one Introduction With the rise of individualism in our society and the substitution of face-to-face communication for wireless, one could easily assume that we rely less and less on personal interactions and the opinions of friends as we move forward in life. This would be a safe assumption if it wasn’t for the rise of social media sites allowing these seemingly independent consumers to connect to each other anywhere, anytime and for any reason. Networked computers are “revolutionising how people interact by offering a virtual space where people with common interests can communicate with each other electronically1. Ironically, it appears that social media is friendship’s natural adaptation to continue existence alongside this changing consumer lifestyle. Consumers can now live independently but take their friends with them anywhere and everywhere; for whatever reason and ask for purchasing advice on demand. Because consumers have turned away from traditional advertising means and can reach any type of friend on a 24 hour basis, brands are left struggling to reach their audiences through the most appropriate online spaces with the right selling messages and tactics. This paper looks at why social media networks are needed to promote brands among contemporary consumers and includes tips and tactics to effectively harness these online networks to connect with your target markets.
ContentsThe sociological aspect.........................................................3 Where did it come from? The rise of interactivity So what’s going on in there? He said, she said, I wantI heard it through the grapevine.............................................7 Does it make it home? Do I care? Does the source make a difference? It’s a gamble I heard it from a friend The journey’s the real fun Is the source everything? I’ll go with you!Scratch mine and I’ll scratch yours......................................14 Two way techniques Taking it up a notch two
three The sociological aspect Today you’ll struggle to find a business whose management denies that social media: • Allows online communities to be used as a venue for transmitting marketing information • Gathers likeminded individuals to protect and promote a brand • Assists with recovery from negative publicity through large scale word-of-mouth recommendations2 What you will find is that most businesses can’t explain how social media became such a large scale phenomenon and who the driving forces were behind its rapid adoption into the B2C process. Where did it come from and where is it going? Basically, social media sprung from a culmination of new technology, old-fashioned curiosity and, of course the ageless reliance on the ‘friendship psychology’3. This combination has made sites like Facebook, MySpace and Bebo so popular among consumers today that its reach has expanded beyond tech savvy early adopting youth to a changing make-up of technology users that extends beyond the pre-conceived age and gender demographics. The work-related computer that dominated the older generations’ technological understanding has transgressed into other computer-enabling functions including laptops, mobile phones and games consoles which now allow for emails, diary entries, instant messaging, blogs and the list goes on4. So what does this functionality mean? It means that consumers today are more connected to one another than ever and predominantly by their own choosing. A 2003 publication for the Work Foundation’s iSociety project observed that, “the principle of social software is to break down the distinction between our online computer-mediated experiences and our offline face-to-face experiences”5. This obviously allows people to capture their familiarity, their location, job, activities and interests and enhance their activities across a broader scope of people. Consumers are fast preferring to engage in these ‘safer relationships’, via a screen, where they can connect with a wider circle of friends in a non-committal fashion6. What is interesting is that despite preferring non-committed online relationships they are increasingly placing weight on the recommendations coming from these sources rather than the tried and tested traditional advertising means…but why? The rise of interactivity When you look at the main difference between traditional media and social media it becomes clear that interactivity plays a crucial role in social media’s success and increasing popularity. Interactivity essentially puts the control back into the hands of the consumer. It allows them to decide what to see or buy, when, where, how and in what order. Scholler and Shavvitt in 1999 described interactivity as giving an “invitation to the consumer to make choices between different messages, between representatives of different products and across different sites and forums7”.
