Alyssa London Pp
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Alyssa London Pp Presentation Transcript

  • 1. History of the City of London Alyssa Giewartowski Period 2 http://www.bergoiata,org/fe/paysages-divers/25.htm
  • 2.
    • The beginnings of London go back to when the Romans invaded in 43AD, but then London was not a stable settlement for individuals.
    • The commander leading his troops into London was Emperor Claudius
    • When the commander and his troops reached The Thames River, they built a bridge across it. It was this bridge that attracted more settlers to Londonium, which they later re-named London.
    • In 60 AD Londonium was burned to the ground by Queen Boudicca of the Iceni tribe. Governor Paulinus made an attempt to seize Queen Boudicca’s army and save Londonium. The Queen’s army was eventually defeated, but Boudicca poisoned herself to avoid being captured.
    • At around 75 AD the Romans conquered the rest of the tribes remaining in the North, making all of Britain, Roman.
    • In 122 AD the Emperor Hadrian came by to see how London was functioning, where he then decided that a wall should be built around London to protect the city from the Scottish.
    • London was frequently being attacked by other countries. Military aids from Rome were sent to protect the city, but Emperor Honorious decided that it would be better for London to protect itself.
            • Picture: http://www.bouletfermat.com/bachgrounds/antique_bw_prints.html
            • Info: http://www.historyonthenet.com/chronology/timelineroman.htm
  • 3.
    • After the Romans left London ’ s population and city began to fall apart. The amount of people remaining in London decreased drastically, and as a result parts of the city were left in ruins.
    • Since London was in the perfect location for trade, the city ’ s population did not remain low for long. The seventh century saw the city grow due to the amount of trade the city had.
    • In 604 AD the first St. Paul ’ s Cathedral was built. This era of London saw the arrival of Christianity.
    • Due to the amount of trading during the Anglo-Saxon era London began to see the effects of trade. For example, coins were manufactured and ideas were brought to London.
    • Upon the death of their King’s death, English Kings began to take control of London. Through the 920’s London was a commercial trade center.
    • At the end of the Anglo-Saxon London(1042) King Edward The Confessor, who was the heir of the Saxon line, took the throne of England. When King Edward died his cousin Duke William claimed that he had been promised the throne.
    • The Royal Council, however, did not think that Duke William should be the new King. They then decided, instead, to elect King Edward’s brother-in-law as the new King of England .
          • Picture: http://commons.wikipedia.org/
          • Info: http://www.britannia.com/history/londonhistory/saxlon.html
  • 4.
    • The beginning of Medieval London began in 1066, when William the Conqueror was crowned the King of England.
    • King William gave the citizen ’ s many privileges, so to keep them under control he built a castle in the Southeast corner of the city. At first the Tower of London acted as residence for royalty, but later became a famous prison.
    • The population during Medieval London was around eighteen thousand, compared to forty-five thousand during the Roman-London era.
    • In 1176 the first stone London Bridge was built, this bridge remained the only source of transportation across the Thames River.
    • In 1191 King Richard I decided that it was time for London to have a self-government. The following year London had elected their first mayor.
    • In 1381 Wat Tyler’s Peasant Revolt began. During Medieval London the peasants revolted against King Richard II’s advisors. Wat Tyler was killed by William Walworth at Smithfield.
    • Plague was constantly a threat during Medieval times, mostly because sanity was not something citizens valued. Between 1348 and The Great Plague of 1665, there were sixteen outbreaks of the plague.
  • 5.
    • The Tudor dynasty which had three Kings and two Queens was between 1485 and 1603.
    • This era of London is known for religious conflict and great expansion in London.
    • An example of great expansion in London is the fact that for the first time ever London had become a tourist spot.
    • London continued to grow rapidly, but when King Henry VII’s wife could not produce a male heir this led to religious conflict.
    • King Henry wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine, because she could not give King Henry a son. When the Pope denied the request of divorce, Henry split from the Catholic Church and founded the church of England, where he immediately divorced Catherine.
    • Soon after that Henry got his mistress, Anne, pregnant; she gave birth to a daughter. From that point forward King Henry VII became a tyrant.
  • 6.
    • During the Stuart England era architecture was an important aspect. Citizens in London decided to build a project that brings water from 40 miles away. They also built the Queen’s house, a Banqueting Hall and the Queen’s chapel.
    • In 1637 Charles I, made a decision that caused the people of London to like him. The King opened up the royal reserve of Hyde Park to the public. Unfortunately due to political issues Charles I was beheaded.
    • When Charles II took the place of King in 1660, entertainment became very popular and was approved by royalty.
    • Due two tragedies in 1665 entertainment was brought to a halt. Those two tragedies were The Great Plague and the Great Fire of London.
    • After the Great Fire new building were built by Christopher Wren. Wren was given the task of rebuilding St. Paul’s Cathedral.
  • 7.
    • With the beginning of a new era brought new buildings and new ideas.
    • The architecture of London improved, and over crowdedness was not an issue any more.
    • The population during this era grew massively from one million to around six million.
    • The engineers in London solved the sewage problem, by building miles and miles of pipes to bring the sewage outside the city.
    • In 1829 Sir Robert Peel made a department that handled the law. Which citizens called the Robbies.
    • In 1859 The House of Parliament’s clock tower was built, later nicknamed Big Ben.
  • 8.
    • In 1904 cars were brought to England, but more important than that was the founding of Luxury Hotels, Department Stores and theaters.
    • In the 1930’s a large number of Jews fled to London, to avoid being killed during WW1.
    • During the 1940’s a third of London was destroyed due to the bombs that were dropped on the city.
    • The final building project was that of the Millennium Dome, which was finished in 2000, and cost over seven million dollars.
    • Picture: http://www.superstock.com/stock-photos-images/1788-1012
    • Info:
  • 9.
    • The Great Fire of London started in Thomas Farriner’s bakery, by his maid who forgot to put out the ovens at the end of the night.
    • Since London’s buildings, at the time, were made mostly of wood, the buildings burned down very quickly.
    • Although the fire burned down all of the city, it helped to destroy the city’s filthy streets containing The Great Plague, which was responsible for killing a quarter of the citizens living in London.
    • The Great fire burned down, eighty-four churches, including St. Paul’s Cathedral, but surprisingly only five people perished in the fire.
            • Picture: http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images2/sep2_great_fire2.jpg
            • Info: The Great Plague and Fire of London
  • 10.
    • Shields, Charles J. The Great Plague and Fire of London. USA: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002
    • Barter, James, Shakespeare’s London. USA: Lucent Books, 2003
    • Andrew Church, “London,” World Book Encyclopedia L-12 , 2005
    • Chris Truman, http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/great_fire_of_london_of_1666.htm , December 7, 2009
    • George Weldon, http://www.britainexpress.com/London/roman-london.htm , December 7, 2009
    • David Nash Ford, http://www.britannia.com/history/londonhistory/saxlon.html , December 7, 2009