Nursing Theorists Theories


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Study Material for Transition into The Professional Nursing Role, includes:

Nursing theories, theorists, pioneers, researchers, and organizations

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Nursing Theorists Theories

  1. 1. Nursing Theorists<br />Judith Allen Shelly & Arlene B. Miller<br />Judeo-Christian model of caring<br />Called to care: a Christian worldview for nursing<br />Sister Callista Roy<br />Adaptation theory<br />Goal of nursing:<br />Promote adaptive responses<br />Jean Watson<br />Theory: <br />Caring is essence of nursing practice<br />Science of Nursing <br />Accomplishments:<br />Founder of Center for Human Caring @ University of Colorado (U of CO)<br />Published – <br />Nursing: Human Science and Human Care; A Theory of Nursing (1985)<br />Martha Rogers<br />Theory: <br />The Science of Unitary Human Beings<br />Energy-based practices<br />Therapeutic touching<br />Reiki <br />Virginia Henderson <br />Accomplishments<br />Early nurse researcher & educator<br />Publications & Misc<br />Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing (1955)<br />Focused on physiological balance<br />Imogene King<br />Goal attainment model – focus <br />3 interacting systems<br />Personal<br />Interpersonal <br />Social<br />
  2. 2. Nursing Theorists<br />Madeline Leininger<br />Culture Care Theory<br />focused on the different ways caring is expressed and interpreted<br />Accomplishments<br />First professional nurse to have PhD in cultural & social anthropology<br />Myra E. Levine<br />Model of Nursing<br />Conservation Principles <br />Conservation of energy<br />Conservation of structural integrity<br />Conservation of personal integrity<br />Conservation of social integrity<br />Betty Neuman<br />Theory<br />Health Systems theory – most popular & widely used<br />Florence Nightingale<br />Theory<br />Developmental Needs theory<br />Accomplishments<br />First nursing theorist<br />Dorethea Orem<br />Theory<br />Believed that life, health, and well-being are maintained by activities that people initiate on their own such as <br />Breathing and eating<br />focused on nursing as a way to restore self-care in patients.<br />
  3. 3. Minor Nursring Theorists & Philosophers<br />Theorists<br />Philosophers<br />Merle Mishel<br />Theory of uncertainty<br />Nola Pender<br />Health promotion model<br />Katherine Kolcaba<br />Comfort theory<br />Anne Boykin<br />General theory called “nursing as caring”<br />Savina O Schoenhofer<br />General theory called “nursing as caring”<br />Jeremy Bentham<br />Proponent of Utilitarianism – focused on Consequentialism<br />John Stuart Mill<br />Proponent of Utilitarianism – focused on achieving the greatest possible happiness for the greatest number of people<br />Auguste Comte<br />Created the term “altruism”<br />
  4. 4. Important Early Nurses<br />Pioneers<br />Florence Nightingale <br />nursing leader associated with Crimean War<br />Clara Barton<br />Considered founder of American Red Cross<br />Catherine of Siena<br />Organized early form of ambulance service consisting of male stretcher bearer transporting the sick to hospitals in 1300s<br />Fabiola<br />Roman matron founded first free Christian public hospital for poor<br />Hildegarde of Bingen<br />German nun trained women to care for sick; documented causes of, symptoms of, & cures for various diseases<br />Mary Eliza Mahoney<br />First black nurse to graduate from a US school of nursing<br />Melinda Ann (Linda) Richards<br />Considered first trained nurse from American school of nursing<br />Lina L. Rogers<br />First public school nurse in NYC<br />
  5. 5. Contributors to Nursing Field<br />Galen<br />Famous Greek physician/surgeon<br />Imothep<br />First recorded physician<br />Hippocrates<br />Father of modern medicine<br />Sojourner Truth<br />Suffragette, abolitionist, & nurse to Union soldiers<br />Harriet Tubman<br />Abolitionist, Underground Railroad worker, and matron @ the Colored Hospital in Virginia during war<br />Jean Henri Dunant<br />Provided the vision for the International Red Cross<br />Friederike & Theodor Fliedner<br />Founders of the Kaiserswerth Deaconess Institute (an early nursing school)<br />St. Vincent de Paul<br />Founder of The Sisters of Charity <br />Catherine McAuley<br />Established The Sisters of Mercy<br />Elizabeth Seton<br />Established the Sisters of Charity<br />
  6. 6. Nursing Founders <br />Mary Breckinridge<br />Founder of The Frontier Nursing Service<br />Mary Brewster & Lillian D. Wald<br />Founders of the first public heath service in their own home<br />France Payne Bolton<br />Philanthropist, congresswoman, and healthcare reformer<br />Influenced creation & passage of The Bolton Act<br />Luther Christman<br />RN & founder of The American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMN)<br />Dorothea Dix<br />Responsible for reforms in treatment of the mentally ill<br />Lavinia Dock <br />Founding member of the American Society of Superintendents of Training School for Nurses<br />Influenced movement for independent nursing practice<br />Annie W. Goodrich<br />First dean of the Army School of Nursing<br />Isabel Hampton Robb<br />Founding member of the American Society of Superintendents of Training School for Nurses<br />Established first grading policy in nursing school<br />Margaret Sanger<br />Founder of Planned Parenthood Federation<br />Controversial for her views on eugenics & abortion<br />
  7. 7. Nursing Researchers<br />Eli Ginzberg<br />Professor of economics @ Columbia<br />Conducted study with colleagues from nursing, medicine, and social science leading to the publication of<br />The Ginzberg Report<br />Josephine Goldmark<br />Chief investigator in The Goldmark Report<br />Inez Hinsvark<br />Primary researcher for The Study of Credentialing in Nursing: A New Approach<br />Jerome P. Lysaught<br />Nurse researcher worked with the National commission for the Study of Nursing & Nursing Education, leading to the publication of <br />The Lysaught Report<br />Mildred Montag<br />Author of The Montag Study &<br />Community College of Education for Nursing<br />Granger Westberg<br />Founder of current parish nurse movement <br />Ethel Gordon Fenwick<br />Founded the International Council of Nurses & The Royal British Nurses Association<br />Adelaide Nutting<br />Founding member of the American Society of Superintendents of Training School for Nurses<br />Katherine Bauer<br />Led the National Institute of Medicine Study<br />Ester Lucile Brown<br />Social anthropologist<br />Director of the Department of Studies in the Professions of the Russell Stage Foundation<br />Author of The Brown Report<br />
  8. 8. Nursing<br />Groups and Organizations<br />Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem<br />Male nursing military order that cared for crusaders in Jerusalem<br />Knights of St. Lazarus<br />Nursing order of monks that focused on caring for those with Leprosy<br />Sisters of Charity<br />First American religious order<br />Sisters of Mercy<br />Order that came to the US in 1843 and started hospitals that cared for wounded during Civil War<br />