Consumers’ rapid embrace of social media stems from the sad reality thatconsumers have been filtered one-way advertising from companies for so longwith poor value in return that they are openly avoiding traditional advertisingwith increasing success, either by using new technology such as social mediaor by mental will alone. Over the past three decades especially, the blatantmisrepresentation of products through traditional advertising mediums hasculminated in negative consumer responses and decreased purchasingbehaviour8.While it appears that interactivity and rising consumer bargaining power is on theuptake among consumers worldwide, businesses have been on the back-foot,employing defensive strategies in an attempt to control the electronic marketplacerather than developing strategies to attain the short and long-term benefits of aninteractive environment9.What companies are very slowly realising is that interactivity can provide the toolsto combat the decline in attention to traditional advertising by allowing consumers toplay a role in what and how products are bought to the market. By using social mediato engage with consumers to identify both latent and non-latent motivators companiescan present their products according to what the consumer wants.So what’s going on in there?So to understand what consumers want it’s important to understand that theirbehaviour involves risk, in the sense that any action will produce social and economicconsequences that the consumer cannot anticipate with certainty but has somedegree of awareness about. Empirical research by Bauer found that to cope withthe hazards of buying, consumers have developed risk-handling strategies such asthe repeated purchase of the same brand10. The information age has since seenthe advent of more active strategies where consumers are able to seek additionalinformation such as from advertising in general media, narrow media and word ofmouth.What proves most interesting is that the relations between socioeconomic risk andpersonal influence were studied, using canonical analysis and it was found that thehigher the risk involved in a particular purchase decision, the greater the importanceof personal influence11. Furthermore the social risk contributed more than theeconomic risk proving that promotional strategies should try to reach consumersthrough personal channels rather than general media. So why do consumersrespond so much more to a personal recommendation, and is this a new trend, anatural human pre-disposition or just a necessary development to cope with ourincreasingly complicated lives? four
five He said, she said, I want Dr Vincent Miller, assistant professor, University of Kent To be honest, there is no simple answer to that question as even sociologists have always found ‘friendship’ a difficult area of study. This is because friendship and indirectly personal recommendations are always tied to something else: other relationships and contexts such as work, leisure and family life. In this respect, friendship is interwoven into almost every aspect of an individual’s life. This makes friendship both fundamentally important, but at the same time perplexing as an area of investigation. It’s important to recognise that friendships are, much more than any other interpersonal relationships we develop, a matter of choice. We may not be able to choose our family, or have much choice over who we work with, but we have a much wider degree of agency in choosing our friends and friendship groups. Because of this choice, friendships are a reflection of our selves, and our choices in friendships are fundamental to our and others’ perceptions of who we are or would like to be. In this way, friendship has much in common with consumer products which are chosen and purchased in order to say something about ourselves: both reflect our judgement. As a result we tend to friend people we see as similar to ourselves, and often follow their advice and recommendations. Obviously, this can be seen in social networking websites, where lists or networks of friends (and not, for example, personal information) occupy pride of place on personal profiles. Situating oneself within a publicly displayed network of friendships is perhaps the largest and most important of identity claims made in these contexts. There can be no doubt that in everyday life, we interact with our friends, ask their opinions, and get complimented or criticised on our tastes. Throughout history, these kinds of interactions have been accomplished primarily through physical proximity with others. However, many sociologists now claim that society has become increasingly mobile and as such people’s social relationships have become much more dispersed in terms of geography. As a result, these relationships have increasingly become maintained through the use of digital communications technologies such as mobile phones, texting, and the internet. As a result, the idea of being socially present has begun to move from being together in the same place at the same time, to something that can be maintained at a distance through the use of digital technology. Thus, much of social interaction has moved from the co-present and the physical to the mediated and the virtual. Social networking websites are one attempt at establishing and maintaining social presence with others when physical presence becomes a problem. They are another way of creating and sustaining a sense of belonging and intimacy in a mobile and uncertain world in which it is easy to become excluded or forgotten. As a result, it is increasingly important for individuals to establish a social presence online as a way to stay included in social life.This is true of businesses as well. If one can imagine a social networking website such as Facebook as a kind of continual conversation which helps to keep people together, it seems reasonable to suggest that it is vital for consumer-oriented businesses to also be a part of that conversation, just as they would like to be in offline environments. Social networking websites are part of two important and novel elements of online culture which have both wider social implications and relevance for consumer-oriented businesses.
