 2005 Kelly Slater (USA) 7962 2006 Kelly Slater (USA) 8124 2007 Mick Fanning (AUS) 8136 2008 Kelly Slater (USA) 8832 2009 Mick Fanning (AUS) 8136 Surfing records As with almost every any sport there's an element of fortune needed in surfing competitions. The competition format, types of waves and human judging all have an effect, which leaves plenty of room for speculation about excellent surfers who never won a title, or could have won more. Mark Richards' record of 4 titles above and below 1979 to 1983 stood until 1997 when Kelly Slater took his 5th. It was joked that it'd taken so long Richards was scarcely remembered by young fans and was known to them only as "that guy whose record Kelly beat". Slater's 7th win in 2005 made him both the youngest and oldest champion. Frieda Zamba, Wendy Botha and Lisa Anderson all took 4 women's titles. Layne Beachley has won seven titles in her career, making her the most dominant female professional surfer in the sport's history. Surfers & Surfing culture
  5. 5. Surfers represent a diverse culture based on riding the waves. Some people practice surfing as a recreational activity while others make it the central focus of their lives. Within the United States, surfing culture is most dominant in California, Florida and Hawaii. Some historical markers of the culture included the woodie, the station wagon used to carry surfers' boards, as well as boardshorts, the long swim suits typically worn while surfing.The sport of surfing now represents a multi-billion dollar industry specially in clothing and fashion markets. Some people make a career out of surfing by receiving corporate sponsorships.When the waves were flat, surfers persevered with sidewalk surfing, which is now called skateboarding. Sidewalk surfing has a similar feel to surfing and requires only a paved road or sidewalk. To create the feel of the wave, surfers even sneak into empty backyard swimming pools to ride in, known as pool skating. Parts of the surfing board Bottom The surface of the board that rests on the water. Concave The purpose of concave is to direct water through the fins of the surfboard. Surfboard shapers can experiment with concaves to create different drive and response characteristics on each individual surfboard. Convex Some older and more traditional surfboards along with many modern boards that take inspiration from these older boards utilize a convex rather than concave design on the bottom of the surfboard. These boards displace water and sit lower in the wave than a surfboard with a concave bottom. Deck The surface of the board that the surfer stands on. Surfwax is applied to this surface. Fins The surfboard fin is a stabilizing strut fixed to the rear of the surfboard to prevent it from sliding sideways. In the early days, surfers would stabilize the board by hanging the toes of their back foot
  6. 6. over the edge of the board and would steer by putting their foot in the water. The innovation of a skeg in 1936 by either or both of Woody "Spider" Brown or Tom Blake — revolutionized surfing, allowing surfers to direct the board's momentum and providing more balance whilst turning. The template of the modern surfboard fin was developed by George Greenough in the 1960s.[14] The single fin changed little until the late 70's, when a second was added and popularised by Australian Mark Richards.[15] The new twin fin set up allowed much more flowing carves to be performed. Mark Richards dominated the world competitive scene from 1979 to 1983. In 1981 another Australian was developing another set up which would again change the face of surfing. His name was Simon Anderson and by attaching a third fin, positioned centrally behind the twin fins, he created the thruster set up. Today, most surfboards still use the same arrangement with its popularity arising from the combined ability for carving turns and providing control and drive. In the early 90's removable fin systems were developed and embraced. One of the most popular such fin systems is the FCS, or Fin Control System. FCS is a more standardized system that allows fins to be easily removed or replaced, utilising set screws to hold the fins in place. These systems provided surfers with the ability to alter the riding characteristics of a surfboard, by changing the size and shape of fins used. This innovation opened the market to a range of fin designs, including single foiled fins, concave inside surfaces, and curved fins. Another variation of fin was later designed in the time frame known as the soul fin, a sleek bendable attachment. Tunnel fins were invented in the 60's by Richard Deese,[16] and were found on longboards by multiple manufacturers of that era, including Dewey Weber. Bob Bolen aka 'the Greek' patented the Turbo Tunnel in the late 1990s. Since the mid 90's half tunnel fins have been used, mainly on very long hollow wooden surfboards such as those made in New Zealand by Roy Stewart. Bullet Fins were invented in the 2005 by Ron Pettibone to increase surfboard hull planing and rail-to-rail transition speed. The patent-pending fins are based on 50 years of hydrodynamic research on the bulbous bow hull design. Just as with the bow of a ship, the traditional surfboard fin creates a wave as it displaces the water in its path. The resulting turbulence places drag on the surfboard.