Sem.2 gb


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Sem.2 gb

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />Ana Buckner<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Ser<br />Estar<br />Hacer Expressions<br />Verbs like gustar<br />Preterite<br />Trigger Words<br />Car, Gar, Zar<br />Spock Verbs<br />Snakes<br />Snakeys<br />DOPs<br />Commands<br />Irregulars<br />Iops<br />Se Impersonal<br />Past Participles as Adjectives<br />El futuro<br />Ir + a + infinitive<br />Demonstrative adjectives<br />Demonstrative pronouns<br />Imperfect tense<br />Los Mandatos<br />Modal verbs<br />Reflexives<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />
  3. 3. Ser<br />¿Que Es?<br />¿De dóndees?<br />¿Como es?<br />¿Quehoraes?<br />¿Quehace?<br />SER<br />¿Quienes?<br />¿De quienes?<br />¿Cuando/dondees?<br />¿Quediaeshoy?<br />
  4. 4. ¿Como Estas?<br />Estar<br />¿Como Estas?<br />¿DondeEstas?<br />ESTAR<br />¿Como Esta?<br />¿QueEstasHaciendo?<br />ar – ando<br />er/ir- endo<br /> -yendo<br />
  5. 5. Hacer Expressions<br />Present tense<br />Since and for<br />Preterite tense<br />ago<br />Hace+time+que+verb<br />Hacetresdíasquetieneproblemas con pelo de chico<br />borracho<br />
  6. 6. Verbs like Gustar<br />Me gusta Prince Royce <3<br />
  7. 7. Preterite<br />A definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending<br />Estoes el preterito!<br />Preterite Song<br />
  8. 8. Trigger Words<br />Ayer: yesterday<br />Anteayer: day before yesterday<br />A lasocho: at 8 o’clock<br />El miercoles: on Wednesday<br />El día anterior: the day before<br />El lunespasado: last Monday<br />El fin de semanapasado: last weekend<br />Ayer por la mañana: yesterday morning<br />El otrodía: the other day<br />Unavez: one time/once<br />Estatarde: this afternoon<br />Estanoche: tonight<br />Estonces: then<br />Desde el primer momento: from the first moment<br />Durante dos siglos: during two centuries<br />En esemomento: in that moment/then<br />Hace dos días: two days ago..<br />
  9. 9. Car, gar, zar<br />Irregulars<br />Comenzar<br />Tocar<br />To touch<br />To begin<br />Jugar<br />To play<br />
  10. 10. Spock Verbs<br />Stay in the same conjugation<br />SER<br />Share the same ending<br />IR<br />DAR<br />VER<br />By itself<br />HACER<br />
  11. 11. Examples<br />IR<br />DAR<br />SER<br />To go<br />To give<br />To be<br />VER<br />HACER<br />To see<br />To do/make<br />
  12. 12. Cucaracha Verbs<br />Andar- aduv<br />Estar- estuv<br />Poder- pud<br />Poner- pus<br />Querer- quis<br />Saber- sup<br />Tener- tuv<br />Venir- vin<br />Conducir-conduj<br />Producir- produj<br />Traducir- traduj<br />Decir- dij<br />Traer- traj<br />
  13. 13. Snakes<br />Changes to “I” in 3rd person<br />Changes to “u” in 3rd person<br />EL JEFE<br />
  14. 14. Snakeys<br />Stem changing verbs in preterite. Verbs such as leer, creer, and oir change from I to y in 3rd person.<br />creÍcreÍmos<br />creÍstecreÍsteis<br />Creyócreyeron<br />oÍoÍmos<br />oÍsteoÍsteis<br />Oyóoyeron<br />leÍleÍmos<br />leÍsteleÍsteis<br />Leyóleyeron<br />leio<br />Can’t have 3 vowels together!<br />
  15. 15. DOPs<br />Answers the question what is receiving the direct action of the verb.<br />DOPs are : lo, la, los, las, me, te, nos, se<br />You have to have a DOP in order to have an IOP, but in a sentence the DOP goes after the IOP.<br />DOPs can hook onto verb in ONLY three instances:<br />Infinitive<br />Voy a comerlo<br />2. Affirmative commands<br />¡Bébala!<br />3. Gerunds/present progressive<br />EstoyComiéndolo<br />