Firstly, social networking and other kinds of social media are increasingly creatinga ‘participatory culture’ 12. That is, social media harnesses the power of collectiveresources, knowledge, and collaboration. Sites such as Wikipedia and eBay, aswell as consumer feedback applications (for example, as used in hotel bookingon travel sites such as Expedia) increasingly harness ‘the wisdom of the masses’,allowing people in disparate parts of the world to pool their resources, knowledgeand expertise together for common benefit. These largely anonymous onlineenvironments create surprisingly high levels of trust among individuals who regularlybase purchasing decisions on the opinions and the feedback of others on such sites.This being the case, more ‘anonymous’ online spaces such as Facebook shouldengender even higher levels of trust among their users, and create an even moreinfluential environment in terms of consumer interaction and opinion.Secondly, the online media environment is increasingly defined by ‘produsage’and ‘prosumership’13. This means that consumers increasingly engage with mediaand advertising on their own terms, and are just as likely to shape their own mediaenvironment and experience by contributing to it themselves. Of course, blogging,YouTube, and various online games are good examples of this kind of media-savvy behaviour, but so are social networking websites. Much in the same waythat teenagers use their bedroom walls as spaces they can shape to display theirinterests, affinities and creative acts, social network website users shape their virtualsocial environments by creating photographs, videos, music, text, links to other webpages, and to consumer products. Once again, it is important for businesses tounderstand and interact with these new media practices in order to create a viableonline social presence and relevance in people’s lives.Evidently, if you look at the role of social media on B2C from a sociologicalperspective, it’s hard to ignore that friendships are fundamental to our and othersperceptions of who we are or would like to be. This evidently is reflected through ourpurchasing habits...and at the end of the day this is why personal recommendationsin the online space can no longer be ignored by businesses looking to engage withtheir key audiences. six
I heard it through theseven grapevine As consumers become more easily connected with one another and a growing distrust of traditional paid advertising continues to develop, the word of mouth amongst consumers and their friends will continue to play an influential role in consumer purchasing behaviour. With this in mind Hotwire worked with research house Vanson Bourne to question European consumers on their spending habits in correlation with the use of social networks as well as their propensity to act on the recommendations provided through these forums. Does a social network recommendation make it home…? The study into social networks and their product recommendations revealed, perhaps most significantly, strong differences between not only the online habits of consumers across Europe but the general familiarity and use of social networks as a product information exchange. Looking at Figure 1, of all respondents surveyed, French respondents claimed to have received the least product recommendations through social networking sites with 55% receiving none compared to just 22% of Italian respondents. This trend was then reflected through all product categories with Italian respondents exposure to recommendations being almost double that of their French counterpart. Between 34-50% of UK, German, Italian and Spanish respondents had received recommendations for either/both consumer products and chains of shops, restaurants and bars compared to just 25% of French respondents in both categories. This trend was further exacerbated in the financial services sector with only 8% of French respondents being recommended a financial services product via an online contact compared to 12-17% of UK, German, Italian and Spanish respondents. Where French respondents did considerably improve in awareness was entertainment products, with roughly a third of respondents receiving an online recommendation compared to 39-59% of UK, German, Italian and Spanish respondents. These figures suggest that when it comes to online recommendations across Europe Italian respondents are in a more visible and accepting online space to receive these recommendations than their French counterpart. It also highlights that of the European countries surveyed French respondents indicate that they subscribe interest online to a far narrower scope of interests and corresponding products than their European counterparts and would require a much more targeted approach by