The Parotid Gland The parotid gland is one of the three major salivary glands that produce and secrete saliva for the oral cavity. weight : about 14 to 28 g. color : yellowish in the fresh state composition : serous secreting units
Location and Relationsof the Parotid Gland A. Anterior surface: lies against the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible B. Posterior surface: on the external auditory meatus and sternocleidomastoid muscle C. Superficial surface: lobulated, covered by skin, fascia, lymph nodes, and facial branches of the great auricular nerve. D. Deep surface: styloid process and its muscles as well as under the mastoid and sternocleidomastoid muscles.
The Parotid Duct From the rostral border of the gland, crosses masseter muscle, turns inward to pierce the fat pad of the cheek and then the buccinator muscle, to open into the mouth opposite the second maxillary molar. Approximately 5 cm. long.
Clinical Considerations 1. A viral inflammation of the parotid gland (mumps) causes it to swell, resulting to pain on movement of the jaw. 2. Abcesses or cysts of the gland may result in pressure to the facial nerve 3. Stones or calculi in the duct can block it, causing painful swelling of the gland.
The SubmandibularGlandType:It is a mixed serous and mucous secreting gland.Location:It is found partly in the submandibular fossa below the mylohyoid muscle and partly in the floor of the mouth.
The SubmandibularGlandDuct:The submandibular duct (Wharton’s) arises from the medial surface of the gland and accompanies it under the mlohyoid muscle; it passes diagonally across the medial aspect of the sublingual gland and adheres to it. It opens at the sublingual papillae beside the base of the lingual frenulum.
The Sublingual Gland The smallest of the three major salivary glands and rests upon the mylohyoid muscle in the sublingual fossa close to the symphysis. It is primarily a mucous secreting gland.
The Sublingual Gland Location: The gland, indicated by the subligual fold is found between the alveolus and the anterior part of the tongue. Duct: The gland has many lesser sublingual ducts (Rivini’s) that opens separately at the floor of the mouth and a greater sublingual duct (Bartholin’s) that opens on the sublingual caruncle.
The Accessory Glands Beside the main salivary glands, many others exists: some in the tongue, others around and in the palatine tonsil between its crypts, with the large number in the soft palate, the posterior part of the hard palate, the lips and the cheeks. These are similar in structure to larger salivary glands and are mainly mucous type.