[17] The bulb of the Bullet Fin reduces this drag by creating a new (primary) fin wave in front of the original (secondary) wave. This new bulb wave is designed to be nearly 180 degrees out of phase with the original fin wave to subtract its turbulence thus reducing fin drag. Winged fins are another type of surfboard fin, the genesis of which was America's Cup sailboat design.[18] The Starfin was designed in the 1980s by the America's Cup yacht designer, Ben Lexcen, who had designed the winged keel for the America's Cup boat, Australia II. The small thruster-sized fin, the RedTip 3D is manufactured by FCS. Fins with winglets -- tiny wings -- are part of the Wavegrinder fin invented in 2005. See Wavegrinder patent. The purpose of winglets, as in airplane design, is to
  7. 7. increase lift (horizontal turning force in the case of surfboard fins) while reducing drag, by reducing the fin-tip vortex. Fins with a camber have an asymmetrical profile. In windsurfing camber is used to increase the lift to drag ratio of the fin and to minimise cavitation and the risk of spin-out. In particular windsurfers trying to improve speed records use camber fins, as the maximum performance is required on one down-wind course direction. As the camber is fixed to one side, performance when sailing in one direction is improved but performance in the other way is deteriorated. Fins with self adjusting camber smartfins patent can change the camber and can therefore offer the improved qualities in both port side and starboard side sailing directions. Leash A surfboard leash or leg rope is the cord that attaches a surfboard to the surfer. It prevents the surfboard from being swept away by waves and stops runaway surfboards from hitting other surfers and swimmers. Modern leashes comprise a urethane cord where one end has a band with a velcro strap attached to the surfer's trailing foot, and the opposite has a velcro strap attached to the tail end of the surfboard. Prior to leashes introduction in 1971, surfers who fell off their boards had to swim to retrieve them with runaway boards being an inconvenience to the surfer and a danger to other surfers. Santa Cruz resident Pat O'Neill, son of surfer Jack O'Neill (inventor of the O'Neill Wetsuit), is credited with inventing the surf leash. His initial designs consisted of surgical cord attached to a board with a suction cup. At the 1971 Malibu international surfing competition, Pat offered leashes to his competitors in the event. Consequently he was disqualified from the event for wearing his leash, dubbed a kook cord by those at the event however over the next year, the leash became a ubiquitous tool in the surfing world. Pat's father, Jack O'Neill, lost his left eye in a surf leash accident as the surgical tubing used in the early designs allowed the leash to overstretch, causing the surfboard to fly back towards the surfer. Subsequent cords were made with less elastic materials such as bungee cords.[19] Leashes are still the source of some contention in surfing today as, although they are now accepted as mandatory equipment for shortboarders, many longboarders refuse to wear them, claiming it interferes with their ability to walk up and down the board.[citation needed] At crowded surf spots with large waves, it is argued that the freedom not wearing a leash is secondary to the safety of others. Leash Cup An indentation in the deck of the board close to the tail that contains a small bar that a short cord can be girth hitched to for attaching a leash. Nose The front tip of the board. This can be pointed or rounded.
  8. 8. Rail The edges of the board. A rounded rail is called "soft", while a more squared off rail is called "hard", and rails that are in between are considered 50/50. Rocker This refers to how much curve the bottom of the board has from nose to tail. Increasing the rocker helps improve a boards performance when it is used in and around tighter curves on the wave face while flattening the curves of the board help it to handle better on flatter sections of water. Stringer A thin piece of wood running from nose to tail that increases the strength of the board. Boards have different amount of stringers and some have no stringers. Tail The shape of the tail affects how a board responds. Tail shapes vary from square, pin, squash, swallow, diamond, and so on—each one in turn having its own family of smaller variants. By:Amaia V. & Maialen

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