businesses looking to generate word of mouth. Yeah it’s been recommended but do I care…? Focusing on consumer products, specifically in the UK as shown in Figure 2, it can be recognised, and quite surprisingly so that of the UK respondents that had received an online recommendation, a whopping 64% of respondents investigated the product while only 26% made a purchase. Interestingly, within these figures, of those that investigated the product, 50% were men and 75% were women, and of those that made a purchase, 31% were men and 17% were women. What does this mean? It means that although women are receiving fewer recommendations through social media networks they are considerably more likely to investigate the product further upon receiving such a recommendation. However this investigation does not translate into purchasing numbers with men still almost
twice as likely to trust a recommendation and buy the product then their femalecounterpart. It implies that the information women seek is not being providedthrough online means, and although the recommendations are driving them to thesource, the information at this source, the final pitch if you will, may not be beingpresented in a way that meets the individual’s decision making credentials. Figure 1. In the last 12 months did United friends you’re connected to Total France Germany Italy Spain Kingdom recommend you look at any of the (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) following via social networks? (%) Any kind of entertainment ( book, 46 39 36 48 59 50 film, sport, music, film etc) Any kind of consumer product (e.g. 37 36 28 35 50 39 clothes brand, food item, car A particular chain of shops, bars, 33 34 22 42 38 31 restaurants Any kind of service (flights, car hire 21 16 17 15 36 24 etc) Any kind of financial service (insurance company, bank, 13 14 8 13 17 12 investment managers etc) None of these 36 40 55 34 22 31Figure 2. Having been recommended any kindof consumer product (e.g. clothes brand, food Total Male Femaleitem, and car) - how did you react to the (%) (%) (%)recommendation?I investigated it 64 58 75I made a purchase 26 31 17I passed on the recommendation 6 6 4I ignored it 4 4 4 eight
nine Does the source make any difference? When looking at these recommendations, 70% of respondents received recommendations from Facebook, 10% from Twitter and 6% from YouTube. Of the Facebook users 67% were male and 74% were female. The clear majority achieved by Facebook would appear to stem from its site set-up; providing consumers with the understanding that their networks promote privacy and intimacy among contacts. The reality that you choose your friends and are able to personalise the amount of access they are given to your own profile works to promote the credibility of the recommendations that do manage to reach you, compared to sites like Twitter and YouTube where access is granted to anybody and everybody. It would appear from these findings that the social networking resources that businesses use to target consumers and begin the recommendation whirlpool, plays a fundamental role in how that recommendation is received and acted upon. Figure 3. Having been recommended any kind of consumer product (e.g. clothes brands, food, cars etc) Total Male Female on which social networking site did you see the (%) (%) (%) recommendation? Facebook 70 67 74 Twitter 10 9 13 YouTube 6 4 9 Flickr 3 4 0 Badoo 1 2 0 Bebo 1 0 4 Friends Reunited 1 2 0 Linked In 1 2 0 MySpace 1 2 0 Orkut 1 2 0 PICZO 1 2 0 Sonico 1 2 0
It’s a gamble….Looking again at those across Europe who did in fact make a purchase, what isexciting is the fact that only 5% were less than £10, while 29% were between £50-100. For companies Europe wide, this proves that recommendations for higherend products are being readily absorbed into the consumer marketplace at a fasterrate than lower end products. This is even more prominent with UK respondentswhose average spend totalled £61.45 compared to Spain’s average spend of£36.76, which was the lowest of European respondents. Furthermore, of the 5% ofrespondents who spent more than £100, majority stemmed from the UK, with 16% ofUK respondents spending over £100, compared to 0% of French, Italian or Spanishrespondents. So although Italian respondents overall appear more willing to buy aproduct based on a recommendation, these products tend to fall within the mid-rangeprice range. UK respondents however, who were slightly less likely to purchase ona recommendation, when they do purchase, tend to go for higher end products thathave come recommended by a personal source.Figure 4. Having beenrecommended any kind of Unitedconsumer product (e.g. clothes Total France Germany Italy Spain Kingdombrand, food item, car) - what (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)was the total value of thispurchase?Less than £10 5 11 0 14 0 0£10 - £25 36 21 38 29 33 59£25 - £50 24 16 31 36 33 12£50 - £100 29 37 31 14 33 29More than £100 5 16 0 7 0 0Base 75 19 13 14 12 17Average Spend £45.57 £61.45 £41.35 £40.54 £43.33 £36.76 ten
