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Preschool (Pt 2)
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Preschool (Pt 2)

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Cognitive growth in preschool years.

Cognitive growth in preschool years.

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  • 1. Preschool (Part 2)
  • 2. Piaget’s Preoperational Thinking
    • The Use of Symbolic Thought, Mental Reasoning,& Concepts
    • Symbolic Function
    • The ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or object to stand for or represent something not present
    • Relation between language & thought
    • Symbolic function is the basis of sophisticated language use in the Preoperational Stage
    • Language & thinking are interconnected
    • Use of language allows the child to think beyond the present to the future
    • Language = thought or thought = language?
  • 3. Centration & Conservation
    • Centration
    • The process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus ignoring other aspects
    • Preschooler’s focus is on the superficial, obvious elements
    • Conservation
    • Knowledge that quantity is unrelated to physical appearance or arrangement of objects
    • Centration prevents focusing on the relevant features of a situation
  • 4. Preoperational Thinking
    • Egocentricism
    • Thinking that doesn’t take into account others’ viewpoints
    • Takes 2 forms:
    • 1. Lack of awareness that others see things form a different perspective
    • 2. Failure to realize that others may hold thoughts, feelings, & points of view different from your own
    • Seen in talking to oneself in the presence of others or ignoring what others are saying
  • 5. Preoperational Thinking
    • Intuitive Thought
    • Preschooler’s primitive reasoning & keen acquisition of knowledge about the world
    • They begin to understand the concept of functionality (actions, events, & outcomes are related to each other in fixed patterns)
    • They begin to show awareness of the idea of identity (certain things stay the same regardless of changes in shape, size, & appearance
    • Both are important to understand conservation
    • Evaluating Piaget
    • Children have the innate ability to count
    • Cognitive skills develop in a more continuous manner than stage theories imply
    • Developmental changes are more quantitative than qualitative as Piaget claims
  • 6. Information Processing Approach
    • Focus
    • Kinds of “mental programs” children use in problem solving
    • Preschoolers can count fairly systematically & consistently
  • 7. Memory
    • Autobiographical Memory
    • Memory of particular events on one’s life
    • Unless the event is meaningful or vivid, it is likely not to be remembered
    • Cultural factors affect memory
    • Autobiographical memories fade & inaccurately recalled
    • Scripts: broad representations in memory of events & the order in which they occurred
    • Frequent events melded into scripts
  • 8. Evaluating Information Processing
    • Cognitive Development is Gradual
    • There are improvements with maturity
    • Provides a Comprehensive, Logical Set of Concepts
    • There are no vague ideas
    • Criticisms
    • The focus is on a series of single, individual cognitive processes leaving out other factors that seem to influence cognition
    • It pays too much attention to detailed, individual sequences of processes that are not clearly descriptive of what is happening
  • 9. Vygotsky
    • Definitions
    • Zone of Proximal Development
    • Level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do it with assistance from someone more competent
    • Scaffolding
    • The support for learning & problem solving that encourages independence & growth
    • Cultural Tools
    • Physical items & intellectual & conceptual framework for solving problems
  • 10. Vygotsky
    • Cognitive Development & Social Interaction Tied Together
    • Children are apprentices, learning from adult & peer mentors
    • Cultural & social factors involved in the learning process
    • Children’s cognitive development is dependent on the interaction with others
    • There are differences in how some societies support learning for boys & girls
    • Cultural tools provide a structure that can be used to help children define & solve problems as well as an intellectual POV that encourages cognitive development
  • 11. Language Growth
    • Syntax
    • Combining words & phrases to form sentences
    • Fast Mapping
    • New words are associated with their meaning only after a brief encounter
    • Grammar
    • Rules that determine how thoughts can be expressed
    • Private Speech
    • Speech spoken & directed to oneself
    • Pragmatics
    • Aspect of language relating to communicating effectively & appropriately with others
    • Social Speech
    • Speech directed toward another & meant to be understood by that person
  • 12. Language Growth
    • Syntax Increases
    • Frequent Use of Plurals & Possessives
    • Grammar Principles are Understood
    • Private Speech Allows Problem-solving
    • Pragmatics Allows an Understanding of the Basics of Conversation
    • Preschoolers Begin Directing Speech at Others
  • 13. Language Exposure
    • Living Conditions Affect Language Acquisition
    • The type of language children are exposed to is associated with their performance on IQ tests
    • Family income & living conditions affect general cognitive development & behavior
  • 14. Early Childhood Education
    • Involvement in Some Form of Education Before Formal Schooling is Beneficial
    • Varieties of early education:
    • Child-care centers
    • Preschools
    • School childcare
  • 15. Effectiveness of Childcare
    • More Verbal Fluency
    • Memory & Comprehension Advantages
    • Higher IQ Scores
    • More Self-confidence
    • More Independent
    • More Socially Knowledgeable
  • 16. Sesame Street
    • Significantly Higher Vocabularies
    • Significantly Higher Scores on Measures of Verbal & Math
    • Tend to be Better Readers Spending More Time Reading