Campaigns and Elections By Alyssa Lei, Chelsea Santos, and Kaila Chan 2 nd Period 5/30/10
Gerrymandering 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Two terms involved with this include “Packing” and “Cracking” Is a form of boundary delimitation, in which boundaries are deliberately modified for electoral purposes Was named after Elbridge Gerry
Political Action Committee 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue In 2010, the case Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission changed the rules Can not contribute more than $1000 Is commonly known as PAC
Cross-Over Vote 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Motives for this are mainly strategic Can occur during Open Primaries A vote in which a member of one party votes in the other party’s primaries
Soft Money 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 dealt with an issue regarding this Buckley v. Valeo Unlimited contributions to organizations and committees
Open Primary 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Form of Direct Primary Also known as a “Pick-a-Party” Primary Can result in Cross-Over Vote
Direct Primary 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Before this, candidates were nominated at conventions and through caucuses Was introduced as early as 1842 A nominating election in which all party member may vote to choose the party’s candidate
Women Sufferage 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue A reform Movement Was established in 1920 19th amendment
Splintered Democrats 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue 2.4% of the vote 39 electoral votes An independent party that has splintered Democrats and blocked Civil Rights legislation for years
Secessionist Democrats 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue 18.1% of the vote and 72 Electoral Votes Third Party One of the two Splinter parties in the realigning election of the 1860 that caused the republicans to win
Australian Ballot 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue South Australia was the first to adopt this principal Established in 1856 The most common form of ballot, in which people vote on a government issued ballot in secret.
Malapportionment 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue In the United States, this was mainly a response to racial and class issues particularly in the South. Baker v. Carr ruled that this was discriminatory and illegal under the 14th Amendment. To help prevent this, congressional redistricting occurs every 10 years after the census.
Coattail Effect 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Can also be called voting on a "straight ticket". After the presidential election of 1980 and the election of Ronald Reagan, 12 Senate seats were turned over from the Democrats to the Rupublicans. Tendency of a popular politician to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in a single election.
Run-off Primary 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue A second round is only needed if no candidate receives a majority in the first round. A type of an election when voters in a specific area pick candidates for a later election. Top two candidates from this primary advance to general election regardless of party alliance.
Nomination 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Congress does not have this power. This is typically established by primaries, caucuses or political conventions. Sonia Sotomayor had been given this by President Obama in May 2009
Platform 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Also known as a "manifesto". Can be broken down into individualized "planks". Often is a list of things a party is for or against.
Keynote Address 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Typically summarizes the most relevant issues of an event. Speaker of this is often also the convention moderator. Term derived from acapella singers who would practice a note before singing
Political Socialization 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue There are various different factors of this concept including: family, media, friends, teachers, religion, race and age Schooling is the most influential agent of this concept. Political views are formed during childhood and continue to affect his or her views their entire lives.
Electoral Coalition 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue By nominating or supporting a major party's candidate, minor parties can influence the candidate's platform in the party's favor. Candidates of this concept typically do not run against each other. This fusion of parties can be used not only to boost support for a common goal, but also to stop another opponent from gaining power.
Campaign Finance Reform 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue A Naval Appropriations Bill passed in 1867 was the first of its kind. It said that government employees could not solicit financial contributions from Navy yard workers. A current proposal for this is the Voting with Dollars Plan. Most recently, the Supreme Court ruled in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission that corporate funding of media in candidate elections cannot be limited under the 1st Amendment.
Incumbent 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue In the 1990s, this apparently became a “disadvantage” because voters came to dislike “professional politicians” who were responsible for problems such as chronic budget deficits, the politician’s “exemption” from laws, etc. ________ get 1/3 of their campaign funds from P.A.C.s. The greatest advantage of _________ is name recognition.
Caucus 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue This was used in the early 19th century, when members of Congress from a party would meet to pick a presidential candidate. This system has now been replaced by national nominating conventions. Only the most dedicated partisans attend, such as the Liberals of the Democratic Party and the Conservatives of the Republican Party.
Blanket Primary 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Also known as “free love.” Alaska and Washington State have this kind of primary. You mark a ballot and select a Democratic for one office and a Republican for another office.
Hard Money 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Federal campaigns must use 50% of this to finance their campaign. Contributions of this from individuals are limited to $5000. This money is regulated by the government, specifically the Federal Election Commission.
Independent Expenditure 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue The Supreme Court case Buckley v. Valeo ruling allowed this. It was ruled that this was considered free speech. Often in the form of advertising, this political activity is used to promote or oppose a specific candidate without their cooperation, approval, or direct knowledge.
General Election 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue This did not exist until the 17th Amendment. It is held biennially, (every two years). This is the election determines all House seats.
2000 Florida Election Controversy 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Election involved George W. Bush and Al Gore. This occurred in a state that had a recount in votes. 4th election in which the electoral vote didn’t reflect the popular vote.
Political Efficacy 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue There are two types: internal and external. It increases with age and education. It is measured in surveys and is used as an indicator as the general health of civil society. High feelings of this are correlated with active participation in politics and society.
Position Issue 3 point clue 2 point clue 1 point clue Ex: George W. Bush wanted to let people put some of t heir Social Security money into private savings accounts. Al Gore opposed this. This divided the candidates. Party realignments have been based on this. Ex: Whether African Americans should be slaves or not after the American Civil War. A type of issue that splits the voters.
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