eleven I heard it from a friend… Of those across Europe who had not received a recommendation from an online source, 76% were committed to investigating the recommendation should they receive one in the future. Not surprisingly only 3% committed to making a purchase and again only 3% would pass on the recommendation. This demonstrates that across Europe no loyalty can be assumed from those consumers who are unfamiliar with this aspect of social media. Their responses across the board demonstrate a strong commitment to investigate the recommendation from their own personal stance, but they demonstrate little to no commitment to the actual product or site in further promoting it through online recommendations to their own friends. For businesses this means that when targeting consumers that are new to using social networks and its recommendations businesses must ensure a pleasant user experience to generate word of mouth buzz around its products. Figure 5. If social network friends DID recommend products or services via United Total France Germany Italy Spain your social networks, how do you think Kingdom (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) you would react? (%) I would investigate it 76 % 58 % 80 % 82 % 73 % 89 % I would ignore it 18 % 34 % 14 % 13 % 20 % 8% I would pass on the recommendation 3% 4% 6% 0% 5% 0% I would make a purchase 3% 4% 0% 4% 2% 3% I’ve reached the destination…but the journey was the real fun…. So specifically, what about the UK consumers who in fact have received a recommendation before? Well, 43% of those consumers committed to being more likely to shop at a website after arriving through a social network or because of an online recommendation. Of this number, 51% were men and 35% were women. 32% overall claimed that they would not be more likely to shop as a result of social media and 25% did not know. Clearly social media is now playing a more important role in product recommendation and is influencing a large portion of the consumer population, particularly among male consumers to either buy products or by directing them to at least view your products, thereby increasing audience span. These figures do however suggest that at this point in time products must be advertised and promoted across both traditional and non-traditional platforms to maximise audience reach. Figure 6. Are you more likely to shop at a website after arriving through a social network, Total Male Female or because of a recommendation made via a (%) (%) (%) social network? Yes 43 51 35 No 32 28 36 Don’t know 25 21 29
Is the source everything…?As aluded to in Figure 3 consumers are very obviously ranking their social networkingsites in terms of functionality, credibility and connections. Findings reveal that 79%of UK respondents trust friends on Facebook to make a recommendation with 76%of men and 81% of women agreeing. This kind of trust is not closely emulatedwith Twitter, falling in 2nd place with 6% support and Windows Live/MSN with 3%support. So basically this shows that although consumers may have numerous socialnetworking accounts they do not rate their contacts on each with the same esteem.As mentioned earlier the more control the sites give you to pick and choose who youconnect with, the more weighting their recommendations are given and evidently themore likely your product is to be chosen. Figure 7. Which social network’s friends do Total Male Female you trust the most to make a recommendation? (%) (%) (%) Facebook 79 76 81 Twitter 6 7 5 Windows Live/MSN 3 0 6 Bebo 3 0 5 Linked In 2 4 0 You Tube 2 3 1 Badoo 2 3 0 Friends Reunited 1 2 0 My Space 1 1 1 Flickr 1 1 0 Friendster 1 1 0 Netlog 1 0 1 Xing 1 1 0 Other 1 1 0 twelve
thirteen I’ll go with you! Finally we examined which social networking advertising was trusted by UK consumers to make a recommendation. Once again Facebook won a resounding majority with 66% of respondents trusting their advertising methods to recommend a product, followed by Twitter with 4% and Bebo, Linked In and Badoo with 3%. On this question it becomes very clear once again that Facebook and its functionality has a considerable market share when it comes to consumer trust and influence. There can be no doubt that consumers are, and will continue to, turn to one another for assistance with both finding and buying products. The role social media plays in connecting these consumers to one another on an international scale cannot be underestimated. These figures demonstrate the need for businesses