  16. 16. Commands<br />DOP + IOP can attach to an affirmative command<br />DOP + IOP must go before the negative command <br />ar<br />e<br />er/ir<br />a<br />
  17. 17. Irregulars<br />T<br />V<br />D<br />I<br />S<br />H<br />E<br />S<br />engo- tenga<br />enir- venga<br />ar- dé<br />r- vaya<br />er- sea<br />acer- haga<br />star- esté<br />aber- sepa<br />
  18. 18. IOPs<br />Answers to questions of to whom or for whom<br />To have an IOP you must first have a DOP<br />I gave it to her.<br />DOP<br />IOP<br />verb<br />Se lo di<br />
  19. 19. Se Impersonal<br />Use ‘se’ to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.<br />When using se, the verb is always in the 3rd person.<br />Se can be used in all tenses<br />Se vendefruta en la frutería.<br />Aquí se hablaespañol.<br />Se hizo mucho.<br />Se hará mucho.<br />Se habíahecho.<br />
  20. 20. Past Participles as Adjectives<br />Past Participles as adjectives conjugations is like when conjugating a verb. For this process, take off the ending and attach –ado or –ido, depending on if it is an –ar, -er, or –ir verb. <br />
  21. 21. IRrEgUlArS<br />abrir (to open) - abierto (open)<br />cubrir (to cover) - cubierto (covered)<br />decir (to say) - dicho (said)<br />escribir (to write) - escrito (written)<br />freír (to fry) - frito (fried)<br />hacer (to do) - hecho (done)<br /><ul><li>morir (to die) - muerto (dead)
  22. 22. poner(to put) - puesto (put)
  23. 23. resolver (to resolve) - resuelto (resolved)
  24. 24. romper (to break) - roto (broken)
  25. 25. ver (to see) - visto (seen)
  26. 26. volver (to return) - vuelto (returned)</li></li></ul><li>FUTURO<br />Infinitive + ending<br />
  27. 27. IrReGuLaRsdElFuTuRo<br />Decir->dir<br />Salir->saldr<br />Hacer->har<br />Saber->sabr<br />Querer-> querr<br />Poder-> podr<br />Valer->valdr<br />Salir->saldr<br />Venir->vendr<br />Poner->pondr<br />
  28. 28. Ir+a+infinitive<br />Yovoy a viajar a España.<br />Included in el futuro!<br />Use this when you are going to do something!<br />
  29. 29. Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Put in front of the noun it modifies.<br />
  30. 30. Imperfect Tense<br />The imperfect tense is used to refer to actions in the past that occurred repeatedly.<br />The imperfect tense is also used to refer to actions in the past that occurred over an extended period of time.<br />I used to walk every day.Yocaminabacadadía.<br />I used to eat paella frequently.Yocomíafrecuentemente paella.<br />
  31. 31. Los MandatosFormales<br />For –ar :<br /> -Conjugate to yoform<br />-Drop –o and add -e<br />For –er :<br /> -Conjugate to yo form<br /> -Drop -o and add –a<br />For –ir :<br />-Conjugate to yo form<br /> -Drop -o and add –a<br />
  32. 32. Los MandatosInformales<br />Affirmative:<br />(hablar- ar + a = habla)(comer - er + e = come)(escribir - ir + e = escribe)<br />Negative:<br />No cuentestusbeneficios.Don't count your blessings.<br />No hablesmás lentamente.Don't speak more slowly<br />
  33. 33. MODAL VERBS<br />
  34. 34. Reflexives<br />CAN BE:<br />-in front of the conjugated verb<br />-attached to the infinitive<br />-attached to the present participle<br />-attached to an affirmative command<br />SYLLABIFICATION:<br />Reflexive pronouns change it so you must add an accent mark in the proper location!<br />
  35. 35. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Saber means to know a fact or to know how to do something. It is often followed by an infinitive or a subordinate clause.<br />Conocer means to know someone or to be familiar with someone, something, or somewhere. It can only be followed by the a direct object, never by an infinitive or a subordinate clause<br />