today to recognise social media, accept that it’s here to stay and work with its functionality. Social media will work to not only reach consumers and chant selling points, but to engage with consumers to generate positive word of mouth and recommendations about products that transcend even the most intricate and expensive promotional programme. Figure 8. Which social networking site’s Total Men Women advertising do you trust the most to make a recommendation? (%) (%) (%) Facebook 66 65 67 Twitter 4 5 3 Bebo 3 0 5 Linked In 3 3 2 Badoo 2 4 0 MySpace 2 3 1 Windows MSN 2 1 3 Friends Reunited 2 1 2 Flickr 1 1 1 Orkut 1 1 1 You Tube 1 2 0 Friendster 1 1 0 Netlog 1 0 1 Xing 1 0 1 Other 1 1 0 I do not use any social networking sites 13 12 13 which feature advertising
You scratch mine and I’ll scratch yoursSo we have established that social media and the recommendations that stem fromit are valuable to businesses worldwide, but how do we successfully harness thesetools to reach our customer base and encourage them to promote our brand amongtheir online peers?Two way techniques 1. Research your target audience in considerable detail. It is vital to understand WHO your target audience is, WHERE they are and HOW to reach them online. This does not mean just looking at their generic Facebook or MySpace group. The best way to achieve an in-depth understanding of your target audience is the age old technique of qualitative and quantitative research. Look at blogs relevant to their interests, research their demographic traits, follow links to other related websites and social pages and most importantly begin to engage in these sites on a simple level in order to better understand the psyche of the group and from this, develop suitable strategies and tactics to gain their attention and loyalty and thus generate leads and promoters. 2. Decide what YOU want FIRST. Before engaging in any in-depth communication with these groups you need to understand what your own objectives are and how you aim to achieve them. As always these objectives need to be SMART objectives: specific, measurable, attainable, and realistic with a solid time frame. The key to successfully harnessing social media to achieve business-related goals is having milestones in place. Milestones allow you to recognise whether your resources and research are actually being directed at a lucrative portion of the market. 3. DON’T use PUSH tactics! Many businesses are under the misconception that once you have identified where your consumers are congregating in the online space you just need to bombard them with your key selling message. This is not the right tactic and will only get you barred from their social media networks and rapidly diminish your brand presence. If you take one thing from this topic it must be that social media has given consumers the upper hand and purchasing behaviour is a two-way process. Share industry commentary, appear to be a resource in topics relating to the consumer by offering any services applicable to the consumer, i.e. seminars, video tutorials etc. By building a relationship based on mutual respect you are developing a far stronger foundation with your potential customers. And perhaps most importantly, ask questions that will be sure to prompt a response from customers...this will get the ball rolling. fourteen
fifteen 4. Attract them to something worth seeing. Now that you have laid the foundation you need to make sure the path leads to something worth seeing. Make sure your company website, online shop or industry blog have something to keep the consumer’s attention once they have decided that you may just be worth their time. And don’t forget that interactivity is vital. Companies today are successfully using blogs, YouTube, questions and answers, online press offices and video testimonials to engage with consumers. More advanced techniques also include using traceable URLs to gauge consumer habits and the use of third-party applications to incorporate product and service reviews. 5. Be at one with your consumers. Your brand needs to live where your consumers live. This means that the customer is no longer just at home cooking dinner or on the bus to work... they are at the cafe browsing Facebook, at work searching for contacts on Linked In or viewing commercials on YouTube which means you need to be there too. Not only does existing on these platforms increase your brand’s search capabilities, it helps increase the credibility of your brand. 6. Twitter is not just for the young-hearted! Twitter, often surprisingly to many, allows you to “hyper-target” those interested in your space through keyword searches. It also can be used to improve your customer service mechanisms, allowing real-time promotion and issues-response.
Taking it up a notchNow if you are looking to take your strategy beyond the average social mediapresence you may want to employ some more advanced tools as outlined by JohnHinkle’s Advanced Marketing Lifelines 14. • Rich media - Using multimedia allows you to engage with your audience on a deeper level. By providing company videos that outline corporate culture, interviews with current employees and overviews of your products and services online consumers engage with your brand, develop personal opinions and relay those to their online communities in the form of either recommendations or criticisms. • Integrate offline and online advertising - It is important to make sure that your communication mechanisms all point to one another in order to ensure the continuity of your brand for consumers both online and off. Provide links to your online profiles on all traditional media advertising and vice versa. • Message adaptation - It is paramount to recognise the differences in social media platforms and tailor your messages accordingly rather than using a generic profile. It shows the individuality of your company and brand and engages on a more credible level with those consumers viewing the profile. • Local searches - Many companies today focus on the global market forgetting the importance of segmenting that market to better target key audiences. Don’t underestimate the importance of building a presence in local markets. Particularly the ones your key competitors appear in. • Contests and discounts - To go one step further than just using social media as a two-way communication mechanism you can use it to generate contests that encourage consumers to use virality as a requirement for winning. This not only increases the circulation of your brand but actively engages the consumer in your brand and company programs.So there you have it, creating a basic social media presence is easy enough, butsuccessfully using that presence to encourage consumers to promote your brand foryou takes considerably more time. But once fellow consumers do choose to promoteyour brand, you will reap the rewards of a considerably more lucrative consumerbase. sixteen
seventeenReferences 1 Hye-Shin, K and Jin Yong, P. (2008) “Dimensions of online community attributes” International Journal of Retail Management & Distribution, vol.36, issue 10, p.1 2 Schlosser, A (2003), “Come Together, Right Now, Virtually: An Examination into Online Communities”, Advances in Consumer Research, vol.30, issue 2, p192-p.194 3 Design Council (2010), “ Curtain twitches, the CIA and the rise of Facebook”, viewed on the February 12th 2010 at < http://use8.net/calendar.php?e=0&s=104 > 4 Design Council (2010), “ Curtain twitches, the CIA and the rise of Facebook”, viewed on the February 12th 2010 at < http://use8.net/calendar.php?e=0&s=104 > 5 Design Council (2010), “ Curtain twitches, the CIA and the rise of Facebook”, viewed on the February 12th 2010 at < http://use8.net/calendar.php?e=0&s=104 > 6 Design Council (2010), “ Curtain twitches, the CIA and the rise of Facebook”, viewed on the February 12th 2010 at < http://use8.net/calendar.php?e=0&s=104 > 7 Schlosser, A (2000) “Harnessing the Power of Interactivity: Implications for Consumer Behavior in Online”, Advances in consumer research, vol. 27, issue 1, p.79-80 8 Dahle, M (2009). “The consumer-perceived value of non-traditional media: effects of brand reputation, appropriateness and expense”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol.26, issue 3, p.155-163 9 Dahle, M (2009). “The consumer-perceived value of non-traditional media: effects of brand reputation, appropriateness and expense”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol.26, issue 3, p.155-163 10 Perry, M & Hamm, B (1969) “Canonical Analysis of Relations between Socioeconomic Risk and Personal Influence in Purchase Decisions), Journal of Marketing Research, vol.6, issue 1, p.351-354 11 Perry, M & Hamm, B (1969) “Canonical Analysis of Relations between Socioeconomic Risk and Personal Influence in Purchase Decisions), Journal of Marketing Research, vol.6, issue 1, p.351-354 12 Jenkins, H. (2006) Convergence Culture. London: New York University Press. 13 Bruns, A. (2008) Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang. 14 Hinkle, J. (2010) “5 Useful Social Media Marketing Advanced Tactics to Help Your Business Grow” viewed at < http://marketinglifelines.com/social-media-marketing-advanced- tactics/ >